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UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
3 Units and 6 Units
(with effect from the academic year 2004-2005)
EXAMINATION PATTERN -6 UNITS
Each paper will be of 3 hours duration and of 100 marks. Each paper will have two sections of 50 marks each.
There will be one Practical Examination for 200 marks (Core component) to be held for 28 hours, per batch of 40 candidates, spread over four days. Groups will move in rotation.
Physical Chemistry Experiments (Non-Instrumental and Instrumental) Candidates have to perform one Non- Instrumental equipment (20 marks) and one Instrumental experiment (20 marks). Journal
Inorganic Chemistry Practicals 1) Gravimetric Analysis / Inorganic preparation and characterization
2) Titrimetric Analysis -15 marks Journal
Organic Chemistry Practicals 1) Organic Separation -25 marks 2) Organic Preparation -15 marks Journal - 4 marks Viva voce
Analytical Chemistry Practicals 1) Non instrumental experiment -20 marks 2) Instrumental experiment
In continuation of the fourth day practical, examination for 80 marks under applied component will be held.
A student is expected to submit a journal certified by
the Head of the department / Head of the institution. 2)
A student will not be permitted to appear at the practical
examination unless he/she produces a certified journal. If the
journal is lost, the student should produce a certificate from
the Head of the department / Head of the institution stating
that he / she has satisfactorily completed the practical work.
EXAMINATION PATTERN -3 UNITS
1. There will be 2 papers of 3 hours duration and of 100 marks each. Each
paper will have two sections of 50 marks each.
Section I -Organic Chemistry -50 marks Section II -Analytical Chemistry
There will be one Practical Examination for 100 marks (Core component) to be held for 14 hours, per batch of 40 candidates, spread over two days Groups will move in rotation.
In continuation of the second day Practical examination for 80 marks under applied component will be held.
1. A student is expected to submit a journal certified by the Head of the Department / Head of the institution.
2. A student will not be permitted to appear at the practical examination unless he / she produces a certified journal. If the journal is lost, the student should produce a certificate from the Head of the department / Head of the institution stating that he / she has satisfactorily completed the practical work.
Rules for personal safety:
For eye protection, safety goggles must be worn in the laboratory at all times. If the student wears contact lenses, full protection goggles, which provide total seal around eyes, must be worn. All students are expected to wear safety goggles.
A long sleeved, knee length laboratory coat is recommended. Long pants and closed-toed shoes must be worn for individual safety. Loose clothing, open style shoes and sandals are prohibited. Long hair must be contained; Each student will have to get his/her own necessary protection items.
Prior to the practical examination, the teacher-in-charge will check all protective equipment to ensure that they are in order.
Pipetting by mouth should preferably be avoided. Use of pro-pipette bulbs is recommended.
All laboratories should be equipped with safety chart, adequate first aid requirements and fire extinguishers.
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
T.Y.B.Sc. Chemistry -3 AND 6 Units.
(From the Academic Year 2004 -2005)
Syllabus at T.Y.B.Sc. in the subject of Chemistry (6 Units) under the revised pattern to be brought into force with effect from the academic year 2004-2005.
All topics should be dealt with in S.I.Units.
Paper I -Physical Chemistry
50 Marks 60 Lectures
Numerical problems are expected on all the topics
SETION I (3 AND 6 UNITS)
100 Marks 120 Lectures
Phases in Equilibria: Variation in vapour pressure of a liquid with temperature, Clapeyron equation, Clapeyron -Clausius equation.
1.2 Colligative Properties of Solutions: Study of lowering in vapour
pressure -Raoult's law (derivation not expected)., thermodynamic derivations for elevation in boiling point and depression in freezing point:
1.3 Partial molal quantities, Gibbs -Duhem equation
2.1 Laws of crystallography, Elements of symmetry, lattice planes,
unit cell, Weiss and Miller indices, Characteristics of simple cubic, face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic systems. Inter-planar distances in cubic crystals.
X-rays and production of monochromatic X-rays. Bragg's equation and X-ray diffraction method of studying crystals. Structure of NaCI. Determination of Avogadro's number. Elementary idea of defects in crystals -Frenkel defect and Schottky defect.
3. Electrochemistry -Electrochemical Cells 15L
3.1 Classification of cells -Chemical and concentration cells,
concentration cells with transference, concentration cells without transference, liquid junction potential, use of, salt bridge.
3.2 Determination of thermodynamic parameters from EMF measurements -
free energy change, enthalpy change, entropy change and equilibrium constant for the cell reaction.
3.3 Ionic strength, variation of activity coefficient with
concentration, Debye-Huckel ) limiting law (derivation not expected).
3.4 Application of EMF measurements in the determination of:
ii) pH using quinhydrone and glass electrodes,
iii) solubility and solubility product of sparingly soluble salts using
4. Spectroscopy 15L
Electromagnetic radiation, quantisation of energy. Bohr frequency condition, interconversion of units, term values (E/hc), regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and processes associated with each region.
4.1 Rotational spectra of diatomic molecules
Rigid rotor, moment of inertia, energy levels, selection rules, nature of spectrum, determination of bond length.
Effect of isotopic substitution on the rotational spectra.
4.2 Vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules:
Harmonic oscillator: energy levels, selection rules,' nature of spectrum, determination of force constant. Anharmonic oscillator: energy levels, selection rules, nature of spectrum, fundamental band, overtones.
4.3 Vibrational Rotation spectra of diatomic molecules:
Energy levels of a vibrating rotor, selection rules, nature of the spectrum. R and P branches. Introduction to infrared spectra or simple molecules like water and CO2.
4.4 Raman Spectroscopy: Explanation of Raman effect using quantum theory :
Rayleigh scattering. Raman scattering -Stokes lines and Anti-Stokes' lines. Raman shift. Complementary information obtained from Raman spectra -rule of mutual exclusion.
5.1 Detection and measurement of nuclear radiation:
Scintillation counter and Geiger-Muller counter
5.2 Radioactive equilibrium, determination of half life period for elements
having 1) moderate half life using the relation
2) long half life using the relation, = - dN/dt
3)extremely long or short half life using radioactive equilibrium data and Geiger -Nuttal relation.
5.3 Nuclear transmutation and artificial radioactivity, alpha particles,
protons, deuterons and neutrons as projectiles -typical examples like
( , p) ( , n) (p, ~ (p, n) (p, ) (p, d) (d, p) (d, n) (d, (n, ~ (n, p) (n, )
Q value in nuclear reactions, threshold energy.
5.5 Nuclear fission, Liquid drop model. Nuclear reactors -power, research and breeder reactors. 5.6 Nuclear fusion
Effect of temperature on reaction rate. Arrhenius theory, molecular activation and energy of activation, Collision theory and Transition state theory of reaction rates (only qualitative aspects-derivation not expected).
SECTION II(6 UNITS ONLY)
UNIT -V and VI
7.1 Limitations of Classical Mechanics 7.2 Foundation of Quantum Mechanics. 7.3 The wave nature of electron, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. 7.4 Progressive waves, standing waves. 7.5 Schrodinger's time-independent equation (derivation not expected), 7.6 Interpretation of wave function. 7.7 Concept of operators: definition, addition, subtraction and multiplication of operators, commutative and hon-commutative operators, linear operator, Hamiltonian operator.
8.1 Basic concepts, classification of polymers, concept of chain polymerisation and step polymerisation, 8.2 Average molecular weights of polymers -number average, weight average and viscosity average molecular weight determination using the following techniques 8.3 Ultracentrifuge and viscosity measurements. 8.4 Introduction to biodegradable polymers.
9.1 Gibb's phase rule, terms involved. 9.2 One component system -water and CO2 systems. 9.3 Two component system -condensed systems. Simple eutectic system -Pb.Ag system.
10.Electrochemistry -Applied Aspects
10.1 Energy sources -alkaline battery, Ni-Cd cell, fuel cells- H2-O2, Solar cells. 10.2 Polarisation, Decomposition potential, Overvoltage.
Determination of decomposition potential and overvoltage. Tafel's theory and Tafel's equation, Simultaneous deposition of metals, Basic ideas of electroplating.
11.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: nuclear spin, nuclear magnetic
moment, nuclear 'g' factor, energy levels, Larmor frequency, chemic-al shift, spin-spin coupling, relaxation processes -spin- spin and spin-lattice.
11.2 Introduction to ESR -hyper structure with respect to hydrogen
12.Surface Chemistry and Catalysis
12.1 Adsorption -general idea, Freundlich isotherm, Langmuir isotherm (derivation expected), BET equation, (no derivation), determination of surface area from BET equation.
12.2 Catalysis -Concept of catalysis, classification of catalysed reactions -(i) homogeneous and (ii) heterogeneous. Catalytic activity and selectivity, catalyst support, promoters, inhibitors, catalyst poisoning and deactivation.
12.3 Kinetics of catalysed reactions -(i) homogeneous -acid-base and enzyme and (ii) heterogeneous.
13.1 Origin of charge on colloidal particles, Concept of double layer, Helmholtz and Stern models, qualitative idea of electrokinetic phenomena --electrophoresis, electro-osmosis, streaming potential and Dorn effect.
13.2 Colloidal electrolytes, Donnan membrane equilibrium. Emulsions -o/w and w/o types, emulsifying agents. Surfactants -micelle formation, applications of surfactants in -detergents, pesticide formulations and food industry.
To detem1ine the energy of activation for the acid catalysed hydrolysis of methyl acetate.
To study the effect of addition of electrolyte (KCI) on the reaction between potassium persulphate and potassium iodide.
To study the distribution of iodine between water and carbon tetrachloride.
To Detem1ine the molecular weight of polyvinyl alcohol from viscosity measurements.
To detem1ine the amount of Fe(II) and the formal redox potential of Fe(II) -(III) by potentiometric titration of Fe(II) solution against ceric sulphate/potassium dichromate solution.
To detem1ine the solubility and solubility product of AgCI using chemical cell.
To determine the standard potential of anyone of the following electrodes AI A13+ ,Zn Zn2+ ,Cu CU2+ or Ag Ag+
To detem1ine the free energy change ~Go and equilibrium constant for the reaction, Cu + 2Ag + Cu2+ + 2 Ag potentiometrically
ColorimetryTo test the validity of the Beer-Lambert's law (using methylene blue) and to determine
ConductometryTo study the kinetics of saponification of ethyl acetate conductometrically.
1. To determine the energy of activation for the acid catalysed hydrolysis of methyl acetate.
2. To study the distribution of iodine between water and carbon tetrachloride.
To determine the amount of Fe(II) and the formal redox potential of Fe(II) - Fe(II) by potentiometric titration of Fe(II) solution against ceric sulphate /potassium dichromate solution.
4. To determine the standard potential of anyone of the following electrodes: Al/Al3+ ,Zn/Zn2+, Cu/Cu2+ ,Ag/Ag+
To test the validity of the Beer-Lambert's law (using methylene blue) and to determine
Physical Chemistry: G.M. Barrow 6th ed., Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
Physical Chemistry: G. W. Castellan 3rd ed., Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.
