Wyoming toad husbandry protocol

A Bibliography of the Wyoming Toad
(Anaxyrus baxteri = Bufo baxteri) Compiled by:
Brint Spencer, General Curator
Turtle Back Zoo
Altig, R. 1970. A Key to the Tadpoles of the Continental United States and Canada. Herpetologica 26: Anderson, A. M., D. A. Haukos, and J. T. Anderson. 1999. Habitat Use by Anurans Emerging and Breeding in Playa Wetlands. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27: 759-769. Anver, , M. R., and C. L. Pond. 1984. Biology and Diseases of Amphibians. In Laboratory Animal Medicine, J. G. Fox, B. J. Cohen, and F. M. Loew (eds.). Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, FL. pp. 427-447. Anzalone, C. R., L. B. Kats, and M. S. Gordon. 1998. Effects of Solar UV-B Radiation on Embryonic Development in (Hyla cadaverina, H. regilla) and (Taricha torosa). Conservation Biology 12: 646-653. Arkley, R. J. and L. Brown. 1954. The Origin of Mima Mounds (Hogwallow) Microrelief in the Far Western States. Pro. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 18: 195-199. Baldwin, R. A. 1974. The water Balance Response of the Pelvic "Patch" of (Bufo punctatus) and (Bufo boreas). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 47A: 1285-1295. Banas, J .A., W. J. Loesche, and G. W. Nace. 1998. Classification and Distribution of Large Intestinal Bacteria in Non-Hibernating and Hibernating Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 54: 2305-2310. Bartelt, P. E., and C. R. Peterson. 1994. Riparian Habitat Utilization by Western Toads (Bufo boreas) and Spotted Frogs (Rana pretiosa) in the Targhee National Forest. Final Report to the U.S.F.S. 55 pp. Baxter, G. T. 1946. A Study of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Wyoming. MS. University of Baxter, G. T. 1947. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Wyoming. Wyoming Wildlife. 11: 30-34 Baxter, G.T. 1949. Breeding Activities of Certain Wyoming Amphibians and their Relation to Air and Water Temperatures. J. Colo.-Wyo. Acad. Sci. 4:61. (abstract only) Baxter, G. T. 1952. The Relation of Temperature to the Altitudinal Distribution of Frogs and Toads in Southeastern Wyoming, PhD. University of Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI. Baxter, G. T, and J. S. Meyer. 1982. Progress Report: An Investigation of the Status of the Wyoming Toad in Albany County, Wyoming, and Possible Causes of the Decline in Numbers of Wyoming Populations of Anurans. Unpublished. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY. Baxter, George T. and Michael D. Stone. 1980. Amphibians and Reptiles of Wyoming. Wyoming Baxter, G. T, and J. S. Meyer. 1982. The Status and Decline of the Wyoming Toad (Bufo hemiophrys baxteri). J. Colo.-Wyo. Acad. Sci. 14: 33. Baxter, George T., and M. Stromberg. 1980. Status Report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Denver, Baxter, George T., M. R. Stromberg, and S. K. Dodd, Jr. 1982. The Status of the Wyoming Toad (Bufo hemiophrys baxteri). Environmental Conservation. 9: 348, 938. Baxter, George T. and Michael D. Stone. 1985. Reprinted 1992. Amphibians and Reptiles of Wyoming 2nd ed. Wyoming Game and Fish Department. Beattie, R. C., R. J. Aston and A. G. P. Milner. 1991. A Field Study of Fertilization and Embryonic Development in the Common Frog (Rana temporaria) with Particular Reference to Acidity and Temperature. Journal of Applied Ecology 28: 346-357. Beck, B. L., L. Rapaport, M .R. Stanley Price, and A. C. Wilson. 1994. Reintroduction of Captive Born Animals. In Creative Conservation, Interactive Management of Wild and Captive Animals (P. J. S. Olney. G. M. Mace, and A. T. C. Feistner, (eds.). Chapman and Hall. London. 265-286. Beebee, T.J.C. 1973. Observations Concerning the Decline of the British Amphibia. Biological Beiswinger, Ron E. 1978. Responses of (Bufo) Tadpoles to Laboratory Gradients of Temperature. Beiswinger, Ron E. 1981. Predation by Gray Jays on Aggregating Tadpoles of the Boreal Toad (Bufo Beiswinger, Ron E. 1986. An Endangered Species, the Wyoming Toad (Bufo hemiophrys baxteri) - The Importance of an Early Warning System. Biology Conservation. 