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International Journal of Veterinary Science
Induction of Fertile Estrus in Bitch (Pug) With Cabergolin - A Case Report
S Shinde*, B Krishnappa1, Brijesh Kumar1, P Perumal1, HK Gupta2 and SK Srivastava2
Ph.D scholars; 2Pr. Scientist, Division of Animal Reproduction, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, (U.P.) India
A R T I C L E I N F O
A B S T R A C T
A 3-year old pug bitch was presented to the Referral Veterinary Polyclinic,
I.V.R.I., Bareilly, with history of anestrus since last one year despite having
normal body condition and appetite. Vaginal examination revealed normal
genitalia without any abnormalities. For induction of estrus, bitch was treated
with cabergoline orally till the bitch shows proestral bleeding. After 10 days of
treatment, bitch showed proestrous bleeding and on 12th days of proestrus, the
vaginal cytology revealed presence of more than 90% of cornified cells and
advised for breeding the bitch on alternative days until bitch rejects the male.
After 45 days of mating the bitch was again presented to clinics for pregnancy
diagnosis. Ultrasonographic examination revealed, 45 day old pregnancy.
Cabergoline can be used as master drug to induce fertile estrus in any breed of
Cite This Article as:
Shinde S, B Krishnappa, Brijesh Kumar, P Perumal, HK Gupta and SK Srivastava, 2014.
Induction of fertile estrus in bitch (Pug) with cabergolin- a case report. Inter J Vet Sci, 3(1): 1-3. www.ijvets.com
Prolactin appears to play a role in canine interoestrus
interval, possibly by affecting gonadotrophin secretion
Domestic bitches are non-seasonally monoestrus
and/or ovarian responsiveness to gonadotrophins.
animals. As a result of this unique reproductive
Suppression of prolactin secretion by administration of
physiology, bitches spontaneously ovulate only once or
dopamine agonists (DA) shortened the duration of
twice per year and ovulation can occur at any time of the
anoestrus (Van Haaften et al.,
1989) or induced oestrus in
year. Reliable fertile estrus induction (EI) protocols have
cases of prolonged anoestrus (Jochle et al.,
been difficult to devise in the bitch because of the
1988 and Kutzler, 2007). The precise mechanism by
insufficient understanding of the hormonal events
which DA shortens anestrus is not yet known. Whether
necessary for folliculogenesis in this species
the action causes a decrease in PRL concentration by their
(Concannon, 1993). The natural cause of the dopaminergic effect or by a direct dopaminergic action on
termination of the long obligatory anestrus and onset
either the gonadotrophic axis or on ovarian gonadotrophin
of a new cycle is not clearly understood in the bitch.
receptors remains to be determined. Some studies have
Neither the canine ovary, nor pituitary, is quiescent
shown that bromocriptine increases FSH concentration
during anestrus; either luteinizing hormone (LH) or
that results in enhancement of follicle development. The
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) has been reported
role of the dopaminergic paths in the control of
as “the main hormone” for initiation of folliculogenesis in
gonadotrophin secretion is still unknown in the bitch.
the dog (Kooistra et al.,
1998). Estrus induction is also
It has also been postulated that DA have a direct effect on
useful for breeders and owners of pure-bred bitches with
the ovaries (Jeffcoate, 1993). It is possible that
normally long interestrous intervals often request to shorten interestrous intervals, so the number of litters per
cabergoline might mature gonadotropin ovarian
year can be increased. Perusal of literature revealed the
receptors by its DA action (Harvey et al.,
1997). In this
use of a variety of exogenous hormones and their
report, induction of fertile estrus with cabergoline without
combinations viz., GnRH, FSH/LH, eCG/hCG and
side effect in pug breed of dog is presented.
oestrogens for induction of oestrus in bitches with varying
results (Vanderlip et al.,
1987, Shille et al.,
History and clinical diagnosis
Bouchard et al.,
1993). Administration protocols of most
A 3-year old bitch (pug) with second parity was
of these drugs involved daily to weekly injections and the
presented to the Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, I.V.R.I.,
Izatnagar, Bareilly, with history of infertile mating in
Inter J Vet Sci, 2014, 3(1): 1-3.
previous year, since then the bitch didn’t exhibit estrus symptoms despite of having normal body condition and appetite. Abdominal palpation and vaginal examination revealed apparently normal uterus external genitalia respectively. To rule out uterine pathology ultrasonography was performed which shown hypoechoic regions indicating small quantity of fluid in uterus. Furthermore, vaginal aspirate was taken for exfoliative vaginal cytology. In cytological finding, parabasal and intermediate cells with few neutrophils noticed (Figure 1). On integrating all the above findings it was confirmed that the bitch was in anestrus without any abnormalities.
Parabasal and intermediate cells with few neutrophils
during anoestrus phase.
Fig. 2 (a,b):
Exfoliative cytology after 4th day proestral bleeding.