Physical Chemistry: G.K. Vemulapalli (1997) Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Lid., New Delhi
Physical Chemistry: K.J .Laidler and J .H. Meiser, 2nd ed. (First Indian ed. 1999) CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
Physical Chemistry : IraN Levine (1995) 4th ed., McGraw Hill Inc.
The Elements of Physical Chemistry: P. W. Atkins (1996) 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Physical Chemistry: R.J .Silbey and R.A.Alberty John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., (Singapore) 3rd ed. (2002).
Thennodynamics for Chemists -Samuel Glasstone Affiliated East-West Press.
An introduction to Electrochemistry -Samuel Glasstone Affiliated East- West Press.
11) Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy -C.N .Banwell, 5th ed.
12) Atomic Structure and Chemical bond including molecular spectroscopy -Manas
Chanda, 3rd ed., Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
13) Source book of Atomic Energy -Samuel Glasstone,
14) Nuclear and Radiochemistry -Friedlander, Kennedy and Miller,
16) Basic Chemical Kinetics -G. L.Agrawal (1990)
Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
17) Principles of the Solid State -H. V .Keer (1993)
New Age International(P) Ltd., Publishers, New Delhi.
18) Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis -R.I.Masel,
20) Quantum Chemistry including spectroscopy -B.K.Sen
21) A textbook of Polymer Science -Fred W. Billmeyer
22) Introduction to Polymer Science -Vasant R. Gowarikar
N. V. Viswanathan and J. Sreedhar (1996), NAl, New Delhi.
23) Introductory Polymer Chemistry -G.S.Misra (1993)
24) The Phase rule and its applications -Findlay Alexander,
Edited by Campbell and Smith, 9th ed. (Dower Publication Inc.)
Edited by Ernest M. Loebe, New York and London Academic Press.
26) Phase Rule -F.D.Ferguson and P.K.Jones
27) Adsorption and Catalysis -D.K.Chakravarty
28) Introduction to Colloid and Interface Science
29) Fundamentals of Colloid Science -R.J .Hunter
30) Schaum's Outline of Physical Chemistry -S.R.Metz
31) Solid State Chemistry -D.K.Chakravarty
New Age International Ltd., Publishers, New Delhi.
33) Chemical and Electrochemistry Energy Systems -
R.Narayan and B. Viswanathan, Universities Press 1998).
34) A Basic Course in Crystallography -J .A.K. Tareen and T .R.N .Kutty,
35) 2000 Solved Problems in Physical Chemistry -S.R.Metz -
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
(From the Academic Year 2004-2005)
Paper -II Inorganic Chemistry
SECTION -I (3 and 6 units)
Unit I 1. Chemical Bonding
Application of Molecular Orbital Theory (MOT) to:
(a) Simple poly atomic ions/molecules such as H3+, H2O, BeH2, CO2
(b) Metallic bond. Explanation of electrical properties
of conductors, insulators and semiconductors (n and p type)on the basis of MOT.
1. Molecular Symmetry
Introduction, importance of symmetry in chemistry, symmetry elements
and symmetry operations. Point groups of simple mqlecules like H2, HCl,
H2O, dichloroethylene, NH3, BCl3, CH4, CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4 and SF6
Unit II 2. Inner Transition Elements ('f Block Elements):
Introduction: The two series of 'r block elements, their position
in the periodic table, electronic configuration and general comparison of
Lanthanide Series: (a) Chemistry of lanthanides with reference to:
(i) oxidation states, (ii) magnetic properties, (iii) colour and
spectra, (iv)lanthanide contraction, and (v) complex formation.
(b) Occurrence, extraction and separation of lanthanides by (i) ion
exchange and (ii) by solvent extraction methods.
(c) Applications of lanthanides. 2.3
Chemistry of uranium and plutonium with referen<;;e to occurrence,
extraction (solvent extraction method), properties and applications.
Unit 3.1 Structure of Solids:
Importance of solid state chemistry. Explanation of terms like crystal lattice, lattice points, unit cells, lattice constants, closest packing of rigid spheres (hcp, ccp), packing density in simple cubic, bcc, fcc and hcp lattices (numerical problems expected), tetrahedral and octahedral interstitial voids in ccp lattice, tetrahedral holes and limiting radius ratio for 4 coordination number.
Classification of solids on the basis of bonding, structure of
metallic solids, structure of zinc blende and failure of radius ratio rule( directional bonding), structure of wurtzite, structures of
perovskites (BaTiO3, SrTiO3). Qualitative description of YBa2Cu307-(1-2-3) high Tc superconductors.
Superconductivity, Meissner effect, different superconducting materials such as conventional superconductors, organic superconductors, alkali metal fullerides (A3C6o) and high temperature superconductors. Brief applications of superconducting materials.
Unit IV 4.1 Acid-base Concepts
Introduction. Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry concepts, leveling and differentiating solvents, strengths of Bronsted acids and bases. Solvent system (auto-ionization) concept, Lewis concept, strengths of Lewis acids and bases, Pearson's classification, Hard and soft acid base(HSAB) concept; Usanovich concept. Applications and limitations of these concepts.
4.2 Non-aqueous Solvents
Introduction. Classification of solvents. Study of liquid ammonia with reference to the (i) acid-base, (ii) solvolysis (iii) redox, (iv) precipitation, I and (v) complex formation reactions. Solutions of metals in liquid ammonia and their applications.Dinitrogen tetroxide as solvent, its properties, general reactions in dinitrogen tetroxide.
4.3 Corrosion and its Protection:
Introduction, economics and importance of corrosion, corrosion types,electro chemical theory of corrosion, protection methods.
SECTION -II (6 Units only)
Unit V 5.1 Bonding in Coordination Compounds:
(a) Crystal field theory (CFT) splitting of d-orbitals in octahedral, tetrahedral,distorted octahedral and square planar electrostatic fields. Splitting energy,crystal field parameter lODq, for octahedral complexes and factors affecting its magnitude. Effects of crystal field splitting on magnetic and spectral properties of octahedral complexes. Thermodynamic and related effects: (i) ionic radii (ii) lattice energies, (iii) hydration energies, and (iv)stability constants. Experimental evidences for covalency in coordination compounds: ESR spectra, NMR spectra, intensities of d-d transitions, Nephelauxetic effect, and anti-ferromagnetic coupling. Theoretical failure of the CFT model. (b) Molecular orbital theory as applied to octahedral complexes of the ML6 type like (i)[Ti(H20)6]3+, (ii) fluoro and cyano complexes of Fe2+ and Fe3+, and (iii) fluoro and ammine complexes of Co3+. Effects of - bonding on ligand field splitting parameter; M ~ L and L ~ M
6.1 Stability of complexes
Thermodynamic stability and kinetic lability of complexes with examples.Stability constants. Factors affecting the.rmodynamic stability. Methods of determination of stability constants with details of potentiometric method.
6.2 Substitution Reaction in Octahedral Complexes:
Introduction. Types of reactions of complexes. Ligand substitution reactions:basic mechanisms. Labile .and inert complexes, electronic configuration and lability of complexes. Acid hydrolysis, base hydrolysis and anation reactions.
6.3 Electronic Spectra of Complexes: 4L
Origin of electronic spectra, types of electronic transitions (intra-ligand,charge transfer and d-d), the three selection rules, applications of electronic spectra in brief with special reference to determination of the geometry of the complexes.
7.1 Organometallic Compounds:
(a) Chemistry of iron carbonyl,i with reference to preparation, properties,structure and bonding.Differentiation on terminal and bridging carbonyl groups on the basis of infrared spectra. (b) Metallocenes: Introduction. Synthesis, structures, reactions and applications of ferrocene. Bonding in ferrocene.
(c) -Bonding in Re and Mo halide complexes.
7.2 : Catalysis and its Industrial Applications:
Homogeneous catalysis with reference to (i) hydrogenation of alkenes (Wilkinson catalyst), (ii) hydroformylation reaction (Rollen catalyst), and(iii) polymerization reaction (Ziegler Natta catalyst).
7.3 Inorganic Polymers:
Introduction. Various methods of classification with' examples. Chemistry of borazine and silicones with reference to preparation" properties, structure, bonding and applications.
Some Selected Topics
Unit VIII 8.1 Environmental Pollution:
(a) Introduction, study of various pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen, carbon and sulphur, particulate matter and heavy metals, with respect to i) sources of emission, ii) reactions, iii) health hazards, and iv) control measures. (b) Green house effect, ozone layer depletion and their consequences.
8.2 Bioinorganic Chemistry:
Role of sodium and potassium, mechanism of ion pump. Study of vitamin B12.
8.3 Nano particles
: Introduction. Their properties and
: Introduction, types, properties and applications. 3L
PRACTICALS (INORGANIC CHEMISTRY)
1. GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS:
Estimation of following cations form the mixture of salts as mentioned: (a) Ni2+ as nickel dimethyl glyoximate from a solution of copper chloride and nickel chloride. (b) Ba2+ as barium chromate from a solution of barium chloride and ferric chloride. (c) Zn2+ as zinc ammonium phosphate (ZnNH4PO4) from a solution zinc sulphate and copper sulphate.
2. INORGANIC PREPARATIONS AND CHARACTERIZATION:
Preparation of following compounds and determination of their metal content by complexometric titration after decomposition. (a) Tris-( ethylenediammine) nickel(II) thiosulphate (b) Copper acetylacetonate. (c) Magnesium oxinate.
: In Inorganic preparation, the student is expected to weigh the
chemicals, prepare solutions, carry out the reaction, isolate and report
the crude product yield and purify the compound by recrystallization from
3. TITRIMETRIC ANALYSIS:
(a) Estimation of zinc using Eriochrome Black T indicator
(b) Estimation of cobalt using xylenol orange indicator.
(c) Analysis of talcum powder for magnesium content.
(d) Estimation of-total hardness in well water.
(e) Analysis of boric acid for its percentage purity.
: Students to prepare O.O2M Na2EDTA solution for titration).
Practicals (Inorganic Chemistry)
(For Three Units)
1. GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS
Estimation of following cations form the mixture of salts as mentioned: (a) Ni2+ as nickel dimethyl glyoximate from a solution of copper chloride and nickel chloride. (b) Ba2+ as barium chromate from a solution of barium chloride and ferric chloride. (c) Zn2+ as zinc ammonium phosphate (ZnNH4PO4) from a solution zinc sulphate and copper sulphate.
2. Titrimetric Analysis
a) Estimation of zinc using Eriochrome Black T indicator b) Estimation of cobalt using xy lenol orange indicator. c) Analysis of talcum powder for magnesium content.
Basic Inorganic Chemistry: F. A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson and P. L. Gaus,
John Wiley and Sons.
Inorganic Chemistry :D. F. Shriver and P. W. Atkins, (1999),
Oxford University Press.