37 (1): 59-72. Beiswinger, Ron E. 1988. Integrating Anuran Amphibian Species into Environmental Assessment Programs. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Management of Amphibians, Reptiles and Small Mammals in North America. Flagstaff, AZ. USDA Forest Service. pp. 159-165 Beiswinger, Ron E. 1990.The Status and Recovery of the Wyoming Toad, (Bufo hemiophrys baxteri). Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. 71 (2): 88-89. Berger, L., R. Speare, P. Daszak, D. E. Green, A. A. Cunnungham, C. L. Goggin, R. Slocombe, M. A. Ragan, A. D. Hyatt, K. R. McDonald, H. B. Hines, K. R. Lips, G. Marantelli, and H. Parkes. 1998. Chytridiomycosis Causes Amphibian Mortality Associated with Population Declines in the Rain Forests of Australia and Central America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95: 9031-9036. Berrill, M., S. Bertram, L. M. McGillivray, M. Kolohon, and B. Pauli. 1994. Effects of Low Concentrations of Forest-Use Pesticides on Frog Embryos and Tadpoles. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 13: 657-664. Berrill, M., S. Bertram, B. Pauli, D. Coulson, M. Kolohon, and D. Ostrander. 1995. Comparative Sensitivity of Amphibian Tadpoles to Single and Pulsed Exposures of the Forest-Use Insecticide Fenitrothion. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 14: 1011-1018. Bishop, C. A., and K. E. Pettie. 1992. Declines in Canadian Amphibian Populations: Designing a National Monitoring Strategy. Occasional Paper #76, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario, Canada, 1169 pp. Biset, K. A. 1947. The Effect of Temperature on Immunity in Amphibia. Journal of Pathogenic Biset, K.A. 1947. Natural and Acquired Immunity in Frogs and Fish. Journal of Pathogenic Bacteria Black, J.H. 1971. The Toad Genus Bufo in Montana. Northwest Sci. 45: 156-162. Black, J,H. and A.N. Bragg. 1968. New Additions to the Herpetofauna of Montana. Herpetologica 24: Blair, W .F. 1957. Mating Calls and Relationships of (Bufo hemiophrys) Cope. The Texas Journal of Blair, W .F. 1959. Genetic Compatibility and Species Groups in U.S. Toads (Bufo). Texas J. Sci. 11: Blair, W.F. 1961. Further Evidence Bearing on Intergroup and Intragroup Genetic Compatibility in Toads (genus Bufo). Texas J. Sci. 13: 163-175. Blair, W.F. 1963. Intragroup Genetic Compatibility in the Bufo americanus Species Group of Toads. Blair, W.F. 1963. Evolutionary Relationships of North American Toads of the Genus Bufo: A Progress Blair, W.F. 1965. Amphibian Speciation. In. H. E. Wright Jr. and D. G. Frey, (eds.). The Quaternary of the United States. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ. pp. 543-556. Blair, W.F. (ed.) 1972. Evolution in the Genus Bufo. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin, TX. Blair, W.F. 1972. Bufo of North and Central America. Pp. 93-101, in W.F. Blair, ed. Evolution in the Genus Bufo Univ. of Texas Press, Austin, TX. Blair, W.F. 1972.Evidence from Hybridization. Pp. 196-232, in W.F. Blair, ed. Evolution in the Genus Bufo Univ. of Texas Press, Austin, TX. Blaustein, A. R. 1993. Declining Amphibian Populations in Perspective. Park Service 13: 8-9. Blaustein, A. R., and D. B. Wake. 1990. Declining Amphibian Populations: A Global Phenomenon. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5: 203-204. Blaustein, A. R., and D. B. Wake. 1995. The Puzzle of Declining Amphibian Populations. Scientific Blaustein, A. R., P. D. Hoffman, D. G. Hokit, J. M. Kiesecker, S. C. Walls, and J. B. Hayes. 1994. UV Repair and Resistance to Solar UV-B in Amphibian Eggs: A Link to Population Declines? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 91: 1791-1795. Blaustein, A.R., D.G. Hokit, R. K. O'Hara, and R.A. Holt. 1994b. Pathogenic Fungus Contributes to Amphibian Losses in the Pacific Northwest. Biological Conservation 67: 251-254. Blaustein, A. R., J. M. Kiesecker, D. P.Chivers, and R. G. Anthony. 