Advanced leaders’ reading

Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 1 The Common Cold
If you’re like most people, you catch a cold at least once a year. It’s the most ________________? In fact, there are around 200 different viruses that cause a cold, and those 200 viruses are constantly changing. That’s why we can’t find a cure for the cold or _________________________. It’s not really one disease. Most of those viruses are in a family called “rhinoviruses,” which comes from the Greek word “rhino” meaning “nose.” The back of the nose is where the virus attacks. This is part of___________________________, which includes your throat and larynx, or voicebox (the respiratory system is what you use for breathing). These are the places where you feel_______________________, with the most common symptom being a runny nose. Other symptoms include a sore throat, sneezing, coughing, ______________, and a general feeling of weakness or laziness. Many of these symptoms are similar to those of the flu, and it is sometimes difficult to know How is the cold virus transmitted? ________________, how do you catch or give a cold? The virus lives in the secretions from your nose and lungs. It must somehow get into your body, normally through your nose as well as through your eyes, which ______________ the nose through the tear ducts. If someone with a cold coughs or sneezes and _________________________________, you may catch the cold. The virus can also survive for a few hours outside of the body, so a person can contaminate objects with the virus (by sneezing on them or wiping their nose with their hands and then touching things, for example). If other people touch those objects then wipe their eyes or noses, they may become infected. Understanding how colds are passed from person to person can ____________ the spread of the viruses. The most important thing, as with any virus, is good hand- _________ that everyone else touches such as doorknobs, public telephones, and bus handles. Don’t rub your eyes and nose. And if you have a cold, be sure to cover your mouth when you sneeze or cough so that you don’t ___________________. Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 2. Fire
It is difficult to know exactly what happened a long time ago, but anthropologists are fairly certain that about 1 million years ago people in Africa first learned to use fire. They ______________________ naturally, from lightning or the sparks that rocks made when they _________________. They were probably ________________and grass fires, but they learned that fire was not just dangerous but also useful. In fact, people started using fire brought___________________. Firstly, cooked food, especially meat, was a lot safer to eat than raw food. Secondly, cooked food is a lot ____________________________. This meant that people’s bodies didn’t have to spend so much energy. Many experts believe that this actually allowed people’s brains to grow bigger. For early humans, fire was not easy to manage. They had to take care of it, or else it would go out. This meant that people couldn’t constantly wander as nomads but _________ _______________________. Taking care of fire is part of the reason people started forming groups or tribes. Eventually they learned how to make fire more easily, with special ________ ___________ and by rubbing sticks together, but they still had to cooperate more. Besides helping people cook food, fire kept them warm. About 12,000 years ago people started moving indoors, living in caves. With warm shelter, they could survive in much colder climates. People spread to places where they ___________________________. The fire protected them not only from the cold but also from wild animals, which were afraid of fire. About 8,000 years ago people were beginning to live in houses and control fire in ovens. They ___________________ for cooking and soon discovered that they were useful for making pottery. They designed special ovens called kilns and made extremely hot fires for The next major step in the use of fire occurred about 5,000 years ago, when people in West Africa started using very hot charcoal fires to melt copper and tin in order to make bronze. They then used this metal to create all sorts of tools and art. ___________ later people in western Asia _______________________________________, a much stronger Now, can you imagine the world without __________, cooked food, and heat for warmth? Impossible. It should be clear from these examples that learning to control fire was ________ Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
__________________ that humans have done. Unit 3. Homeschooling
Some people decide not to send their children to school. Instead, they provide education at home. We call this homeschooling. Let’s have a look ________________ reasons why people choose to do this. Then we can ____________________________ homeschooling. Surveys of people who choose to home-school their children reveal a huge number of reasons. In many cases, parents have no choice other than homeschooling. This occurs when they ___________________ with no school nearby. In other cases, children have special __________________________ properly by the school system. This could mean children with serious mental or physical handicaps or with psychological or social difficulties. Many schools do not have special programs for such children. Even when they do, a lot of parents find that they are not perfectly suited to their children, or that the teachers do not Other parents may have moral and social reasons as well. Schools can be very difficult places for children. Many parents _________________ safety, bullying, drugs, ___________________, and peer pressure. Protecting children from negative influences is important to all parents, but to some it is so important that they _________________. They feel they can not only keep their children safe, but also give them a better sense of right and The most common reason for homeschooling, however, is that parents believe that schools don’t do a good job of education. Perhaps they disagree with the ___________________ (often for religious reasons), or they think the methods used are not effective. It is quite common, in fact, for homeschooling parents to say that they feel they can help their children _______________________ than the schools can. So, do parents who homeschool really give their children advantages? Or do the children ____________ something very important? Well, it is true that children with special needs may be ______________________ with their parents who understand them. In such cases, parents usually find other ways to socialize their children outside of home. Some studies have also shown that children are ________________ drugs and experience physical abuse when they are homeschooled. In addition, homeschooled children do actually score higher ____________________, including the SAT and ACT, which are used to enter university. But if homeschooling is so great, why doesn’t everyone do it? Well, there are very good Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 4. Marriage
Although customs, rituals, and traditions may vary, virtually every culture has some idea of marriage between a man and a woman. Where does this come from? When did people first ___________________________? And why did they do this? The first evidence of a wedding ceremony in history is from about 4,350 years ago. That doesn’t mean that _____________________ that year; that’s just the first evidence of a ceremony, and it should give you a good sense that marriage is a very old custom. Marriage at that time, however, was not really about ________________ today. If you think marriage is about love and romance, then you might not want to If it wasn’t about love and romance, what ______________? Well, it had several different purposes, both social and economic. For one thing, marriage ____________ _______ bloodlines. It is normally very clear who a child’s mother is, but a very long time ago, when people lived in large loose groups, it was sometimes unclear who a child’s father was. If a man and a woman formed a lasting bond, then the man _____ __________________ whose children were his. Why would it suddenly be important who a child’s father was if it wasn’t before? For one thing, it mattered because people had property. When people stopped their hunting and gathering way of life and started farming, they started owning land. They therefore _________________ that land on to their children. A long time ago, women didn’t have very much equality in marriage. ___________ _______________ a man’s property. A father would “give” his daughter to another family or another man. In many cases, he would receive a lot of money for this. Having women to marry was important for continuing a family. They _____________ ________, and men can’t do this alone! In fact, if a married woman was not able to have babies, she could sometimes be given back to her father. There were other important issues as well. Marriage was a good way to ________ _______ between families, groups of families, or tribes. If a man gave his daughter as a wife to another man’s son, the two families would have a bond. They would help each other ______________ and not attack each other. In fact, this is still very important in many places. In a general sense, in most societies we can still see a tendency for families of similar backgrounds to have marriages together. Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 5. Polar Animals
If you go as far as you can north or south, you come to _____________________. If you do go, make sure you pack a lot of warm clothes and food. These areas are not _______________________. They are very cold and very icy. You will find very little plant life and a lot of dangers. Despite the difficulties of these environments, however, you will discover some animal life. Exactly which animals you find, however, There are important differences between the north and south poles, or, in other words, _________________________. Firstly, the northern Arctic is actually a frozen ocean ________________ land. Antarctica, in the south, is an actual landmass surrounded by ocean. Secondly, the South Pole is much colder than the North Pole. The average winter temperature in Antarctica is _________________, while in the Arctic it is -34. These facts may affect which animals can live in the regions. The northern region has many land animals. ________________________ the polar bear, a huge white bear that likes to hunt for seals from the edges of ice floes. The polar bear has thick fat and fur so that it can _______________ and is the largest meat-eating land animal. Another Arctic animal is the caribou, or reindeer. Caribou are large grazing animals _________________. They can migrate up to 5,000 km per year looking for bits of plant life to eat. Smaller Arctic animals include the arctic fox and the arctic hare, ______________ change the color of their coats depending on the season (white in winter, brown/grey in summer). The arctic fox _____________________ to catch smaller animals under the snow, while the arctic hare uses its sense of smell to find bits of plants beneath the snow. In Antarctica, there are almost no animals that live just on land. Instead, most of the life lives in the sea, ____________________________. The most famous animal here is the penguin. Most people recognize the Emperor penguin but don’t realize there are many other types of penguin _________ the rockhopper penguin, the chinstrap penguin, and the gentoo penguin. There are also fur seals, cousins to the seals near the North Pole, and blue whales, the largest animals on planet Earth. Another large sea animal is the colossal squid, which can ____________________. Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 6. Puberty