Inorganic Chemistry: Principle of structure and reactivity: James Huheey
E. A. Keiter and R. L. Keiter, (1993), 4th Edition, Addison -Wesley
Inorganic Chemistry: Allan Sharpe,
3rd Edition (1992) AWL publication.
Comparative Inorganic Chemistry: Bernard Moody, (1996),
3rd Edition, CBS
Publishers, New Delhi.
Physical Inorganic Chemistry: A Coordination Chemistry Approach: S.F.A. Kettle,1996,
Spektrum-University Science Books.
Concepts and ModelS of Inorganic Chemistry
: B. Douglas, D. Mc. Daniel and
J.Alexander, (1994), 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc.
Vogel's Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis:
Revised by G. H.
Jeffery,1 G. H. Bassett, Menham and C. Denney, 5th Edition, ELBS
10) Chemistry of Elements :N. N. Greenwood and Earnshaw, Pergamon Press, UK.
11) Electrons and Chemical Bonding: Harry B. Gray
, W. A. Benjamin Inc., New
12) Concise Inorganic Chemistry: J. D. Lee (1996),
5lh Edition, Oxford
13) Theoretical Principles of Inorganic Chemistry: G. S. Manku, (1990),
McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
14) Satya Prakash's Modern Inorganic Chemistry:
R. D. Madan, 151 Edition, S.
15) Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Vol. 2
: Satyaprakash, Tuli, BaSu and Madan
etc.S. Chand & Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
16) Introduction to Solids
: Azroff LV., Tata Mc Grow Hills, New Delhi, 1977 17) Chemical Application of Group Theory
: Cotton F. A., Wiley ~astern, 2nd
18) Structural Inorganic Chemistry
: A.F. Wells, 5th Edn., Clarendon Pres,
19) The Elements of Physical Chemistry: Atkins, 7th Edition.
20) Group Theory In Chemistry and Physics M.G. Arora: Anmol Publications
21) Symmetry and Spectroscopy of molecules: K. Reddy.
22) Symmetry in Molecules: J. M. Hollas, Chapman & Hall, 1972.
Principles of Lasers by O'Svelto.
24) An Introduction to Lasers and Masers: A. E. Siegmann
25) Lasers -Principles and Applications: J. Wilson and J. F. B. Hawkes,
26) Introduction to Lasers and their Applications
: O. Svelto and D.C. Hanna,
PAPER III -ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
While learning different topics, the current state-of -art and new developments in Organic Chemistry should be kept in mind.
The topics should be learnt with the corresponding background knowledge gained during the previous two years.
Wherever applicable, emphasis should be given on the mechanisms of organic reactions being studied~
Wherever applicable, the importance of the topics with respect to the industrial practices should be highlighted. For this appropriate text may be referred.
On the background of the F. Y. and S. Y. syllabi, a unified and systematic picture of Organic Chemistry be developed.
SECTION I (3 and 6 units)
1. IUPAC Nomenclature
IUPAC nomenclature of- Bicyclic (up to ten membered ring) saturated and unsaturated compounds, spirans, biphenyls, and cummulenes; monocyclic aromatic as well as nonaromatic heterocyclic compounds (five and six membered rings) containing up to two heteroatoms among N,O,S.
2. Mechanisms with stereochemistry of the following reactions
2.1. Elimination reaction
: El and Ez mechanisms-Hoffmann and Saytzef rules 2.2. Mechanism of reactions of carbonyl compounds with nucleophiles
mechanism: Addition of nitrogen nucleophiles to aldehydes/ketones, formation of
acetals! ketals from aldehydes! ketones, acids catalyzed esterification of
carboxylic acids with alcohols and acid and base catalyzed
j hydrolysis of esters (BAc2 and AAc2 mechanisms only). 2.3. Rearrangements
: 2.3.1. Electron deficient carbon
: Wagner-Meerwein, Pinacol- Pinacolone, Fries. 2.3.2. Electron deficient nitrogen
: Hoffmann; Beckmann, Lossen, Schmidt.
3.1. Structure of cycloalkanes (up to C6):
Structure; strains in cycloalkanes-
Angle, van der Waal, Torsional. Structure of cyclohexane in detail.
Configurations and conformations of mono- and di- substituted cyclohexanes. 3.2. Molecular Chirality and Elements of symmetry
: Stereochemistry of biphenyl,
spirans and cummulenes. 3.3. Regioselectivity
: Concept with the following examples -(i) Addition of
bromine and HX to .I 1,3-butadiene (ii) Dehydration of alcohols e.g. 2-
methylcyclohexanol and 2-methyl-2-butanol 3.4. Stereoselectivity and Stereospecificity
: Idea of enantiomeric and
distereomeric selectivities, de and ee. Topicity -Enantiotopic and
diastereotopic atoms, groups and faces. The mechanism and stereochemical outcome
of the following reactions: (i) SNI and SN2 reactions, Walden inversion (ii) i1
Catalytic hydrogenation of alkenes (iii) Addition of bromine to alkenes: only
ionic trans addition.
(iv) Epoxidation of alkenes, acid catalysed ring opening of epoxides. (v) Reactions of OS04 and KMn04 with olefins.
4. Heterocyclic chemistry
Introduction, electronic structures, aromaticlty. reactivity and general
methods of synthesis of -:- .pyrroles, furans. thiophenes and pyridines. 4.2. Reactions
: Furans: Halogenation. Nitration. Sulphonation, Ring opening,
Vilsmeier reaction, Diels-Alder reaction.
Thiophenes: Halogenation, Nitration. Sulphonation. Vilsmeier reacrion, Friedel-
Pyrroles: Basicity/acidity, halogenation, Nitration, Sulphonation, Acid catayzed
polymerization. Vilsmeier reaction. Friedel-Crafts reaction
Pyridines: Basicity. Quaternization. reduction. Oxidation of alkyl pyridines.
Preparation and important reactions of pyridine- N-oxide.
5. Organic Chemistry in Industry
Synthesis and commercial importance of the following compounds, with
special emphasis on the key steps/aspects involved in each synthesis, which
highlight specific principles of organic synthesis: Trimethoprim. Ciprofloxacin.
Nephedipin, Diclophenac sodium. tramadol, 2-Hydroxy-3-amino-5- nitrobenzene
sulphonic acid from chlorobenzene. H-acid. 1-Amino-4-bromoanthraquinone-2-
sulphonic acid (bromanine acid) 5.2. Green Chemistry
: 12 principles of green chemistry with explanation and
applications of each. E-factor, Atom economy/selectivity- concepts and numerical
examples of these.
: General idea of structure. Naming. Types of polymers,
Tacticity. polymerization processes with examples, radical and ionic mechanisms
of polymerizations. Characteristic properties of polymers. General ideas of
resins, plastics. rubber. Idea of plasticizers. stabilizers, fillers. 6.2.
Structure, preparation and applications of PE (types and Ziegler-Natta
process). PP. teflon, PVC, PS, Polyacrylates. PAN, Neoprene, Terylene, Nylons,
Phenol/Melamine/Urea- Formaldehyde Resins. polyurethane, polycarbonate, epoxy
resins (structures of the monomers and those of the polymers are expected)
7. Oxidation and reduction
The following reagents are to be studied with respect to selectivity in the
respective conversions. no mechanisms are expected. 7.1
Oxidations using -H2O2, mCPBA, KMn04, Mn02, K2Cr207. crO3, Oppenaur
oxidation. Se02. .Reductions using -LAH. NaB~. Diborane, catalytic
hydrogenations using catalysts - 7.2
Pd-C, Pd-BaS04 (Lindlar), Pt02 (Adams catalyst), MPV reduction, hydrazine
SECTION II (6 units only)
Introduction to spectroscopy of Organic compounds:
Introduction: Idea of electromagnetic spectrum, Absorption of radiation-
Quantisation principle,different units of expressing wavelength. 8.2
. UV. Visible spectroscopy- Basic theory (instrumentation not expected),
Analysis of the-spectruym, Chromophore-Chromophore and Chromophore-Auxochrome
interactions, General applications with particular emphasis on chromophore
detection. UV -Vis spectra of conjugated dienes, conjugated enones and aromatic
IR Spectroscopy: Basic theory (instrumentation not expected), Selection
rule, Vibrational coupling, General applications with emphasis on qualitative
identification of functional groups.Intensity and position of IR bands,
Fingerprint region. 8.4
. NMR Spectroscopy: proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Basic theory
(instrumentation not expected), chemical Shift, standard, solvent, spin-spin
coupling, magnetic anisotropy of C=C, C=O,C. C and aromatic ring, importance of
D2O exchange With respect to above types of spectroscopy the spectral
characteristics of the following classes of simple organic compounds, including
benzene and monosubstituted benzenes, are to be discussed:
(i) Alkanes (ii) Alkenes (iii) Alkynes (iv) Haloalkanes (v) Alcohols (vi)
Aldehydes-Ketones (vii)Carboxylic acids and their esters and amides (viii)
ethers .(Exact peak positions are not expected, however, broad regions
characteristic of different groups are expected) 8.5.
Mass Spectroscopy: Basic theory (Instrumentation not expected), Importance
of molecular ion peak, M+ peak, isotopic peaks. Major fragmentations modes of
simple molecules belonging to alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes/ketones and alcohols.
Problems pertaining to structure elucidation of simple organic compounds using
the above spectroscoipic techniques are expected. Unit VI
Chemistry of Natural Products:
General idea, including classification, structures and commercial importance of
terpenes, alkaloids, vitamins, hormones, steroids. 9.1.
Structure determination of -a-pinene, atropine 9.2.
(a) The following commercial synthesis: alpha pinene to camphor, alpha
pinene to methol, isopentene to citral, citral to beta-ionone, pNA to thyroxine
(b) Total synthesis (including part synthesis) of -a-terpeneol, atropine. 10.
Principles of photochemistry, Singlet and Triplet states, Photosensitization,
Isomerization and rearrangements of olefins, Photoreduction- benzophenone to
benzpinacol, Norrish Type-I and Norrish Type- II reactions. Units VII -VIII
. Introduction: Classification based on chemical constitution with suitable
examples, sources, nomenclature, glycosides. 11.2.
Structure of Carbohydrates: Open chain and Ring structure of carbohydrates
-Furanose and Pyranose structures of pentoses and hexoses (interconversion open-
Haworth-chair form); determination of the configurations of glucose and fructose
(with ring size) assuming their open chain structures; Mutarotation. Chain
lengthening and shortening reactions 11.3.
Reactions of glucose and fructose: Osazone formation, acetylation,
methylation, reduction-catalytic and using NaBH4, oxidation-periodic acid,
conversion of glucose to fructose. 11.4.
Disaccharides: Structure of sucrose, maltose,lactose. (structure
determination not expected) 11.5.
Commercial importance of carbohydrates.
(The structures of all carbohydrates must be presented in the corresponding
cyclic forms). 12.