To induce estrus, the bitch was treated with
cabergoline (Prolactin inhibitor) at dose rate of 5 µg/kg body weight orally till the bitch showed proestrus bleeding. However, within 10 day of treatment bitch exhibited proestrus bleeding and treatment was discontinued thereafter. Importantly, pet was apparently normal during the course of treatment without side effects. Exfoliative vaginal cytology was performed as per standard procedure with Giemsa’s stain from 4th day of proestrus to determine the optimum breeding time (Figure 2:a,b). The cytology was repeated at 2 days interval till 90% of exfoliated cells get cornified. On 12th day of proestus vaginal cytology examination revealed presence
of more than 90% of superficial cornified cells (Figure
3:a,b) indicating optimum breeding time. Owner was advised to breed the bitch on same day and to repeat mating on alternative days until bitch rejects the male (three successful mating done).
After one and half month, pug was presented to
clinics for confirmation of pregnancy. Visual examination revealed edematous teats and distended abdomen (Figure 4) and abdominal palpation revealed presence fetus and fetal swelling. For confirmation, ultrasonography (B-mode) performed and revealed presence of fetal skeleton with fetal movement and fetal heart beat. To assess the gestational age, fetal head diameter was measured (Figure 5) and age of fetus found to be 45 days. After completion
full term, pug delivered six healthy pups without
Exfoliative cytology after 12th day of proestral
pregnancy and delivery of offspring) rates vary between
and within various protocols. Long-acting preparations
Many methods of estrus induction exist for both
(placental gonadotropins, GnRH analogue implants) are
canids and felids, success (induction of estrus, ovulation,
convenient for the owner and less stressful for the patient
Inter J Vet Sci, 2014, 3(1): 1-3.
induction of oestrus with satisfactory conception rate in anoestrus bitches of different breeds and age groups.
Arbeiter K, W Brass, R Ballabio and W Jochle, 1988.
Treatment of pseudopregnancy in the bitches with cabergoline-an ergoline derivative. J Small Anim Pract, 29: 781-784.
Bouchard GF, S Gross, VK Ganjam, RS Youngquist, PW
Concannon and GF Krause, 1993. Oestrus induction in the bitch with the synthetic oestrogen diethyl stilbesterol. J Reprod Fertil (Suppl), 47: 515-516.
Concannon PW, 1993. Biology of gonadotrophin-
secretion in adult female dogs. J Reprod Fertil, 47: 3-
Bitch showing edematous teats and distended abdomen
Harvey MA, A Cauvin, M Dale, S Lindley and R
Ballabio, 1997. Effect and mechanism of the antiprolactin drug cabergoline on pseudoprenancy in the bitch. J Small Anim Pract, 38: 336-339.
Jeffcoate IA, 1993. Endocrinology of anestrous bitches. J
Jeukenne P and J Verstegen, 1997. Termination of
dioestrus and induction of oestrus in dioestrus non-pregnant bitches by the prolactin antagonist cabergoline. J Reprod Fertil (Suppl), 51: 59-66.
Jochle W, R Ballabio and E Disalle, 1987. Inhibition of
lactation in the Beagle bitch with the prolcatin inhibitor cabergoline (FCE 21336): Dose response and aspects of long term safety. Theriogenology, 27: 799-811.
Kooistra HS, AC Okkens, MM Bevers, C Popp-Snijders,
B van Haaften, SJ Dieleman and J Schoemaker, 1998.
Ultrasonography showing skull of 2-3 fetuses.
Concurrent pulsatile secretion of LH and FSH during
different stages of the estrus cycle and anestrus in
but are associated with premature luteal failure and
subsequent reduced pregnancy rates. Based on studies by
Kutzler MA, 2007. Estrus induction and synchronization
Jochle et al.
1987 and Jeukenne et al
1997, DA such as
in canids and felids. Theriogenology, 68: 354-374.
bromocriptine and cabergoline have been recently Shille VM, MJ Thatcher and KJ Simmons, 1984. Efforts included in the available methods of EI with success in
to induce estrus in the bitch, using pituitary
some European countries. Cabergoline (5µg/kg/day) was
gonadotropins. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 184: 1469-
used orally for 5 to 18 days in 28 bitches with prolonged
anestrus, and all the animals had estrus cycles after
Van Haaften B, SJ Dieleman, AC Okkens, MM Bevers
treatment and became pregnant. However the duration of
and AH Willemse, 1989. Induction of estrus and
treatment and proestrus varies within the breed of same
ovulation in dogs by treatment with PMSG and/or
species. Verstegen et al.,
(1999) showed animals
bromocryptine. J Reprod Fertil (Suppl), 39: 330-331.
responding to the treatment, the mean time taken from
Vanderlip SL, AE Wing, P Felt, D Linkie, J Rivier, PW
treatment onset to proestrus was found to be 13 days but
Concannon and BL Lasley, 1987. Ovulation
in present case the duration was 10 days. Care should be
induction in anestrus bitches by pulsatile
taken not to administer cabergoline too early in
administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
anestrus as the insufficient uterine involution of the
previous cycle could prevent implantation. The findings
Verstegen JP, K Onclin, LDM Silva and PW Concannon,
of the present trial revealed that the anti-prolactin drug,
1999. Effect of stage of anoestrus on the induction of
cabergoline @ 5 µg/kg body weight once daily orally for
estrus by the dopamine agonist cabergoline in dogs.
a period of two weeks could be used for the successful
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