Puberty is a period of life in which boys and girls _________________. Their bodies and emotions ______________ as they move from being children to adults. It is a difficult time, Puberty happens at different ages for boys and girls. Girls usually begin puberty around age 10, while boys normally begin around age 12. Girls usually finish most of their changes ______________ 16 or 17, while boys often continue changing until age 18 or 19. These ages are just averages. There is actually _______________ from person to person. A girl may begin puberty as early as age 8, and a boy may not begin until age 14. The key to puberty is hormones. Hormones are natural chemicals in the body that affect growth and _________________________. There are some hormones that both men and women produce equally, but certain hormones ___________________ only one of the sexes. In puberty, these sex hormones are suddenly produced in larger amounts, which _________ the physical changes that we can see. The main male hormone is called testosterone, while the main female hormones are estrogen and progesterone. Some of the changes that come with puberty are experienced by both boys and girls. One of these is body odor, which can be ________________. Another is acne on the face, which can be very difficult to deal with, and pubic hair. Both boys and girls will also become quite clumsy and awkward, as they ______________________ their growing bodies. Both will also become very sensitive and moody, which can be a real headache for parents and teachers. When boys enter puberty, they will notice a change in their sexual organs, which is where the hormone testosterone is produced. This is part of becoming sexually mature. Their skeletons change so that they have broad shoulders and jaws, and they get more muscle. ____________ will change, sometimes very quickly, becoming much deeper and fuller. Finally, boys will begin to grow hair on their faces (shaving for the first time is a major milestone) and their legs. Girls also become sexually mature. This process includes the development of breasts (the first bra is a big step) and the widening of the hips. Girls will also start getting their periods, although in the beginning it may not be very regular. _________________________ like boys, girls will see an increase in the amount of body fat. Just remember: puberty is natural. It happens to everyone. If you ___________________, Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 7. Unique Jobs
If you ask students what job they want to have when they are older, you might hear a lot of the same answers: doctor, lawyer, teacher, nurse, __________, __________, actor. These are all popular choices, but society can’t function if everyone picks the same things. Some people are going to have to do very different things. There are _______________________________, some of which are very unusual. If you’re looking for something different, perhaps you should consider from the following list of the top 5 unique jobs in the world. #1: Fantasy Broker. A fantasy broker makes dreams come true, for a hefty price. If a person __________________________ down the Amazon River in a barrel, a fantasy broker ___________________. If another person has always wanted to play the piano at Carnegie Hall in New York, a fantasy broker will make it happen. Just think of it: people pay you big bucks to transform their fantasy into reality! #2: Snake Milker. If you ever get bit by a snake, the doctor will give you ________ _________________, which may help save your life. How do they make that anti-venom? Well, they need some of the snake’s poison to do it. How do they get the snake’s poison? That’s what a snake milker does. He ____________________ open snakes’ mouths and get their poison into a cup. Dangerous work, but very ________! #3: Forest Fire Lookout. For this job, you ___________________ and you need to love being alone for long periods of time. If you ____________________ forest fires, you have to sit in a very tall tower and watch the surrounding forest for signs of #4: Sports Team Mascot. Every team needs a good ________________________ and entertain the children. You could be a bear, a beaver, a kangaroo, a chicken. whatever the case may be. You need to ___________________, because you spend probably more time running around than the athletes on the field do. It can also get pretty hot in your mascot outfit, so you need to drink a lot of water. #5: Gum Buster. Have you ever accidentally put your hand on a piece of gum ________________________ in the park ________________? It’s a very unpleasant experience, which is why society needs gum busters. Their job is to __________ that gum from public places. Just think of it! Perhaps this is your future. Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 8. Extracurricular Activities