Chemistry of some Important Biomolecules:
Amino acids and proteins: General structure, including stereochemistry, of .-amino acids, essential
amino acids, isoelectric point, synthesis of .-amino acids -amination of haloacids, azalactqne synthesis,
Curtius method, Gabriel method. Synthesis of polypeptides: Bergmann method,
Fischer method and solid phase synthesis. Secondary and tertiary strucnires of proteins. ~ 12.2
Nucleic acid: Structures of important purines and pyrimidines bases and carbohydrates residues present
in nucleic acids, strucnire of' nucleoside's, strucnire of nucleodites. Structure of DNA and RNA-Base,
pairing in. Importance of nucleic acids in- (i) Self duplication (ii) protein synthesis.
Nature of carbon-metal bond, nomenclature. 13.1.
Organolithium compounds: Methods of preparation of alkyl/aryl lithium, their use as bases, synthesis
of alcohols and carboxylic acids using them. Lithium dialkyl cuprates: Preaparation and use
. Organozinc compounds: Preparation of iodomethyl zinc iodide and its use in the synthesis of
cyclopropanes (Simmons-Smith reaction) (with stereochemistry). Reforrnatsky reaction (with mechanism). 13.3.
Oxymercuration-demercuration and solvomercuration of alkenes: Mechanism and regioselection.
(Synthetic problems involving these organometallics are expected)
PRACTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (6 units)
 Separation of Organic Mixtures
Quantitative separation of a binary organic mixture, based on the differences in the physical and chemical properties of the two components. Both the components should be purified by crystallization or distillation with the entire separated quantities, and the yields should be noted. One of the component should be identified. The following types of mixtures may be given: (i) water soluble + water insoluble (ii) two liquids differing significantly in b.p. (iii) a volatile liquid with a high melting solid. (iv) two compounds (both solid) differing in nature (acid /phenoI/base/neutral). Emphasis must be given on effectiveness of separation and purification (around 2g of each solid and 6-8 rnL of each liquid may be given for separation).
The weights of the separated crystallized products should be recorded. The quality of the products should be adjudged on the basis of m.p. /b.p
 Organic synthesis
The following one step synthesis be done and the products be purified and the percent yields reported (About 2g of the starting compound may be given) (i) N-Acylation of an aromatic primary amine (N-acetylation/propionylation of aniline /4- methylaniline /4-nitroaniline) (ii) Condensation of benzaldehyde with acetophenone, Condensation of an aromatic aldehyde with a primary amine (e. g. benzaldehyde with aniline/4-methylaniline/ benzylarnine) (iii) O-Methylation of a phenol using dimethyl sulphate (O-methylation of phenol/ a- or 13-. naphthol/ cresol) (iv) Oxidation of benzaldehyde to benzoic acid, Oxidation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde to 4- nitrobenzoic acid (v) Reduction ofbenzophenone to benzhydrol (using either NaB~ or Zn-HOAc) (vi) Azo coupling reaction (coupling of diazotized 4-nitroaniline with a-naphthol/ salicylicacid). (vii) Halogenation: Acetanilide to 4-bromoacetanilide. (viii) Nitration of an aromatic compound (nitration of nitrobenzene, salicylic acid) (ix) Oximation: Oximation of cyclohexanone, acetophenone
At least one preparation from each of the above types should be done
Laboratory Safety aspects
: The use of hand gloves, while handling especially
hazardous chemicals, and the use of safety goggles and safety shoes in general,
are recommended.  Viva
Questions related to laboratory safety, chemical hazards, etc., besides those
based on the practical exercises, should be asked in the viva.  Journal
PRACTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (3 units)
 Organic synthesis
The following one step synthesis be done and the products be purified and the
percent yields reported (About 2g of the starting compound may be given)
i) N-Acylation of an aromatic primary amine (N-acetylation/propionylation of
aniline /4- methylaniline /4-nitroaniline)
ii) Condensation of benzaldehyde with acetophenone, Condensation of an aromatic
aldehyde with a primary amine (e. g. benzaldehyde with aniline! 4-methylaniline/
iii) O-Methylation of a phenol using dimethyl sulphate (O-methylation
ofphenol( - or ß- naphthol cresol)
iv) Oxidation of benzaldehyde to benzoic acid, Oxidation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde
to 4-nitro benzoic acid
v) Reduction of benzophenone to benzhydrol (using either NaBH4 or Zn-HOAc)
vi) Azo coupling reaction (coupling of diazotized 4-nitroaniline with ( -
naphthol salicylic acid).
vii) Halogenation: Acetanilide to 4-bromoacetanilide.
viii) Nitration of an aromatic compound (nitration of nitrobenzene, salicylic
ix) Oximation: Oximation of cyclohexanone, acetophenone
At least one preparation from each of the above types should be done
.  Viva
Questions related to laboratory safety, chemical hazards, etc., besides those
based on the practical exercises, should be asked in the viva.  Journal
I. Organic Chemistry, J. Clayden, N. Greeves, S. Warren, P. Wothers, Oxford
University Press, Oxford, 2001
2. Organic Chemistry by F.A. Carey 3rd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Companies,
3. Organic Chemistry; J. McMurry, 5th Edition, brooks/Cole.1999.
4. Organic Chemistry, T. W. G. Solomons, C. B.Fryhle, 7th Edition, John Wiley
and Sons Inc, 2000.
5. Organic Chemistry, G. Marc Loudon, 4ih Edition, Oxford university Press, 2002
6. Organic Chemistry, L. G. Wade Jr., 51h Edition, Pearson Education, 2003
(Indian Reprint 2004).
7. Organic Chemistry -Structure and Function, 4th Edition, K. P. C. Vollhardt and N. E.Schore, W. H. Freeman and Co., New York, 2003.
8. Organic Chemistry by S. H. Pine, J. B. Hedrickson, D. J. Cram and G. S. Hammond, McGraw-Hill Kogakusha, 1980.
9. Spectroscopic method in Organic Chermistry, by D. H. Williams and I. Fleming, Tata McGraw-Hill Company Ltd.
10. Organic Spectroscopy by W. Kemp, MacMillian Publishers
11. Organic Spectroscopy by V.R. Dani, TataMcGraw-Hill Company Ltd.
12. Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds by E. L. Eliel, McGraw-Hill, 2003
13. Stereochemistry: Conformations and mechanism, P. S. Kalsi, Wiley Eastern Ltd.
14. Stereochemistry and mechanism through solved problems, P. S. Kalsi 3rd Edition New age International Pvt Ltd.
15. Chemistry of Organic Natural Products -Vol. I and II by O. P. Agarwal, Goel Publishing House, 2002.
16. Organometallic Chemistry by R. C. Mehrotra:, Anirudh Singh, New age International Pvt Ltd, 2002.
17. Carbohydrate Chemistry by A. J. Fairbanks and B. G. Davis, Oxford University Press,2002.
18. Organic Chemistry, S. N. Ege, D. C. Heath and Co. 1984.
19. Polymer Science, V. R. Gowarikar, N. V. Vishwanathan, J. Sreedhar, New Age International, 1986.
20. Molecular Reactions and Photochemistry, C. H. DcPuy and O. S. Chapman, Prentice -hall of India, New Delhi, 1988.
21. The organic chemistry lab survival manual" J.W. Zubrick, John Wiley & Sons, 2004.
22. Laboratory manual in Organic Chemistry, R.K.Bansal, New Age International.
23. Elementary Organic Chemistry, Parts I,Il,III, A.I. Vogel, ELBS LongmansGroup Ltd.
24. Microscale Organic Laboratory, D. W. Mayo, R. M. Pike and P. K. Trumper, 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons.
Total: 120 L
Section I (3 and 6 units)
: 1. Treatment of Analytical Data and Sampling:
1.1. Treatment and presentation of analytical data -1: Determinate and
indeterminate -errors, precision and accuracy, mean, median, range, standard
deviation, variance, significant figures. (Numerical problems expected.) (7L)
1.2. Sampling: Definition and purpose of sampling, Types of sampling; Sampling
of gases: ambient and stack sampling; Sampling of liquids: homogeneous and
heterogeneous liquids, static and flowing liquids; Sampling of solids: sample
size, size reduction, Different sampling equipments and methods of sampling(8L)
: 2. Volumetric analysis:
2.1. Theoretical aspects of titration methods, titration curves, and end point
evaluation and choice of indicators in (i) Complexometric titrations: CU2+ /EDT
A and Ca2+ /EDTA, (ii) Redox titrations: Fe2+/Ce4+, Fe2+ / Cr2072- and Fe2+/MnO4
1- and (iii) Precipitation titrations: Mohr and Volhard methods (12 L)
2.2. Non aqueous titrations- basic principles and applications. (3 L)
: 3. Methods of separation -I:
3.1.Solvent Extraction: Nernst distribution law, Partition coefficient,
distribution ratio, extraction efficiency, solvent properties; batch and
continuous extraction (numerical problems expected.) (8 L)
3.2.Chromatography: classification of c,hromatographic methods, Principles,
technique and applications of (i) paper chromatography and (ii) thin layer
chromatography. (7 L)
: 4. Optical methods -I:
UV and Visible Spectroscopy:
Beer -Lambert's law and its limitations, double beam photo colorimeters, single
beam and double beam spectrophotometers -block diagrams and components of
the instruments with their functions, analytical applications; Photometric
titrations and their aplications. (numerical problems expected) (15 L
(6 units only)
: 5. Treatment of Analytical Data and Chromatography:
5.1 Treatment and presentation of analytical data -II: Distribution of random
errors -Gaussian curve, Student's- t, confidence limits, confidence interval,
criteria for rejection of results -2.5d and 4d rules and Q-test, graphical
presentation of results, null hypothesis, testing of significance -F test,
calibration curve method, method of averages and least squares method; Basic
concepts of uncertainty measurement. (numerical problems expected)
Use of computers in chemical analysis: Enhancement of instrument capabilities,
control of instruments, data acquisition, processing ahd storage. (7L)
5.2. Methods of separation -II: Chromatographic Methods:
(i) Principles, Instrumentation and applications of Gas Chromatography and HPLC
(ii)Basic principles and applications; of Ion exchange chromatography. (8L)
: 6. Electroanalytical Methods:
6.1 Introduction to Ion Selective Electrodes: hydrogen and fluoride (3L)
6.2 Potentiometric titrations: acid base and redox titrations, variation of
electrode potential and cell emf during titrations. (4L)
6.3 I).C. Polarography: Basic principles, polarizable and non-polarizable
electrodes, dropping mercury electrode, supporting electrolyte, residual
current, diffusion current, limiting current, half wave potential, derivation of
polarographic wave equation for a reversible reaction, llkovic equation, oxygen
interference, Polarographic maxima and its suppression, polarographic cell,
circuit -diagram, qualitative and quantitative 'analysis; calibration curve and
standard addition methods; applications. (numerical problems expected) (8L)
: 7. Optical methods -II:
7.1 Atomic spectroscopy: sources of atomic spectra, energy level diagrams,
atomic emission and absorption spectra. (3L)
I (i) Flame photometry: Components of flame photometer, atomiZers, types of
burners, filters and detection devices. (3L)
(ii) Atomic absorption spectrophotometry: hollow 'Cathode lam~, flame and
electro-thermal atomizers, detectors. (3L)
(iii) Methods of quantification and applications: Calibration curve, standard
addition and internal standard methods as used in A.A.S. and flame photometry
and applications. (2L)
7.2 Molecular fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy: theory,
instrumentation and applications. (4L)
: 8. Optical and Miscellaneous Methods:
8.1 Turbidimetry and Nephelometry: Scattering of light, effect of concentration,
particle size and wavelength on scattering;instrumentation and applications.(4L)
8.2 Introduction to Mass spectrometry: Basic principles, instrumentation
(magnetic sector analyzer) and applications. (4L)
8.3 Introduction to Radio-analytical Methods: Basic concepts and applications of
neutron activation analysis. (4L)
8.4 Introduction to Thermo-analytical Methods: Theory, instrumentation and
applications of thermo gravimetry. (3L
List of reference books
1. D. A. Skoog, D. M. West, and F. J. Holler, Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 7th ed., Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing, 1996. 2. G. D. Christian, Analytical Chemistry, 6th ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2003. 3. D. A. Skoog, F. J. Holler, and T. A. Nieman, Principles of Instrumental Analysis, 5th ed., Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing, 1996. 4. J. G. Dick, Analytical Chemistry, International Students Edition, McGraw Hill, Kogakusha Ltd., New Delhi, 1973.
