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International Journal of Veterinary Science
CASE REPORT

Induction of Fertile Estrus in Bitch (Pug) With Cabergolin - A Case Report
S Shinde*, B Krishnappa1, Brijesh Kumar1, P Perumal1, HK Gupta2 and SK Srivastava2
1Ph.D scholars; 2Pr. Scientist, Division of Animal Reproduction, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, (U.P.) India
A R T I C L E I N F O
A B S T R A C T
A 3-year old pug bitch was presented to the Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, I.V.R.I., Bareilly, with history of anestrus since last one year despite having normal body condition and appetite. Vaginal examination revealed normal genitalia without any abnormalities. For induction of estrus, bitch was treated Key words:
with cabergoline orally till the bitch shows proestral bleeding. After 10 days of treatment, bitch showed proestrous bleeding and on 12th days of proestrus, the vaginal cytology revealed presence of more than 90% of cornified cells and advised for breeding the bitch on alternative days until bitch rejects the male. After 45 days of mating the bitch was again presented to clinics for pregnancy diagnosis. Ultrasonographic examination revealed, 45 day old pregnancy. Cabergoline can be used as master drug to induce fertile estrus in any breed of *Corresponding Author
Cite This Article as: Shinde S, B Krishnappa, Brijesh Kumar, P Perumal, HK Gupta and SK Srivastava, 2014.
Induction of fertile estrus in bitch (Pug) with cabergolin- a case report. Inter J Vet Sci, 3(1): 1-3. www.ijvets.com
INTRODUCTION
Prolactin appears to play a role in canine interoestrus interval, possibly by affecting gonadotrophin secretion Domestic bitches are non-seasonally monoestrus and/or ovarian responsiveness to gonadotrophins. animals. As a result of this unique reproductive Suppression of prolactin secretion by administration of physiology, bitches spontaneously ovulate only once or dopamine agonists (DA) shortened the duration of twice per year and ovulation can occur at any time of the anoestrus (Van Haaften et al., 1989) or induced oestrus in year. Reliable fertile estrus induction (EI) protocols have cases of prolonged anoestrus (Jochle et al., 1987; Arbeiter been difficult to devise in the bitch because of the et al., 1988 and Kutzler, 2007). The precise mechanism by insufficient understanding of the hormonal events which DA shortens anestrus is not yet known. Whether necessary for folliculogenesis in this species the action causes a decrease in PRL concentration by their (Concannon, 1993). The natural cause of the dopaminergic effect or by a direct dopaminergic action on termination of the long obligatory anestrus and onset either the gonadotrophic axis or on ovarian gonadotrophin of a new cycle is not clearly understood in the bitch. receptors remains to be determined. Some studies have Neither the canine ovary, nor pituitary, is quiescent shown that bromocriptine increases FSH concentration during anestrus; either luteinizing hormone (LH) or that results in enhancement of follicle development. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) has been reported role of the dopaminergic paths in the control of as “the main hormone” for initiation of folliculogenesis in gonadotrophin secretion is still unknown in the bitch. the dog (Kooistra et al., 1998). Estrus induction is also It has also been postulated that DA have a direct effect on useful for breeders and owners of pure-bred bitches with the ovaries (Jeffcoate, 1993). It is possible that normally long interestrous intervals often request to shorten interestrous intervals, so the number of litters per cabergoline might mature gonadotropin ovarian year can be increased. Perusal of literature revealed the receptors by its DA action (Harvey et al., 1997). In this use of a variety of exogenous hormones and their report, induction of fertile estrus with cabergoline without combinations viz., GnRH, FSH/LH, eCG/hCG and side effect in pug breed of dog is presented. oestrogens for induction of oestrus in bitches with varying results (Vanderlip et al., 1987, Shille et al., 1984 and History and clinical diagnosis
Bouchard et al., 1993). Administration protocols of most A 3-year old bitch (pug) with second parity was of these drugs involved daily to weekly injections and the presented to the Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, I.V.R.I., Izatnagar, Bareilly, with history of infertile mating in Inter J Vet Sci, 2014, 3(1): 1-3.
previous year, since then the bitch didn’t exhibit estrus symptoms despite of having normal body condition and appetite. Abdominal palpation and vaginal examination revealed apparently normal uterus external genitalia respectively. To rule out uterine pathology ultrasonography was performed which shown hypoechoic regions indicating small quantity of fluid in uterus. Furthermore, vaginal aspirate was taken for exfoliative vaginal cytology. In cytological finding, parabasal and intermediate cells with few neutrophils noticed (Figure 1). On integrating all the above findings it was confirmed that the bitch was in anestrus without any abnormalities.
Fig. 1: Parabasal and intermediate cells with few neutrophils
during anoestrus phase.
Fig. 2 (a,b): Exfoliative cytology after 4th day proestral bleeding.