1997. Ambient UV-B Radiation Causes Deformities in Amphibian Embryos. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94: 13735-13737. Bloxam, Q., S. J. Tonge. 1995. Amphibians: Suitable Candidates for Breeding Release Programmes. Biodiversity and Conservation 4: 636-644. Boman, B. H., J. W. Taylor, A. G. Brownless, J. Lee, S. D. Lu, and T. J. White. 1992. Molecular evolution of Fungi - Relationship of Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Chytridiomycetes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 9: 285-296. Bragg, A. N. 1962. Saprolegnia on Tadpoles Again in Oklahoma. The Southwestern Naturalist 7: Bragg, A. N., and W. N. Bragg. 1958. Parasitism of Spadefoot Toads by (Saprolegnia). Brattstrom, B. H. 1962. Thermal Control of Aggregation Behavior in Tadpoles. Herpetologica. 18: Brattstrom, B. H. 1970. Amphibia. In C. G. Whittow (ed.). Comparative Physiology of Thermoregulation, Vol. I. Invertebrates and Non-Mammalian Vertebrates. Academic Press. New York. Brattstrom, B. H. 1979. Amphibian Temperatures Regulation Studies in the Field and Laboratory. Breckenridge, W. J., Reptiles and Amphibians of Minnesota. 1944. University of Minnesota Press. Breckenridge, Walter J. and John R. Tester. 1961. Growth, Local Movements and Hibernation of the Manitoba Toad (Bufo hemiophrys). Ecology, Vol.42, No. 4. Brekke, D. R., S. D. Hillyard and R. M. Winokur. 1991 Behavior Associated with the Water Absorption Response by the Toad (Bufo punctatus). Copeia (2): 393-401. Brown, L.E. and M.A. Ewart. 1971. A Natural Hybrid Cross Between the Toads Bufo hemiophrys and Bufo cognatus. In Minnesota. J. Herpetol. 5:78-82. Brown, L.E. and M.J. Littlejohn. 1972. Male Release Call in the (Bufo americanus) group. Pp. 310- 323, in W.F. Blair, ed. Evolution in the Genus Bufo Univ. of Texas Press, Austin, TX. Bube, A., E. Burkhardt, and R. Webb. 1992. Spontaneous Chromomycosis in the Marine Toad (Bufo marinus). Journal of Comparative Pathology 106: 73-77. Bulger, R. J. and J. C. Sherris. 1966. The Clinical Significance of (Aeromonas hydrophila). Archives Burke, R. L. 1991. Relocations, Repatriations, and Translocations of Amphibians and Reptiles: Taking a Broader View. Herpetologica 47: 350-357. Bury, R. B., C. K. Dodd, and G. M. Fellers. 1980. Conservation of the Amphibia of the United States: A Review. United States Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, DC, Resource Publication 134, 34 pp. Cahill, M. M. 1990. A Review: Virulence Factors in Motile (Aeromonas sp.). Journal of Applied Callaway, Diane. 1996. Wyoming Toad North American Regional Studbook. Omaha's Henry Doorly Carey, C. 1993. Hypothesis Concerning the Causes of the Disappearance of Boreal Toads from the Mountains of Colorado. Conservation Biology 7: 355-363. Carey, C., and C. J. Bryant. 1995. Possible Interrelations Among Environmental Toxicants, Amphibian Development, and Decline of Amphibian Populations. Environmental Health Perspectives 103: 13-17. Carr, A. H., R. L. Amborski, D. D. Culley, and G. F. Amborski. 1976. Aerobic Bacteria in the Intestinal Tracts of Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) Maintained at Low Temperatures. Herpetologica 32: 239-244. Casterlin, M. E., and W. W. Reynold. 1977. Behavioral Fever in Anuran Amphibian Larvae. Life CBSG. Wyoming Toad PHVA Briefing Book. 2001. The Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Cei, J.M., V. Erspamer, and M. Roseghini. Biogenic Amines. Pp. 233-243. in W.F. Blair, ed. Evolution in the Genus Bufo Univ. of Texas Press, Austin, TX. Chamberlin, Katherine M. 1990. Wyoming Toad Field Surveys. Wyoming Game and Fish Department. Cicmanec, J. L., D. H. Ringler, and E. S. Beneke. 1973. Spontaneous Occurrence and Experimental Transmission of the Fungus (Fonsecaea pedrosol), in the Marine Toad, (Bufo marinus). Laboratory Animal Sciences 23: 43-47. Collins, J. T. 1997. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 4th Ed. Soc. Study Amph. Rept., Herp. Circ., (25): i-iii. 1-40. Conant, Roger. 