5. R. A. Day, Jr. and A. L. Underwood, Quantitative Analysis, 6th ed., Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1993. 6. G. H. Jeffery, J. Bassett, J. Mendham and R. C. Denney, Vogel's Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 5th ed., ELBS, Longman Scientific & Technical, England, 1991.
Section I (3 and 6 units)
1. pH titration of sodium carbonate against HCI to demonstrate the selection of indicators for two inflections. 2. Titration of a mixture of strong acid and weak acid vs. strong base by conductometry 3. Calibration of a spectrophotometer (in the visible range) using KMnO4 solution. 4. Determination of Mn by periodate method colorimetric ally using least squares method. 5. Separation of metal ions viz. Ni, Co, Mn, Zn (any two) by ascending paper chromatography. 6. Estimation of sodium using a cation exchanger. 7. Determination of saponification value of an oil or fat.
Section II (6 units only)
8. Identification of an acid (Maleic, Malonic and Phosphoric acids) by acid-base titration pHmetrically. 9. Determination of the stability constant of Fe3+ -salicylic acid system by spectrophotometric method. 10. Separation of Zinc and Magnesium on an anion exchanger. 11. Determination of Vitamin C by titration with Ce4+ using ferroin indicator. 12. Determination of amino acid ego glycine by non-aqueous titration in glacial acetic acid using crystal violet indicator. 13. Estimation of an ester / amide by hydrolysis. 14. Estimation of nitro group by SnCl2reduction.
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
DRAFT SYLLABUS FOR THE SUBJECT OF DRUGS AND DYES PRESCRIBED
UNDER THE APPLIED
COMPONENT GROUP FOR THE T.Y.B.Sc. (CHEMISTRY)
UNDER THE REVISED PATTERN---2004-2005
1: General Introduction to drugs
1.1 Definition of a drug- Requirements of an ideal drug, Classification of drugs (based on therapeutic action) 1.2 Nomenclature of drugs -generic name, branded name, systematic name 1.3 Historical development including contributions of different scientists (only landmarks of the 20th century to be covered) 1.4 An overview of the present scenario in the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry
b Important terms in medicinal chemistry
Pharmacon, Pharmacophore, Receptors, Drug-receptor interaction, Prodrug, Drug
potency, Half-life efficiency, LD50, ED50, Therapeutic index, Bioavailability,
Drug toxicity, Drug addiction, Spurious drugs, Misbrandeq drugs, Adulterated
drugs. 3. Routes of drug administration and dosage forms
3.1 Oral and parenteral routes, with advantages and di~dvantages. 3.2 Different dosage forms -emphasis on sustained release formulations
4. Pharmacodynamic agents
4.1 Central Nervous System (C.N.S.) Drugs: 6L
(i)Sedatives. Hypnotics and Anticonvulgents
Concept of sedation and hypnosis. Types of epilepsy
Barbiturates -Classification based on duration of action with examples and
structures Synthesis of Phenobarbitone
Hydantoin derivatives:--e.g. Phenytoin (str)
Oxazolidinediones:-eg -Alaxidone, Trimethadione(strs)]
Synthesis of Trimethadione
(ii)Tranquilizers: (only antipsychotics to be covered with structures) Phenothiazines- Chloropromazine, Trifluopromazine. Butyrophenone ders.- Haldol Benzodiazepines -Diazepam (Structure -activity relationship in Benzodiazepines to be discussed) Synthesis of Chloropromazine (iii)Stimulants:-Classification: cerebral, respiratory and psychomotor stimulants, with structures of the following classes Nicotinic acid derivatives -Coramine Purines -Xanthine bases Phenylethylamine derivatives -Amphetamine and related compounds Tricyclic compds Chlorprothixene
(Mode of action to be discussed) Synthesis of Amphetamine, Coramine.
4.2 Analgesics and Antipyretics
Narcotic analgesics -Morphine and Codeine (strctures) Non-narcotic analgesics (with strctures) Pyrazolones and pyrizolidones -Antipyrine and Novalgin -Salicylic acid derivatives -Aspirin (various dosage forms) p-Aminophenol derivatives -Paracetarnol, Phenacetin Synthesis of Novalgin
4.3 Anti-inflamatory drugs
Mechanism of inflammation and various inflammatory conditions. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (with structures) Aryl acetic acid derivatives -Ibuprofen, Diclofenac
N-aryl anthranilic acid derivatives -Mefanamic acid
Synthesis of Diclofenac
4.4 Antihistaminic drugs
Mechanism of histamine release and action Following drugs with structures to be discussed Ethanolamine derivatives -Benadryl Ethylenediamine derivatives -Antergan Phenothiazine derivatives -Promethazine hydrochloride Miscellaneous -Chlorpheniramine maleate
Synthesis of Benadryl
H2 antagonists (anti secretory drugs)
Cemetidine, Ranitidine (strctures)
Synthesis of Ranitidine
4.5 Antihypertensive drugs
Concept of blood pressure and its irregularities General idea of the following types of drugs with structures. Vasodilators:-Hydralazine hydrochloride, Isosorbide Beta blockers:-propranolol, atenolol Calcium channel blockers:-Nifedipine A~odipine Synthesis of Nifedipine (Mechanism of action of beta blockers to be discussed)
Osmotic diuretics:-Mannitol ,Ammonium chloride urea (general idea) Thiazides: -Chlorothiazide (strctures) Sulphonamides:-Acetazolamide (strctures) , Sulphamyl benzoic acid der;-Furesomide (strctures) Synthesis of Furesomide
General idea of types of Diabetes. Insulin therapy, oral hypoglycaemic agents (strctures) To1butamide, Glipizide, Glibenclamide Synthesis of Tolbutamide
4.8 Antiparkinsonism drugs
Idea of Parkinsons disease, strs of the foIl. Drugs:- Piperidine analogues:-Cycrimine hydrochloride Pyrrolidine analogues:-Procyclidine hydrochloride Phenothiazine der: -Ethopropazine hydrochloride
4.9 Drugs for respiratory system
General idea of the foll. Types of drugs (with strctures) Expectorants: Bromhexine hydrochloride, Guaiphenesin Bronchodilators:-Salbutamol,Epinephrine. Decongestants:-Epihidrine, Oxymetazoline. Synthesis of Salbutamol
5. Drug metabolism
Different types of chemical transformations of drugs with specific examples
6. Chirality in drugs
Effect of chirality on drug action -different examples. Resolution techniques for (+ )-Ethambutol and D( -)- Threo chloramphenicol. Chiral synthesis of Ibuprofen
7. Chemotherapeutic agents
Definition, charecteristics, classification (diff. Methods), properties and therapeutic uses of the foll. Classes of antibiotics (with structural features) Beta lactum antibiotics:-Cloxacillin~Ampicillin Ampicillin. Cephalosporins:-Cephalosporin N, CephalosporinC, Cephalexin. Tetracyclines:- Terramycin, Doxycycline Quinolones:-Nalidixic acid, Ciprofloxacin Stucture activity relationship in Penicillins to be discussed Synthesis of Ciprofloxacin
Types of parasites, symptoms (life history of malarial parasite---not to be discussed) Foll. Classes with strs:- 4-Aminoquinolines:- Chloroquin 8-Aminoquinolines:- Primaquin Acridines:-Quinacrine Biguinides:-Paludrine Diamino pyrimidines:-Pyrimethamine Synthesis of Pyrimethamine, Paludrine.
7.3 Antitubercular drugs
Types of tuberculosis, following classes of drugs with structures. Antibiotics:-Streptomycin, Rifampin. Amino salicylates:-PAS. Hydrazides: -Isoniazide Pyrazine der:-Pyrazinamide Aliphatic diamines:-Ethambutol (combination chemotherapy to be discussed) synthesis of PAS, Ethambutol.
7.4 Antileprotic drugs
Types of leprosy, foll.drugs with strs. Dapsone, Acedapsone, Clofazimine.Synthesis of Acedapsone
7.5 Antiamoebic drugs
Classification of Amoebicides Hydroxy quinolines:- Vioform, Diodoquin lmidazoles:- Metronidazole, Tinidazole. Antibiotics: -Bacitracin Furan der;-Diloxanide Furoate Mechanism of action of Imidazoles Synthesis of Metronidazole
Drugs effective in the treatment of Nematode and Cestode infestations only. Piperazine der:-Piperazine ,Diethylcarbamazine Benzimidazoles: -Mebendazole Amides:-Niclosamide Nitro derivatives.:-Netobimin Synthesis of Mebendazole
7.7 Antiseptics and Disinfectants
General idea, Phenols:-hexyl resorcinol, thymol. Halogen containing compds:-cloroxylenol, hexachlorophane Dyes:-Mercurochrome, genetian violet Nitrofuran der: -nitrofurazone Synthesis of Mercurochrome
7.8 Antineoplastic Drugs (cancer chemotherapy}
Idea of malignancy, causes of cancer. Nitrogen mustards:-Chlorambucil. Antimetabolites:-Fluorouracil, Methotrexate Steroid hormones:-Estrogens, Prednisolone Microtubule inhibitors: -vincristine, vinblastine Synthesis of chlorambucil
7.9 Antiretroviral Drugs
Idea of HIV pathogenicity, symptoms of AIDS. Suggested treatment, AZT, DDI, CD-4 Glycoproteins.