The life of a student can’t be only about classes and studying. There are many other activities or organizations that students can ________________. We call these activities “extracurricular” activities, because they are outside the regular school curriculum. They can be found in all levels of school, including elementary, junior high, high school, and university. These are not mandatory activities. That is, students choose to get involved or not. Extracurricular activities come in many different types and ___________________. One of the most common and popular activities in American schools is sports. There are often many levels of sports teams for students of different ages. Schools _______________________ throughout the year and in championships tournaments. Football, basketball, volleyball, and soccer are the most popular, but there are also clubs for swimming, tennis, bowling, and just about every other sport you can think of. Students on the ___________________________ a lot of their time to practice and games, sometimes even more than their academics. High school sports provide entertainment and pride for the entire school, not just the athletes who compete. Some extracurricular activities ___________________ than fun. There are clubs for astronomy and other sciences, for math, for geography, and for other subjects as well. Then there are activities ______________________. Debating clubs, in which groups of students from different schools compete in argument with each other, are popular. Language clubs give students the chance to practice their speaking skills and meet people from other cultures. There are a huge variety of other activities for people ______________________, publish their own newspaper, practice their artistic skills, explore their environment, or discuss politics. So why do students do this? Why are these activities ___________ both teachers and parents? There are several reasons. First of all, extracurricular activities give people a great chance to meet people and make friends. In some cases, they allow people with similar interests to find each other. In other cases, they provide ____________________________ between people who otherwise might not meet. Secondly, these activities can help college and job applications. Many universities prefer students who have interests outside school. It shows well-roundedness and ____________. Employers may also value work outside academics. Students in extracurricular activities have the chance to develop skills that they might not through studying, such as leadership, cooperation, and communication. Finally, extracurricular activities can help students __________________________________. They can cultivate interests that will stay with them for their entire lives. Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 9. Festivals
On certain days of the year, people _______________________. They might eat special food, play special music, wear special clothing and do special activities. These group celebrations, or community events, are called festivals. Festivals are an important part of every culture in the world. ____________________ some different types of festivals and try to understand the purpose of these events. Many important festivals are religious. _________________, for example, the two most important festivals are Christmas and Easter. For Buddhists, there is Buddha’s birthday __________________________________ in the Chinese calendar. And for Hindus, there are many small festivals throughout the year for different gods. These festivals bring religious people together to pray, to remind themselves of their religious mission in life, and to There are also many important seasonal festivals, which happen at certain times of the year to mark a change in the calendar or __________________. Most countries have some type of harvest festival in the fall. For North Americans, this means Thanksgiving. For Koreans, this means Chuseok, which is not only meant to celebrate the harvest but to remember and ________________. Lunar New Year, which takes place on the second new moon _____________________, is another important seasonal festival in Asia. Not all festivals are religious or national holidays. Some festivals are purely about entertainment or enjoying some type of activity. For example, many cities ______________ film festival, when they show movies and invite actors and directors to talk about cinema. Music festivals, usually _____________ one type of music, such as the Incheon Pentaport Rock Festival or the Newport Jazz Festival, are also very popular. They give fans the chance to come together ____________________ and parties. The number of festivals around the world ____________________, and now you can probably find a festival somewhere in the world for just about _______________________. In Spain, there is La Tomatina, which is a tomato festival that includes a huge and messy food fight. Every year in New Mexico, a state _____________ the southwest of the United States, there is An Alien Festival. And in Thailand there is The Monkey Buffet Festival, when monkeys are the ones to enjoy the feast of special food! Festivals are important events. In many cases, they provide entertainment, but they are about more than just fun. They give people a chance _________________ each other, to share a special experience, and to have a sense of _______________. They are a chance to share information and to celebrate the things that we love. Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 10. Heroes