1958. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern North America. Conant, Roger. 1975. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston. Cook, F. R. 1964. The Rusty Color Phase of the Canadian Toad (Bufo hemiophrys). Canadian Field Cook, F.R. 1978. An Analysis of Toads of the (Bufo americanus) Group in a Contact Zone in Central America. PhD. Disertation, Univ of Manitoba. Cook, F. R. 1983. An Analysis of Toads of the (Bufo americanus) group in a contact zone in central North America. Nat. Mus. Canada Publ. Nat. Sci. 3: 1-89. Cook, F.R 1984. Introduction to Canadian Amphibians and Reptiles. National Museum of Canada, Cooper, E. L., R. K. Wright, A. E Klempau, and C. T. Smith. 1992. Hibernation Alters the Frog's Immune System. Cryobiology 29: 616-631. Cope, O. B. 1966. Contamination of the Freshwater Ecosystem by Pesticides. In. Pesticides in the Environment and Their Effects on Wildlife, N. W. Moore (ed.). Journal of Applied Ecology, supplement 3: 33-34. Coremans-Pelseneer, J. 1973. Isolation of (Basidiobolus meristosporus) from Natural Sources. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata 49: 173-176. Corn, P. S., and J.C. Fogleman. 1984. Extinction of Montane Populations of the Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens) in Colorado. Journal of Herpetology 18: 147-152. Corn, P. S. 1990. Field Notes. Unpublished. National Ecology Research Center, U.S. Fish and Corn, S. 1990. A Bibliography of (Bufo hemiophrys), with emphasis on (B. h. baxteri), the Wyoming Toad. National Ecology Research Center, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Corn, S. 1991. Population Ecology of the Wyoming Toad, (Bufo hemiophrys baxteri), Interim Report. Unpublished. National Ecology Research Center, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Fort Collins, CO. Corn, P. S. 1992. Field Notes. Unpublished. National Ecology Research Center, U.S. Fish and Corn, S. 1992. Population Ecology of the Endangered Wyoming Toad, (Bufo hemiophrys baxteri). Unpublished. National Ecology Research Center, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Fort Collins, CO. Corn, P. S. 1994. What We Don't Know About Amphibian Declines in the West. In. Sustainable Ecological Systems: Implementing an Ecological Approach to Land Management. W. W. Covington and L. F. DeBano (eds.). U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ft. Collins, CO. pp. 59-67 Corn, P. S. 1994. Common Factors and Contradictions in Amphibian Declines. Northwest Science Corn, P. S. 1998. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Boreal Toads in Colorado. Ecological Crawshaw, G. J. 1992. Amphibian Medicine. In. Current Veterinary Therapy XI, R.W. Kirk, and J. D. Bonagura (eds.). W. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 1219-1230. Crey, C., E. Litle, R. Hurtubise, and D. Fabacher. 1996. Field Exposure and Tolerance of UVB Light in Colorado Amphibians. American Zoologist 36: 18A. Devillers, J., and J.M. Exbrayat. 1992. Ecotoxicity of Chemicals to Amphibians. Antony Rowe Ltd., Deweese, L. R., L. C. McEwen, L. A. Settimi, R. D. Deblinger. 1978. Progress Report: Effects on Wildlife of Fenthion Applied for Mosquito Control. United States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Pautuxent Wildlife Research center, Laurel, MD. 42 pp. Deweese, L. R., L. C. McEwen, L. A. Settimi, R. D. Deblinger. 1983. Effects on Birds of Fenthion Aerial Application for Mosquito Control. J. Econ. Entomol. 76:906-911. Dhaliwal, S. S., and D. A. Griffths. 1964. Fungal Diseases of Malayan Toads (Bufo melanostictus). Dodd, C. K. Jr, R. A. Seigel. 1991. Relocation, Repatriation, and Translocation of Amphibians and Reptiles: Are They Conservation Strategies That Work? Herpetologica 47: 336-350. Duellman, W.E., and L. Trueb. 1986. Biology of Amphibians. McGraw-Hill. New York Duellman, W.E. (ed.). 1999. Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians. Johns Hopkins University Press. Dunson, W. A., R. L. Wyman, and E. S. Corbett. 