8. Inorganic pharmaceuticals
Only the general idea of the following:
8.1 Iron compounds as antianaemic drugs:- Ferrous sulphate, Ferrous fumarate, Ferrous gluconate
8.2 Antacids:-Sodium bicarbonate; Aluminium hydroxide, Magnesium hydroxide.
8.3 Saline cathartics:-Sodium phosphate, Potassium sodium tartarate, Magnesium sulphate.
8.4 Tincture iodine as a topical antimicrobial agent.
9. General idea of Radiopharmaceuticals
NaI-131 in the diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism
10. Recent advances in medicinal chemistry
Peptide drugs. 10.2
Computer aided drug design.
11. Introduction to Pharmacopoea (IP ,BP and USP.)
1. Introduction to Dyestuff Chemistry
A brief history of the development of colourants.
Natural colouring matters and their limitations (Indigo, Tyrian
purple,Madder, Cochineal, Curcumin, Annato). 1.1.2
Synthetic Dyes- Important milestones- (Perkin's Mauveine,
Diazotisation and Congo Red, Synthesis of Indigo and Indanthrene,
Phthalocyanines, Fluorescent dyes and brighteners, Disperse dyes, Reactive
dyes. Mention of recent applications of dyes-dyes for lasers,bio-medical
: For the above topics, dye structures may be shown for explanation
purpose but are not expected for examination).
Definition of a dye (Distinction between dyes and pigments)
Properties of dyes: Colour (hue, depth); Fastness (Light, Washing, Perspiration,
Heat, Rubbing, Bleaching)
Substantivity to substrate; Solubility; Economic viability. 1.3
Explanation of nomenclature of commercial dyes with one example; suffixes-
G,O,R,B, 6B, K, L,S; mention of Colour Index and Colour Index number. 1.4
Brief idea of the development of the dye industry in India.
2. Classification of Dyes based on constitution
(Examples as mentioned below with structures)
a) Nitro dyes -Naphthol Yellow S b) Nitroso dyes- Gambine Y c) Azo dyes -Monoazo-Orange-II; Disazo-Chrysophenine G, Trisazo-Direct Brown V d) Diphenylmethane dyes- Auramine-O e) Triphenylmethane dyes- Diamines- Malachite Green; Triamines- Crystal Violet;
f) Following classes of heterocyclic dyes-Xanthene dyes- Eosine;
Acridine dyes- Acridine Orange NO; Azine dyes- Safranine- T; Oxazine dyes- Meldola's blue; Thiazine dyes- Methylene Blue; Quinoline dyes-Quinoline Yellow.
g) Anthraquinone dyes- Alizarin; Alizarine Cyanine Green G; Indanthrone h) Indigoid dyes- Indigo, Indigosol-O i) Phthalocyanines -Monastral Fast Blue BS
3. Classes of Dyes based on application
Explanation of the foltowing classes; main fastness properties where applicable, major J substrates; examples specified with structures. a) Acid dyes: Orange~II, Alizarine Cyanine Green G. b) Basic dyes: Crystal Violet, Rhodamine B.
c) Mordant dyes: Eriochrome Black T, Alizarin. d) Direct dyes: Chrysophenine G. e) Azoic dyes: Coupling components -Naphtol AS, Naphtol AS~G; Bases: Fast Red B Base, Fast Blue B Base. f) Vat dyes: Indigo, Flavanthrone. g) Disperse dyes: Celliton Scarlet B, Dispersol Blue FFR. h) Reactive dyes: Procion Brilliant Red M- 2BS, Remazol Brilliant Blue R(Reactive Blue 19). i) Sulphur dyes: Sulphur Black T (no structure). j) Fluorescent dyes and brightners : Rhodamine B,. Tinopal BV.
4. Colour and Chemical constitution of Dyes and Pigments
. Introduction to the following: Absorption of visible light, colour of
wavelength absorbed and complementary colour, chromogen, chromophore,
auxochrome, bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts. 4.2
Relation of colour to resonance in the following classes of dyes: Azo,
5. Non-textile uses of dyes
Uses of dyes for dyeing leather, paper, foodstuffs, cosmetics '(Structural
features of the substrate, fastness and other property requirements and main
classes of dyes used to be mentioned as applicable.) (Two examples only with
structures for each of the above substrates) 8.2
A brief idea of dyes used in photography.
(Two examples only with structures)
6. Optical brighteners and Organic Pigments
6.1 Optical brighteners: General idea and important characteristics of optical brighteners; one example each with structure of the stilbene arid coumarin classes of optical brighteners. 6.2 Organic pigments: General idea and important characteristics of organic pigments; Toners and Lakes; Uses of pigments, Structure of following pigments: Hansa Yellow-G, Flavanthrone, Copper phthalocyanine.
7.1 A brief idea of unit processes
Introduction to terms: primary, intermediate, unit process. 7.1.2
Importance of unit processes in the dyestuff industry . 7.1.3
Some aspects of the following unit processes: Nitration (Generation of
NO2+,role of H2SO4. importance of nitration, examples). Sulphonation
(Sulphonating agents, sulphonation of benzene-naphthalene-anthracene mixture,
importance of sulphonation including sulphonation of naphthalene and
anthraquinone). Halogenation (nuclear and side chain halogenation of toluene).
Diazotisation (Direct, reverse and nitrosyl sulphuric acid methods). Reduction
of nitro group -Catalytic hydrogenation, Bechamp reduction, Sulphide reduction
: Pollution caused to be mentioned where applicable. Mechanism of unit i
processes not required).
7.2 Preparation of the following intermediates
Benzene derivatives. Benzene sulphonic acid, 1,3- Benzene
disulphonic acid, Resorcinol, Sulphanilic acid, o, m, p- Phenylenediamine,
Chlorobenzene, o,m,p,- Chloronitrobenzenes 4,4'-diamino benzene
sulphanilide, Naphtol AS-G. 7.2.2
Naphthalene derivatives: ./. -Naphthols, Schaeffer acid, G acid, R
acid, N-W acid Naphthionic acid, H- acid, Tobias acid, BON acid, Naphtol
Anthraquinone derivatives. I-Nitroanthraquinone, l-
Aminoanthraquinone, Anthraquinone -1- sulphonic acid, Anthraquinone-2-
sulphonic acid, 1-Chloroanthraquinone, 2- Chloroanthraquinone, 2- Methyl
8. Synthesis of specific Dyes and their uses
1) Orange IV from sulphanilic acid. 2) Tartrazine from ethyl acetate and diethyl oxalate. 3) Eriochrome Black T from ß-Naphthol. 4) Eriochrome Black A from ß-Naphthol. 5) Eriochrome Red B from ethyl acetoacetaate and l-amino-2-naphthol-4- sulphonic acid. 6) Celliton Scarlet B from p-nitroaniline and aniline. 10) Congo Red from nitrobenzene. 11) Malachite green from benzaldehyde and N, N-dimethylaniline. 12) Methylene Blue from 4-amino-N, N-dimethylanjline and N, N-dimethylaniline. 13) Safranine T from o-toluidine and aniline. 14) Acid Magenta (Ink Blue) from p-toluidine and aniline. 15) Alizarine Cyanine Green G from phthalic anhydride ~d p-chlorophenol. 16) Alizarin from anthraquinone. 17) Indanthrone from anthraquinone. 18) 3-Methoxybenzanthrone from benzanthrone. 19) Dispersol Blue FFR from from phthalic anhydride and p-cWorophenol. 20) Indigo from anthranilic acid. 21) Rhedamine B from m-N, N-diethylaminophenol and phthalic anhydride.
9. General information about application of dyes to fibres (a brief idea) 6L
Introduction to the following. types of fibres: cotton, wool, silk
and polyester. 7.2
Names of the main classes of dyes applicable to above fibres: cotton
(direct dyes, mordant dyes, vat dyes, ingrain dyes, reactive dyes), wool (acid dyes, acid-mordant dyes, basic dyes, reactive dyes), silk (acid dyes, mordant dyes, basic dyes), polyester (disperse dyes).
Forces binding dyes to fibres: Ionic forces, H-bonds, Van der Waal's
forces and Covalent linkages. 7.4
Basic operations involved in a dyeing process: preparing of fibre
for dying, preparation of the dye bath, application of the dye and finishing.
10. Ecology and toxicity of dyes.
Brief idea of environmental pollution and health effects due to dyes.
DRUGS AND DYES PRACTICALS
I. PREPARATION (30 MARKS): (Anyone preparation)
(1) PREPARATION OF DRUGS INTREMEDIATES:-
(2)PREPARATION OF DYES INTERMRDIATES:-
ESTIMATION (25 MARKS): (Any one estimation)
(3)ESTIMATION OF DRUGS:-
(3.2) Vitamin C (by iodine oxidation method)
(4) ESTIMATION OF DYES:-
(4.1) Aromatic primary amino gp. (aniline or p-toluidine by diazotisation)
(5)EXPERIMENTS FOR DEMONSTRATION(to be entered in the journal)
(5.1) Separation of Methylene Blue and Methyl Orange (by column chromatography)
(5.2) Separation of food colours (by paper chromatography
(5.3) Separation of drug mixture from a tablet (by TLC)
(6) PROJECT WORK (to be recorded in the journal) (5 marks)
(6.2) Preparation of monograph (for a selected drug)
Journal- 5 marks
( pertaining to the experiments prescribed in the syllabus and the project
work)- 15 marks
Practical Examination for one day with 7.5 hrs duration.
(1 )Medicinal chemistry by Alfred Burger (Wiley interscience )
(2) Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics by Satoskar and Bhandarkar (Popular I Prakashan Mumbai) volumes I and II
(3) A Text book of Medicinal Chemistry (synthesis and biochemical approach)volume I and II by Surendra Pandeya, SG publisher Varanasi
(5) Inorganic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Block, Roche, Soine, Wilson, Varghese publishing house, Mumbai
(6) Medicinal Chemistry for the 21 st century by Wermoth
1) The chemistry of synthetic dyes and pigments -H.A. Lubs (Robert Krieger)
2) Chemistry of synthetic dyes - Vol. I-VI, Venkatraman.
3) The colour science of dyes and pigments -K. McLaren (Adam Hilger Ltd.)
5) Colour Chemistry -R.L.M Allen (Nelson).
6) Chemistry of Dyes and Principles of Dyeing -V.A.Shenai (Sevak).
8) Practical Organic Chemistry- Vogel (Orient Longman).
