As pimples heal, they may leave some redness and
Acne is a very common skin condition, affecting
increased skin color, which take some months to go away.
80% of teenagers. Topical (placed on the skin)
In more severe acne, scarring may occur.
medications, such as benzoyl peroxide or tretinoin(Retin-A), can treat and control acne in most
patients. Other medications, such as oral antibio-tics, certain birth control pills for girls, or oral iso-
Around 80% of young people develop some amount of
tretinoin (Acutane), may be used for more severe
acne during puberty or the teen years.
Anything that blocks the pores can make acne worse.
This includes greasy ointments or creams, as well as hairproducts.
Blockage of the pores causing pimples can occur under
sweat bands worn during sports or exercise.
Acne refers to various types of pimples or blemishes.
They occur because of blockage of the sebaceous glands.
Trying to “pop” pimples is likely to cause increased in-
These glands produce an oil-like substance called sebum,
which comes to the skin surface through hair follicles
Acne is not caused or made worse by eating particular
(pores). This blockage causes different types of pimples,
depending on how much inflammation occurs. Certain bac-teria that are normally found at the sebaceous glands are
Emotional stress and fatigue may make acne worse.
also involved in producing inflammation.
Acne may be less severe during the summer months
All kinds of acne start with a very small (cannot be seen)
(because of exposure to sunlight and subsequent peeling)
comedone—a blocked pore without inflammation. Acne
generally occurs around puberty because the increase insex hormones affects the sebaceous glands in a way that
Acne may also be caused by certain medications, such as
promotes blockage. There are a few types of acne, depend-
topical steroids, and by certain hormonal conditions.
ing on where in the pore the blockage occurs and how muchinflammation occurs. Medications used to treat acne aremeant to unblock or prevent blockage of these pores and
Even when mild, acne can be very embarrassing for
Scarring may occur in severe acne.
children and teens. Basic treatments can help them feel andlook better. Treatment can also reduce the chances of scarring.
Even if relatively mild, acne can have a significant emo-
There are a number of different medications to treat acne,
and the doctor will decide which is best for you. If acne is
Open or closed comedones (“blackheads” or “white-
severe or doesn’t respond to treatment, we may recommend
heads”)—very small bumps without redness or inflam-
a visit to a dermatologist (a doctor specializing in skin dis-
mation. As the names suggest, they have “whiteheads”
(closed comedones) or “blackheads,” with black specks
Basic treatments can keep acne under control until it goes
Cleaning with mild soap and water helps the skin look
Pimples filled with pus (pustules).
less oily but won’t prevent pimples. Avoid repetitive
cleaning, because it may cause the skin to become
Deeper nodules or cysts, which may occur if inflamma-
tion occurs deeper in the skin. This is the most severetype of acne and the most likely to cause scarring.
Products that contain alcohol or other substances that kill
surface bacteria won’t help prevent new acne pimples. In
Pimples most commonly appear on the central part of the
fact, they may make the skin more irritated.
face, but they may also occur on the chest, upper back, orshoulder area.
Topical medications, or medications applied to the skin,
Boys are more likely to have acne on the chest, where
can control most cases of acne that are not too severe.
Often, more than one type of medication is used to get
the best results. Typically, it takes 4 to 8 weeks to see any
various side effects. Reactions to sunlight are especially com-
improvement. Many of these medications can make the skin
mon with doxycycline and tetracycline.
dry or irritated. If this is a problem, a “non-comedogenic”
Oral isotretinoin (Acutane) is used for nodular or cystic
acne, or for severe acne that doesn’t respond to other
Benzoyl peroxide is a commonly used and effective med-
treatments. It is very effective, and its positive effects last
ication that is available over the counter (in products
for a long time—in about 30% of patients, the problem
such as Clearasil). It comes in different strengths and is
never comes back. Isotretinoin has many side effects.
used once a day. Benzoyl peroxide is often used along
Most important, it is a “teratogen”—that means it will
with other drugs, such as Retin-A. However, it can be
cause birth defects if taken during pregnancy. That is
irritating to the skin, especially if too much is used.
why all girls who are taking this drug are required to
The water-based gel products are best.
be on effective birth control, Other side effects include
cracked lips, very dry skin, and increased levels of cho-
Tretinoin (Retin-A) is a form of vitamin A. It is very
lesterol and triglycerides in the blood. If needed, this
effective in preventing and treating blockage of the
medication is usually prescribed by a dermatologist.
pores, which is how all acne starts. Tretinoin comes indifferent strengths and is used once a day. It can be very
Birth control pills can be helpful for girls whose acne is
irritating to the skin, so it’s best to start slow—for exam-
difficult to control. They work by decreasing the amount
ple, use every other day at first. This medication may
also make your skin more sensitive to sunlight. For best
Some newer treatments are now available—for example,
results, apply 30 minutes after washing.
laser treatment for patients who have trouble taking the
Topical antibiotics can help control bacteria involved in
medications listed earlier or for whom they are not work-
causing acne and are often used in combination with other
medications. They include topical erythromycin and clin-
After you start treatment, your doctor may have you
damycin. These drugs are also available in combination
come back every few months to check on your acne. You
with benzoyl peroxide in one product, such as Benzamycin
may need a change in medications because of side effects
or if your treatment is not working well.
Other topical medications are available, including azelaic
Oral antibiotics are often used if topical medications
don’t work or if acne is more severe. They are frequently
used along with topical medications. Commonly used anti-
Acne becomes a noticeable or socially embarrassing
biotics include tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, and
trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim). These drugs have
Acne doesn’t get better with recommended treatment.
Please type your custom instructions and/or office contact information here.
Drug Information Sheet ("Kusuri-no-Shiori") Information is based on approvals granted in Japan. In some cases, the approved details may vary in countries other than Japan. In deciding to use a medicine, the risk (side effects) of taking the medicine must be weighed against the benefit (effects) it will do. The patient's cooperation is indispensable here. Brand name ： BICALUTAMID
FONDAZIONE G. BORTIGNON PADOVA Percorso di formazione con gli insegnanti della scuola dell’infanzia, primaria e secondaria “SCUOLA-FAMIGLIA….COME INTER-AGIRE?” giugno 2010 O. Zanon RIFERIMENTI BIBLIOGRAFICI Alberti R., Emmons M., Ne hai il diritto, Calderini, Bologna, 1999. Berto F., Scalari P., ConTatto. La consulenza educativa ai genitori, Edizioni La Meridiana, Molfetta (BA), 2008. Ber