1992. A Symposium on Amphibian Declines and Habitat Acidification. Journal of Herpetology 26: 349-352. Dusli, J. L. 1949. The Natural Occurrence of "Redleg" (Pseudomonas hyrophila), in a Population of American Toads, (Bufo americanus). Ohio Journal of Science 49: 70-71. Edery, H. and G. Schatzberg-Porath. 1960. Studies on the Effect of Organophosphorus Insecticides on Amphibians. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 124: 212-224. Eichelberger, J.W. and J.J. Lichtenberg. 1971. Persistence of Pesticides in River Water. Environ. Sci. Emerson, H., and C. Norris. 1905. "Red-leg" - An infectious Disease of Frogs. Journal of Evens, E. E., S. P. Kent, M. H. Attleberger, C. Seibert, R. E. Bryant, and B. Booth. 1965. Antibody Synthesis in Poikilothermic Vertebrates - Immune Reaction in Cold-Blooded Vertebrates. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 126: 629-646. Ewert, J. P. 1976. The Visual System of the Toad: Behavioral and Physiological Studies on a Pattern Recognition System In. The Amphibian Visual System: a Multidisciplinary Approach. K. V. Fite (ed.), Academic Press. New York. pp. 141-402. Fishbeck, D.W. and J.C. Underhill. 1960. Amphibians of Eastern South Dakota. Herpetologica Flajnik, M. F., E. Hsu, J. F. Kaufman. and L. DuPasquier. 1987. Changes in the Immune System During Metamorphous of (Xenopus). Journal of Immunology 167: 58-64. Freda, J. and W. A. Dunson. 1986. Effects of low pH and other Chemical Variables on the Local Distribution of Amphibians. Copeia 1986 (2): 454-466. Freda, J, B. Gern, D. McCleary and G. Baxter. 1988. The 1988 Recovery Efforts for the Endangered Wyoming Toad (Bufo hemiophrys baxteri). Unpublished. Department of Zoology, University of Wyoming. Laramie, WY. Freda, J. and D .G. McDonald. 1993. Toxicity of Amphibian Breeding Ponds in the Sudbury Region. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50: 1497-1503. Frost, D.R. (ed.). 1985. Amphibian Species of the World. Assoc. Systematics Collections. Lawrence, Frye, F. L. 1989. (Aeromonas) and (Citrobacter) Epizootics in an Institutional Amphibian Collection. Proceedings of the 3rd International Colloquium on Pathology of Reptiles and Amphibians, 13-15 January 1989, Orlando, FL. pp. 31-32. Frye, F. L., and D. Gillespie. 1989. (Saprolegnia) in a Zoo Collection of Aquatic Amphibians. Proceedings of the 3rd International Colloquium on Pathology of Reptiles and Amphibians, 13-15 January 1989, Orlando, FL. p. 43. Garber, C. S. and E. C. Patten, 1990.Mortenson Lake/ Wyoming Toad Refuge/ Interim Development/ Management Plan. Unpublished. The Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, The Nature Conservancy. Laramie, WY. Gibbs, E. L. 1963. An Effective Treatment for Red-leg Disease in (Rana pipiens). Laboratory Animal Giles, R. H. 1970. The Ecology of a Small Forested Watershed Treated with the Insecticide Malathion-S35. Wildlife Monographs 24: 1-81. Glorioso, J. C., R. L. Amborski, J. M. Larkin, G. F. Amborski and D. C. Culley. 1947b. Laboratory Identification of Bacterial Pathogens of Aquatic Animals. American Journal of Veterinary Research 35: 447-450. Gosner, Kenneth L. 1960. A Simplified Table for Staging Anuran Embryos and Larvae with Notes on Identification. Herpetologica 16: 183-190. Gossling, J., W. J. Loesche, and G. W. Nace. 1982. Response of Intestinal Flora of Laboratory- Reared Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens) to Cold and Fasting. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 44: 67-71. Gossling, J., W. J. Loesche, and G. W. Nace. 1982. Large Intestine Bacteria Flora of Nonhibernating and Hibernating Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 44: 59-66. Green, D.M. 1980. Hybridization Between Species of the (Bufo americanus) Group in Southeastern Manitoba. Amer. Zool. 20:781 (abstract only). Green, D.M. 1982. Theoretical Analysis of Hybrid Zones Derived from an Examination of Two Dissimilar Zones of Hybridization in Toads (genus Bufo). PhD. Dissertation, Univ. Guelph. Green, D. M. 1983. Allozyme VariationThrough a Clinical Hybrid Zone Between the Toads (Bufo americanus) and (B. hemiophrys) in Southeastern Manitoba. Herpetologica 39: 28-40. Green, D.M. (ed.). 