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
DRAFT SYLLABUS FOR THE SUBJECT OF PETROCHEMICALS PRESCRIBED
UNDER THE APPLIED COMPONENT GROUP FOR THE T.Y.B.Sc. (CHEMISTRY) UNDER THE REVISED PATTERN---2004-2005
PAPER I (Marks -60)
1. RAW MATERIALS:
1.1 Crude oil and natural gas :- Formation, production. 1.2 Exploration methods -geological and drilling (only brief reference- details not expected)
2. REFINERY PROCESSES AND PRODUCTS:
2.1 Chemical composition . 2.2 Meaning of terms such as flash point, ignition point, octane number, doctor solution , smoke print, calorific value. 2.3 Distillation -separation based on relative volatilities-frations obtained,with flow sheet diagrams. 2.4 Petroleum products -LPG Napthol, Gasoline, Kerosene 2.5 Conditions of conversion processes (catalyst, temperature, pressure etc.)mentioned below - Pyrolysis, catalytic cracking and hydrocracking Isomerisation Alkylation Refonning
3. INORGANIC CHEMICALS FROM PETROLEUM:
3.1 Sulphur byproducts 3.2 Hydrogen 3.3 Petroleum coke 3.4 Nitrogen compounds
4. SOURCES OF THE FOLLOWING SECONDARY MATERIALS
Methane, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, C4 hydrocarbons, higher olfins and aromatic hydrocarbons with flow sheet diagrams.
5. GENERAL STUDY OF THE FOLLOWING REACTIONS USED
IN PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY: (14L)
5.3 Hydroformylation (oxoreactions) 5.4 Hydration of Olefins 5.5 Chlorination 5.6 Polymerisation (free radical and ionic)
1. PREPARATION OF IMPOTANT CHEMICALS:
Methanol,chlorinated metanes,carbon sulphids,hydrogen cyanids and carbon black. 1.2 From ethylene and propylene:
Ethyl chloride,ethylene oxide,ethylene glycol,ethanolamines,ethanol,acetaldehyde,acetic acid,styrene,vinyl acetate,isopropanol cumene,glycerine and acrylonitrile. 1.3 From acetylene:
Vinyl chloride, chloroprene, acrylonitrile and acetaldehyde. 1.4 From C4 -hydrocarbons:
butadlene, isobutene and butana. 1.5 From aromatic hydrocarbons :
Anlline,chlorobansene,D.D.T.xylenes,Phtalic Anhydride,Terephthalic Acid and Phenol.
2. INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS (General idea only)
2.1 Plastics -polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride,polystyrene. 2.2 Synthetic elastomers styrene,butadiene,rubber,polychloropropene,nitrile rubber. 2.3 Synthetic fibres -polyester, polyamide,acrylics.
3.1 Surface activity-Anionic,cationic,nonionic and amphoteric surface active agents. 3.2 Wetting agents detergents,emulsifying agents,dispersing agents.
4. POLLUTION CONTROL IN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY:
SYLLABUS FOR PRACTICALS IN THE SUBJECT OF
(Applied Component) Paper I & II
I. ANALYSIS OF SOLID AND LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM PETROLEUM:
1. Hard paraffin: i) Solubility tests ii) Acidity or alkalinity iii)Solidifying point iv) Sulphated ash
2. Liquid Paraffin: i) Solubility ii) Acidity alkalinity iii)Density iv) Viscocity v) Solid paraffins vi) Readily carbonisable substances
3. WHITE SOFT PARAFFIN (White Petroleum Jelly): i) Solubility ii) Acidity / alkalinity iii)Sulphated ash
II. ANALYSIS OF IMPORTANT SOLVENTS, PETROCHEMICALS:
ii) Identification by colour tests
iii)Acidity / Alkalinity
iv) Clarity of solution
v) Weight per ml.
vi) Non volatile matter
ii) Identification by colour / precipitation tests.
iv) Non volatile matter
i) Weight per ml.
ii) Sulphur compounds
iii)Thiophene related substances
iii) Distillation range
iv) Weight per ml.
v) Acidity / Alkalinity
vi) Test for chloride
vii) Test for free chlorine
viii)Test for aldehyde
ix) Non volatile matter
III. ESTIMATION OF ACETONE, ANILINE/PHENOL :
IV. CLOUD POINT, POUR POINT AND ANILINE POINT FOR A
V. ESTIMATION OF WATER AND SEDIMENTS IN FUEL OIL BY
CENTRIFUGATION (anyone fuel)
VI.COPPER STRIP CORROSION TEST FOR PETROLEUM PRODUCTS,
VII. DEMONSTRATION EXPERIMENTS:
1. Absorbance of 0.05% w/v solution of white soft/yellow soft paraffin in 2, 2, 4 -trimethyl pentane (uv spectrophotometry) 2. GLC analysis of LP6, naphtha, hydrocarbon mixture etc. 3. Fla.5h / Fire point. 4. Calorific value of a fuel.
VII. VISITS / FEED BACK REPORT:
Two or three visits to factories manufacturing any chemicals listed in the syllabus. Students should prepare and submit reports on their visits.
Books recommended for Applied Component (Petrochemicals)
Latest Editions should be used when available.
1. G.D. Hobson and W. Pohl "Modem Petroleum Technology"
2. E.R. Reigel "Industrial Chemistry". (1960)
3. P .H. Groggins "Unit Processes In Organic Synthesis" (1952)
4. G.B. Crump "Petroanalysis TI" (1982)
5. R.N. Shreve "Chemical Process Industries" (1977)
6. P .H. Spitz "Chemical Process Industries" (1977)
7. B.P. Tissot and D.H. Welte "Petroleum formation and Occurrence" (1984)
8. P.W. Sherwood "Petrochemical Profits for tomorrow" (1966)
9. R.D. Patel "Petroleum and Petrochemicals"(1971)
10. Institute of Petroleum "Modem Petroleum rechnology"
11. W.L. Faith, D.B. Keyes and R.L. Clark "Industrial Chemicals" (1965)
12. M.J. Antle "The Chemistry of Petrochemicals" (1956)
13. L.Hatch and S. Maker "From hydrocarbons to Petrochemicals"
14. T. Dumas and W. Bulani"Oxidation of Pertochemicals" (1979)
15. Dr. Ramprasad, "Petroleum Refining Technology", Khanna Publications (2000)
16. B.K. Bhaskar Rao, "Modem Petroleum Refining Processes", Oxford & IBH Publishing Company Pvt. Ltd., Calcutta.
17. Fundamental concepts of Environmental Chemistry by G.S. Sothi, Narora Publication House. ! 18. Advance Inorganic Chemsitry II (including Environmental Chemistry by Gurdeep Raj, Goyl Puplication.)
18. Advance Inorganic Chemitry II (including Envirnmental Chemistry by Gurdeep Raj,Goyl Publication.)
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
DRAFT SYLLABUS FOR THE SUBJECT OF NON CONVENTIONAL SOURCES
OF ENERGY AND WASTE RECYCLINGIMANAGEMENT PRESCRIBED
UNDER THE APPLIED COMPONENT GROUP FOR THE T.Y.B.Sc. (CHEMISTRY)
UNDER THE REVISED PATTERN---2004-2005
Paper I: Non conventional Sources Of Energy. (60 Lectures)
1 Perspectives on Energy Sources and Utilization:
Definition, units and concepts. 1.2
Energy needs for the domestic, industrial, and agricultural and transport
sector, energy utilization and sustainable development, patterns of. energy use
in different parts of the world. 1.3
Various forms of energy sources, conventional/non conventional,
renewable/nonrenewable, scope and limitations of conventional, nonrenewable
energy sources, fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas; thermal.
Hydroelectric and nuclear. 1.4
Environmental implications of the energy use, energy storage and
conservation, Role of government and nongovernmental organizations, socio-
economic aspects. 2 Study of the following non conventional energy sources with respect to scope.
present scenario, applications. limitations and future prospects:
2.1 Solar energy:
Solar spectrum and its relevance as the energy source, solar radiation,
conversion of solar energy into heat in solar collectors, Fresnel lenses,
parabolic reflectors. 2.1.2
Photovoltaic effect, semi-conductors as solar energy converters, different
materials used, effect of different parameters on the photo voltaic efficiency,
effect of temperature,_solar cells. 2.1.3
Solar energy conversion by photo electrochemical process, applications of
solar energy for different purposes.
2.2 Wind energy:
Wind velocity and generation of wind energy 2.2.2
Description of wind mills and its working, rotor with blades, gear
generator, vertical and horizontal axis of rotation.
2.3 Tidal Energy:
Tide height and its potential for power generation. 2.3.2
Construction of dam across sea basin. Installation of the turbine,
specification of the basin.
2.4 Geothermal Energy:
Origin of geothermal heat, temperature gradient, geothermal steam and hot
springs, geysers. 2.4.2
Power production from geysers, mantle as source.
3 Study of the following non conventional energy sources with respect to scope,
present scenario , Applications, limitations and future prospects:
3.1 Ocean Thermal Energy conversion:
3.1.1 Surface and deep water temperature of oceans, temperature difference as a driving source for power generation. 3.1.2 Requirements for a practical OTEC plant, different working fluids.
3.2.1 Solar energy flow and its contribution to biomass production, energy from plants. 3.2.2 Feasible biomass conversion technologies, thermo chemical combustion, pyrolysis, gasification. 3.2.3 Alcohol from fermentation of sugars, enzyme reactor for continuous production of alcohol.
4 Energy from Waste:
4.1 Fuels from farm and animal waste: fermentation and production of methane in the biogas plant, domestic and industrial use of bio gas. 4.2 Municipal and industrial solid waste, as heat source.
5 Fuel Cells:
5.1 Electrochemical energy conversion, basic principle of fuel cells, distinction between fuel cell
5.2 Thermodynamic and kinetic effects of the fuel cell.
5.3 Hydrogen- oxygen fuel cell, organic oxygen fuel cell.
5.4 Applications of fuel cells 6 Hvdrogen as a potential fuel
6.2 Economically viable production of hydrogen, photolysis of water.
PaperII Waste Recycling/Management
Unit-I 1 Introduction to Waste Management: (12L)
1.1 Definition of waste, concept of waste management, end of the pipe treatment,
in plant treatment, introduction to green chemistry. 1.2 Recovery, reuse, recycle and disposal of
waste, economic viability of each of the above, waste audit.
1.3 Types of waste, domestic, industrial, agricultural and commercial waste.
Gaseous, solid and liquid waste. 2 Solid Waste Management
2.1 Sources and generation of solid waste, their characterization, chemical
composition and classification.
2.2 Waste generation per capita, industrial, commercial, agricultural, mining and.
power plant discharges.
2.3 Recycling of metal, paper, plastic, rubber, and textiles.
2.4 Methods of disposal of solid waste, dumping of garbage, sanitary landfills,
composting, soil conditioning, incineration etc.
2.5 Hazardous waste, definition, classification, methods of minimization,
disaster management and risk analysis. 2.6 Miscellaneous waste, types, characterization,hospital waste, disposal and preventive measures. 2.7 Radioactive waste, sources, effects on plants, animal, and man, level of activity and management, minimization and treatment.
3 Particulate matter and its management
3.1 Particulate matter, sources, characterization, effects. 3.2 Disposal methods, cyclone separator, wet scrubber, electrostatic precipitator, fabric filter.