When you hear the word “heroes” what do you think of? Some people might think of the popular television series. Other people _____________________ like Spiderman and Superman. Still others may talk about David Beckham or Kobe Bryant. And some might recall Chesley B. Sullenberger. If you don’t recognize that last name, don’t worry. You’l find What exactly is a hero? In very simple terms, a hero is a person who does ____________ things. Heroes stand out from the crowd by performing amazing acts of bravery, athleticism, or courage. Heroes are the people we cheer for. They compete or fight against the villains, or the bad guys. We see heroes in books, in movies, on TV, and sometimes in real life. Heroes _______________. Heroes give us _______________________. Heroes act as role models, serving as examples of the right way to act. __________________ fictional books and movies, the hero is the main character. It is the person who struggles against himself, against others, or against the environment. It is the person ___________________ in the end. Winning could mean beating the bad guys, getting married, or finding a way to cross the mountains in the winter. In some stories, the heroes have very special abilities or powers. We call these people superheroes, and they ____________________ super villains, or the bad guys who also have special powers. Superheroes believe in justice, in protecting average people from evil. They are sometimes misunderstood by the public, but they _____________, keep on fighting for what they know is right. Batman, Superman, Spiderman, X-Men, the Fantastic Four. the world of comic books has given us thousands of superheroes. Many people also have personal heroes. These are the ________ athletes and musicians who we want to emulate. When you hear someone say “David Beckham is my hero,” he means that he wants to be like David Beckham. He wants to be an amazing soccer player with ___________________. Personal heroes don’t have to be famous. Your hero might be your father, or your uncle, or the woman down the street who works hard every day and Then there are society’s real heroes, people like Chesley B. Sullenberger. In case you don’t know, he is the pilot that successfully ________________________ the Hudson River in New York. The airplane ____________________, but Sullenberger managed to save 155 people’s lives through his act of courage and skil . He is a perfect example of what it means to be a hero, to be an extraordinary person and a role model. Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 11. Houses
A home has many purposes, but one of the most important is to protect us from the weather. In this way, it ___________________ shelter. When we build homes, we must _____________ heat, cold, rain, snow, and wind. Considerations of weather will determine a home’s exact location, its design, and the materials used to build it. The location of a home is very important. If the _________ is very hot – either year-round or seasonally – it is best to find a shaded area. It may also need some protection from wind and snow. _______________, homes are often built in the lee of a hill or near a group of trees that can function as a windbreak or snowbreak. When choosing a location, we _________________. In rainy climates, it is unwise to build on low ground, such as on floodplains or in the bottoms of valleys. The design of a home _________________ the climate. One aspect of design is the orientation of the home, or which way it faces. The front should not face into the direction ___________________. The size and orientation of windows can help to control the interior climate of the house. South-facing windows may ______________ all day and help to warm a home in a cold climate. In hotter climates, it may be best Design also includes considerations of ______________. Flat roofs may be alright for places that do not have a lot of precipitation, and even then they need proper drainage systems _____________________. Sloped roofs allow rain to run off rather than collecting, and in snowy climates the roof must be designed to withstand a lot of weight. Snow is a lot heavier than many people realize! The materials used to build houses will vary depending on what is available in a certain place, but they must be _____________________ proper protection from the elements. Concrete is a popular option in many countries of the world. It is very strong ________________________________ rain and snow. In some places, such as North America, wood construction is very popular. Wood homes normally require proper insulation. Insulation is a material used inside the walls that ______________ ___________ during the winter and prevents heat from entering during the summer. Location, design, and materials are ___________________ when building a home. One must think about the local climate carefully and __________________. To build a North American style house in rural Thailand would be disastrous! Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 12. Munchausen Syndrome
There are thousands of different _______________________, but one of the most interesting is called Munchausen Syndrome. ________________ Baron Munchausen, an 18th century German who joined the Russian army and told strange and unbelievable stories about his adventures. This _____________ is similar to what is seen in someone with Munchausen Syndrome. An affected person ________________ medical problems in order to get attention. The person actually wants to be a patient, and will do almost anything to stay in hospital, get surgery, or receive treatment. This can include more than just pretending to be sick by reporting false symptoms. They ______________ complete family histories of disease. People with Munchausen Syndrome may also actually hurt themselves, or inject themselves with bacteria to cause infection. They might ____________________, using someone else’s urine sample, for instance, to make doctors believe they are sick. Another problem is that they will try to prevent treatment or healing. For