Treatment
To induce estrus, the bitch was treated with cabergoline (Prolactin inhibitor) at dose rate of 5 µg/kg body weight orally till the bitch showed proestrus bleeding. However, within 10 day of treatment bitch exhibited proestrus bleeding and treatment was discontinued thereafter. Importantly, pet was apparently normal during the course of treatment without side effects. Exfoliative vaginal cytology was performed as per standard procedure with Giemsa’s stain from 4th day of proestrus to determine the optimum breeding time (Figure 2:a,b). The cytology was repeated at 2 days interval till 90% of exfoliated cells get cornified. On 12th day of proestus vaginal cytology examination revealed presence of more than 90% of superficial cornified cells (Figure 3:a,b) indicating optimum breeding time. Owner was advised to breed the bitch on same day and to repeat mating on alternative days until bitch rejects the male (three successful mating done). After one and half month, pug was presented to clinics for confirmation of pregnancy. Visual examination revealed edematous teats and distended abdomen (Figure 4) and abdominal palpation revealed presence fetus and fetal swelling. For confirmation, ultrasonography (B-mode) performed and revealed presence of fetal skeleton with fetal movement and fetal heart beat. To assess the gestational age, fetal head diameter was measured (Figure 5) and age of fetus found to be 45 days. After completion full term, pug delivered six healthy pups without Fig. 3(a,b): Exfoliative cytology after 12th day of proestral
DISCUSSION
pregnancy and delivery of offspring) rates vary between and within various protocols. Long-acting preparations Many methods of estrus induction exist for both (placental gonadotropins, GnRH analogue implants) are canids and felids, success (induction of estrus, ovulation, convenient for the owner and less stressful for the patient Inter J Vet Sci, 2014, 3(1): 1-3.
induction of oestrus with satisfactory conception rate in anoestrus bitches of different breeds and age groups. REFERENCES
Arbeiter K, W Brass, R Ballabio and W Jochle, 1988. Treatment of pseudopregnancy in the bitches with cabergoline-an ergoline derivative. J Small Anim Pract, 29: 781-784. Bouchard GF, S Gross, VK Ganjam, RS Youngquist, PW Concannon and GF Krause, 1993. Oestrus induction in the bitch with the synthetic oestrogen diethyl stilbesterol. J Reprod Fertil (Suppl), 47: 515-516. Concannon PW, 1993. Biology of gonadotrophin- secretion in adult female dogs. J Reprod Fertil, 47: 3- Fig. 4: Bitch showing edematous teats and distended abdomen
Harvey MA, A Cauvin, M Dale, S Lindley and R Ballabio, 1997. Effect and mechanism of the antiprolactin drug cabergoline on pseudoprenancy in the bitch. J Small Anim Pract, 38: 336-339. Jeffcoate IA, 1993. Endocrinology of anestrous bitches. J Jeukenne P and J Verstegen, 1997. Termination of dioestrus and induction of oestrus in dioestrus non-pregnant bitches by the prolactin antagonist cabergoline. J Reprod Fertil (Suppl), 51: 59-66. Jochle W, R Ballabio and E Disalle, 1987. Inhibition of lactation in the Beagle bitch with the prolcatin inhibitor cabergoline (FCE 21336): Dose response and aspects of long term safety. Theriogenology, 27: 799-811. Kooistra HS, AC Okkens, MM Bevers, C Popp-Snijders, B van Haaften, SJ Dieleman and J Schoemaker, 1998.
Fig. 5: Ultrasonography showing skull of 2-3 fetuses.
Concurrent pulsatile secretion of LH and FSH during different stages of the estrus cycle and anestrus in but are associated with premature luteal failure and subsequent reduced pregnancy rates. Based on studies by Kutzler MA, 2007. Estrus induction and synchronization Jochle et al. 1987 and Jeukenne et al 1997, DA such as in canids and felids. Theriogenology, 68: 354-374. bromocriptine and cabergoline have been recently Shille VM, MJ Thatcher and KJ Simmons, 1984. Efforts included in the available methods of EI with success in to induce estrus in the bitch, using pituitary some European countries. Cabergoline (5µg/kg/day) was gonadotropins. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 184: 1469- used orally for 5 to 18 days in 28 bitches with prolonged anestrus, and all the animals had estrus cycles after Van Haaften B, SJ Dieleman, AC Okkens, MM Bevers treatment and became pregnant. However the duration of and AH Willemse, 1989. Induction of estrus and treatment and proestrus varies within the breed of same ovulation in dogs by treatment with PMSG and/or species. Verstegen et al., (1999) showed animals bromocryptine. J Reprod Fertil (Suppl), 39: 330-331. responding to the treatment, the mean time taken from Vanderlip SL, AE Wing, P Felt, D Linkie, J Rivier, PW treatment onset to proestrus was found to be 13 days but Concannon and BL Lasley, 1987. Ovulation in present case the duration was 10 days. Care should be induction in anestrus bitches by pulsatile taken not to administer cabergoline too early in administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. anestrus as the insufficient uterine involution of the previous cycle could prevent implantation. The findings Verstegen JP, K Onclin, LDM Silva and PW Concannon, of the present trial revealed that the anti-prolactin drug, 1999. Effect of stage of anoestrus on the induction of cabergoline @ 5 µg/kg body weight once daily orally for estrus by the dopamine agonist cabergoline in dogs. a period of two weeks could be used for the successful

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