4 Liquid Waste Management
4.1 Sources and generation of liquid waste, their characterization, 4.2 Physical parameters;colour, odour, turbidity, TSS, TDS, TS. 4.3 Chemical parameters; pH, acidity, alkalinity,' hardness, DO, COD, TOC, THOD, and BOD. Chemical composition, classification. 4.4 Recycling of wastewater in the industry. 4.5 Liquid Waste Treatment: 4.5.1 Characterization of the waste through COD, BOD and TOC. 4.5.2 Pre-primary treatment; neutralization, equalization. 4.5.3 Primary treatment; screening, sedimentation, coaugulation, filtration. 4.5.4 Secondary treatment; principles of the .biological treatment of liquid waste. Various processes used, aerobic and anaerobic process. 4.5.5 Aerobic process, oxidation ponds, oxidation ditch, lagoons, activated sludge process and trickling filter process 4.5.6 Anaerobic processes; anaerobic contact process, 4.5.7 Tertiary treatment; reverse osmosis, ultra filtration, electrodilysis, ion exchange, ozone treatment, Fenton's reagent. 4.6 Characteristics of effluent from (i) pharmaceutical (ii) food and beverage (iii) Fertilizer industry.
5 Management of gaseous waste
5.1 Sources, types and effects. 5.2 Minimization methods, economic viability of reuse. 5.3 Treatment methods, adsorption, absorption, catalytic conversion, condensation,combustion.
LIST OF PRACTICALS & GROUP ASSESSEMENT
(a) Practicals to be carried out by each student
1 Estimation of settling tendency of suspensions using different electrolytes,jar Test 2 Determination of pH, conductance, TSS, TDS and TS of wastewater. 3 Determination of dissolved oxygen in the wastewater sample. 4 Determination of total hardness and anions responsible for it. I Determination of COD of the wastewater sample. 6 Removal of ion-exchange resins- break through curves; 7 Removal of hardness by chemical addition-optimization studies. 8 Removal of colouration of waste water by adsorption using colour comparison method using methylene blue. 9 Determination of chlorine demand of wastewater sample by iodometry. 10Determination of the BOD of the wastewater sample.
11 To study the current voltage characteristics of a silicon solar cell. 12 To determine the efficiency of a silicon solar cell using a standard. 13 Estimation of chlorophyll from plant leaves from industrial area by colourimetry. 14 To determine the heat of combustion of ethanol and methanol. 15 To determine the relative fuel value of two fuels.
(b) EXPERIMENTS TO BE CONDUCTED BY A GROUP OF STUDENTS
Visit to any of the sites or units where non-conventional sources of energy
are being harnessed. Write a detailed report of the visit and the any studies
Given characteristics of waste water released from an industry, prescribe
suitable methods for its treatment. Describe various steps required to optimize
Submit as the project report. 3
The candidate shall submit the project work report to the labotatory
supervisor on the day of inspection, who in turn will make it available to the
(d) Viva-voce examination
1 Solar energy: principles of thermal collection and storage S.P .Sukhatme, Tata McGraw Hill ,New Delhi,1990 2 Fuel Cells: Will Mitchell, Academic Press, 1963. 3 Photo electrochemical Cells:Studies in Physical and theoereticalChemistry,
V0L.50 K. V .S.Santham & M.Sharma,Elsevier Publishing Company,Amsterdam, 1988.
4 Wastewater Treatment and pollution control: S.A.Arsewala, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1989. 5 Pollution Control in Process Industries:S.P. Mahajan, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1990. 6 Waste Water Treatment: M.N. Rao and A.K.Datta, Oxford and ffiH Publishing 1978 7 Nonconventional energy sources; G.D.Rai; 4th edition, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 1996. 8 Waste Recycling and Pollution control Handbook, A. V .Bridge Water & Mumford, 9 Basic Photovoltaic Principles & Methods, Solar Energy Research Institute. 10 Industrial Water Pollution control, Eckenfelder, 2nd edition, McGraw Hill Book company, 1989. 11 Nonconventional Energy Systems, Principles, Progress and Processes, K.M.Mittal 1 st edition, Wheeler Publishers, New Delhi. 12 Solar Energy Utilization, G.D. Rai, 5th edition, Khanna Publishers,NewDelhi,1989.
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
DRAFT SYLLABUS FOR THE SUBJECT OF HEAVY (BULK) AND FINE
(SPECIALITY) CHEMICALS PRESCRIBED
UNDER THE APPLIED COMPONENT GROUP FOR THE T.Y.B.Sc.(CHEMISTRY)
UNDER THE REVISED PATTERN---2004-2005
1. Learning of industrial aspects of chemical manufacturing processes.
2. The learning should be supplementary to the knowledge of various branches of
chemistry at F.Y., S.Y., and T.Y.level.
3. If possible the students should be given an opportunity to observe industrial
processes by organising industrial visits.
1. Introduction to Chemical Industry
. Explanation of the terms Heavy (Bulk)
and Fine (speciality) Chemicals.
2. Different Sources of Energy
a) Generation, Treatment of boiler feed water, Properties of steam, steam,
b) Other heating media: Discussion about Dowtherm heating system and "other
\thermic fluids. 6L
: System, media used for cold transfer (i.e. brine and other) 4L
4. Pumps for chemical work
a) Pumping equipment for liquids -piston pump, diaphragm pump, gear
pump,centrifugal pumps, and submersible pumps. 12L
b) Vacuum systems -oil sealed pumps, ejectors.
: Glass -raw material, manufacture, types and applications. 6L
4. Manufacture and applications of the following
6.1 a) Hydrogen fluoride b) Nitric acid 4L I
6.2 Phosphorous oxychloride. 3L
6.3 a) Sodium dichromate b) Chromium trioxide 5L
6.4 a) Ureab) Ammonium nitrate and c) Ammonium Sulphate 4L
6.5 Sodium hydroxide 3L
6.6 Alumina from bauxite ore by Hall's process and Serpeck process 4L
5. Paints and Pigments
a) Brief idea about pigments and their applications, different constituents
of pigments, solvents, binders, driers and plasticizers. 5L
b) Brief idea about paints, emulsion paints, distemper, dry distemper, fire
retardant paints, lacquers, varnishes and methods of application. 2L
. Brief idea about economic aspects of chemical manufacturing process -
Location,Raw material, energy, capital, manpower, technology,ecological aspect4L 2
. Catalysts: Preparation of catalysts and their applications. Palladium,
Platinum,Vanandim pentoxide, Raney Nickel and brief idea of supports, promoters
and catalyst poisons.
Phase transfer catalysts -Introduction, mechanism of action, advantages and
two examples. 3
. Brief account of: -
a) Perfumes -Introduction, classification (ethers, esters and essential oils)
Composition, formation, blending and applications. Synthesis of a and
B-ionones from citral.
b) Flavours -Introduction, Classification (natural and synthetic), applications -Vanillin, coumarin (structures). Synthesis of vanillin.
c) Sweeteners -Introduction, classification with examples and structures of carbohydrates -Glucose, sucrose, sorbitol. Sulphonamide -Saccharin. Peptide -Aspartame. Synthesis of aspartame
. Agrochemicals: Classification with examples, Insect attractants and
plant growth regulators.
. Surfactants: Introduction, classification and applications. General
about PEG AND Anionic Surfactants.
. Manufacture of: -Acetic acid, ethyl acetate
. Industrial gases: -Storage, Handling, Colour code. Hydrogen, Oxygen,
Nitrogen and Chlorine.
Fluoroaromatics: -Introduction, importance, reagents used for fluorination.
Preparation of ortho-fluorotoluene and 3-chloro, 4-fluoro anilines.
. Industrial solvents:- Briefidea of green solvents. Uses of the following as
splvents in industrial processes -
a) Acetone b) Ethylacetate c) Isopropanol d) Toluene e) Dimethyl formamide
.A) Synthesis and uses of the following drugs:
1) Dichlophenac sodium 2) Atenolol 3) Metronidazole 4) Ethambutol
5) Thiamine 6) Diazepam 5L
B) Synthesis and uses of the following dyes:-
1) Indigo 2) Congo red 3) Alizarine 4) Tartrazine 5) Rhodamine.
1) Preparation of: i) Ferrous sulphate ii) Copper sulphate. 2) Determination of percentage purity of gypsum. 3) Determination of thiosulphate content of a commercial hypo solution. 4) Determination of the amount of ferrous and ferric ions in the given mixture of ferrous and ferric ammonium sulphate. 5) Determination of the amount of magnesium hydroxide in a commercial sample of milk of magnesia. 6) Determination of the amount of phosphoric acid in a given sample. (Students to prepare succinic acid solution for standardization).
1) Preparation of: i) Aspirin ii) Cinnamic acid iii) Nerolin. 2) Estimation of ibuprofen in the given sample. 3) Estimation of ascorbic acid in cola. 4) Estimation of aspirin by iodometry. 5) Estimation of acetic acid in a sample of vinegar. 6) DEMONSTRATION EXPERIMENTS:- The students should be demonstrated i) Steam distillation ii) Fractional distillation iii) Thin layer chromatography. (To be entered in the journal. Questions may be asked on these experiments in the viva-voce).
1) C.E.Drydep: Outlines of chemical technology, Affiliated East West Press, New Delhi. 2) Faith, Keyes and Clerk's Industrial Chemicals, 4th Edn. Wiley Inter- science 1975. 3) Foust A.S. et-al: Principles of unit operations, John Wiley and sons. 4) P.H. Groggins : Unit processes in organic synthesis, Mc Graw Hill. 5) Kirk and Othmer : Encyclopedia of chemical Technology, John Wiley and sons. 6) Industrial Organic Chemistry -K. Welssermel, H.J.Arpe, VCH publishers, New York. 7) Industrial Inorganic Chemistry -Buchner, Schliebs, Winter translated by D.R.Tenell, VCH Publishers, New York. 8) B. Pearson -Speciality chemical Innovations in industrial synthesis. 9) Textbook of organic medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry -Wilson and Giswold. 10) Text book of pharmacology -Satoskar and Bhandarkar 11) The Chemistry of synthetic dyes -Edited by K. Venkatraman Academic Press Inc. London. 12) Organic Synthesis -Special techniques -V.K.Ahluwalia and Renu Aggarwal-Narosa Publishing House. 13) A.I. Vogel: Textbook of Quantitative analysis including instrumental analysis. 14) A.I. Vogel: Textbook of Quantitative organic analysis.
A logical approach to represent and reason about calendars Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, ItalyDepartment of Sciences, University ‘G. D’Annunzio’ of Pescara, ItalyDepartment of Physical Sciences, University ‘Federico II’ of Napoli, Italy Abstract • Expressiveness . The class of granularities representedin the formalism should be large enough to be of
Informazioni generali Superficie 583.000 kmq – circa la dimensione della Francia Popolazione 31.639.000 abitanti – 42 gruppi: Kikuyu, Luhya, Luo, Kalenjin, Kamba, Kisii, Meru, Samburu, Mijikenda, Masai, Turkana, El Molo. Capitale Il ki-swahili e l’inglese sono le lingue ufficiali del Kenya. L’italiano è compreso nelle zone più turistiche della costa Geografi