example, if they go to the hospital because they cut themselves, they might __________________ and try to make the injury worse So, how do doctors know that someone has Munchausen Syndrome and is not really sick or hurt? Well, that can be very difficult to tell, but there are some signs that might show that someone has the problem. Their stories might be unbelievably dramatic. They might have _______________, or symptoms that can’t really happen together. Looking at their medical history might show that they have _____________ ____________ or visited a doctor far more than is normal. People with this syndrome might also show a lot of medical knowledge, because they usually do a bit of homework before pretending to have a certain disease. They will also usually be very If this syndrome sounds a little strange, that’s because it is. But it is also quite _______. Although many people exaggerate their sickness a little bit to get some attention, very few people actually have Munchausen Syndrome. It is very extreme behavior. These people have a psychological problem and are dangerous to themselves. Doctors are still not sure ______________, but they do think that there are several risk factors. These include childhood trauma, poor self-esteem, and a __________ desire to become a doctor or other health professional. Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 1. The Common Cold
what exactly is it, develop a vaccine against it the upper respiratory system, the effects of the infection, muscle ache In other words, are attached to, you breathe in the contaminated air help us prevent , Avoid touching common surfaces , put others at risk Unit 2. Fire
must have seen it happen, hit each other, afraid of forest several advantages, easier to digest than raw food had to settle in one place, minerals called flint 1,500 years, learned to do the same thing with iron Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 3. Homeschooling
at the variety of, examine the pros and cons of live in isolated places, needs that cannot be met, well enough are concerned about , sexual harassment, completely opt out content that is taught , achieve higher test scores miss out on, better served at home, less likely to do, on standardized tests Unit 4. Marriage
it started in exactly, the same thing as was it about, helped people preserve, could have better assurances Women were often treated as, needed to reproduce Unit 5. Polar Animals
the earth’s Polar Regions, very friendly environments, depends on which pole the Arctic region and Antarctica, surrounded by, -49 degrees Celsius The most recognizable of these is, endure the cold, with impressive antlers both of which, uses its excellent sense of hearing either completely or part of the time, including, be up to 15 meters long Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 6. Puberty
regulate our bodies’ functions, are related primarily to, initiate quite embarrassing, are becoming accustomed to A boy’s voice, Instead of developing muscles Unit 7. Unique Jobs
astronaut, athlete, thousands of other jobs to choose from has always dreamed of floating, will make it happen something called anti-venom, spends his time trying to, rewarding can’t be afraid of heights, are on the lookout for mascot to get the fans excited, be very physically fit stuck to the bottom of a bench, or under a bus seat, remove Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 8. Extracurricular Activities
compete against each other, elite sports teams dedicate seem more about learning, related to communication, who want to help their encouraged by, an opportunity for encounters, commitment , figure out what they are Unit 9. Festivals
get together for group celebrations, Let’s have a look at In Christianity, on the first full moon of the fourth month, commemorate agricultural cycle, honor our ancestors, after the winter solstice host an annual , devoted to , to enjoy live music has increased dramatically, anything, g you can think of, located in Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 10. Heroes
extraordinary, inspire us, something to believe in keep the world safe from, keep on trying celebrity, thousands of adoring fans, all alone made an emergency landing on, could have crashed Unit 11. Houses
climate, For these reasons , may also consider elevation must be suited to, of the prevailing winds, let sunlight in precipitation, to carry water off the roof chosen carefully to ensure, and can resist even the most extreme, stops heat from the essential considerations, build appropriately Advanced Leader’s Reading 1
Unit 12. Munchausen Syndrome
fascinating psychological disorders, This syndrome is named after, characteristic will create or exaggerate, might make up, tamper with medical tests, take the vague symptoms, been in the hospital, eager to undergo tests



RENATE BOEL Die Wirkung der ANTI-BABY-PILLE vor und nach der Empfängnis Schriftenreihe der Aktion Leben e.V. Postfach 61 - D 69518 Abtsteinach/Odw. 3. überarbeitete Auflage 2001 Die Aufgaben der natürlichen Hormone . 4Die synthetischen Hormone der Anti-Baby-Pille . 6Die Wirkung der Pille vor der Befruchtung oder:Wie die Pille eine Schwangerschaft verhindern soll . 14D

Innocent Man by John Grisham The Summer Reading program, sponsored by the English Department at Padua Franciscan High School, is designed to entice students to read and recognize notable contemporary literature. We wish to engage student interest, encourage critical thinking, and challenge our students as readers. As such, some titles on the list may contain sensitive material and deal

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