1997. Amphibians in Decline: Canadian Studies of a Global Problem. Soc. for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. St. Louis. MO. Griffith, B., J. M. Scott. J. W. Carpenter, and C. Reed. 1989. Translocation as a Species Conservation Tool: Status and Strategy. Science 245: 477-480. Guttman, S.I. 1969. Blood Protein Variation in the (Bufo americanus) Species Group of Toads. Guzman, J.A. and T. Guardia. 1978. Effects of an Organophosphorus Insecticide on the Cholinesteratic Activities of (Bufo arenarum). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 20:52-58. Hall, R. T., and E. Kolbe. 1980. Bioconcentrations of Organophosphorous Pesticides to Hazardous Levels by Amphibians. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 6: 853-860. Hall, R .J., and B. M. Mulhern. 1984. Are Anuran Amphibians Heavy Metal Accumulators? Vertebrate Ecology and Systematics 34: 123-133. Hall, R. J., and P. F. P. Henry. 1992. Review: Assessing Effects of Pesticides on Amphibians and Reptiles: Status and Needs. Herpetological Journal 2: 65-71. Henrich, T. W. 1968. Morphological Evidence of Secondary Intergradation Between (Bufo hemiophrys) Cope and (Bufo americanus) Holbrook, in Eastern South Dakota. Herpetologica 24: 1-13. Hero, J. M., and G. R. Gillespie. 1997. Epidemic Disease and Amphibian Declines in Australia. Hillis, D. M., A. M. Hillis, and R. F. Martin. 1984. Reproductive Ecology and Hybridization of the Endangered Houston Toad (Bufo houstonensis). Journal of Herpetology 18(1): 56-72. Hird, D. J., S. L. Diesch, R. G. McKinnell, E. Gorham, F. B. Martin, S. W. Kurtz, and C. Dubrovolny. 1981. (Aermonas hydrophila) in Wild Caught Frogs and Tadpoles (Rana pipiens) in Minnesota. Laboratory Animal Science 31: 166-169. Horne, M. T., and W. A. Dunson. 1995. Effects of Low pH, Metals, and Water Hardness on Larval Amphibians. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 29: 500-505. Hunsaker, D., and F.E. Potter. 1960. "Red-leg" in a Natural Population of Amphibian. Herpetologica Hutchinson, J.A., and M.A. Nickerson. 1970. Comments on the Distribution of (Basidiobolus Hutchinson, J. A., D. S. King, and M. A. Nickerson. 1972. Studies on the Temperature Requirements, Odor Production and Zygospore Wall Undulation of the Genus "Basidiobolus". Mycologia 64: 467-474. Hutchinson, V. R., and R. K. Dupre. 1992. Thermoregulation. In. Environmental Physiology of Amphibians, M. E. Feder, and W.W. Burggren (eds.). The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. pp. 206-249. Jacobson, N.L. 1989. Breeding Dynamics of the Houston Toad. The Southwestern Naturalist 34 (3): Jaeger, R.G. and J.P. Hailman. 1976. Phototaxis in Anurans: Relation Between Intensity and Spectral Jennings, M., R. Beiswinger, S. Corn, M. Parker, B. Spencer, and P.S. Miller (eds.) 2001. Population and Habitat Viability Assessment for the Wyoming Toad (Bufo baxteri). Final Workshop Report. Apple Valley, MN: IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. Johnson, B. 1992. Habitat Loss and Declining Amphibian Populations. Canadian Wildlife Services Johnson, C. R., and J. E.Prine 1976. The Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Organophosphorus Insecticides on Temperature Tolerance in Hydrated and Dehydrated Juvenile Western Toads (Bufo boreas). Compendium of Biochemical Physiology 53A: 147-149. Jones, M. S. and J. P. Goettl. 1999. Bufo boreas (boreal toad) Predation. Herpetological Review 30: Jozkowicz, A., and B. Plytez. 1998. Temperature but Not Season Affects Transplantation Immunity of Anuran Amphibians. Journal of Experimental Zoology 281: 58-64. Kelleher, K. E. and J. R.Tester, 1969. Homing and Survival in the Manitoba Toad, (Bufo hemiophrys), in Minnesota. Ecology 50: 1040-1048. Kluger, M. J. 1979. 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