ANALYSES OF MARTIAN SURFACE MATERIALS DURING THE MARS SURVEYOR 2001 MISSION BY THE
ATHENA INSTRUMENT PAYLOAD.
R. V. Morris (NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058
firstname.lastname@example.org), S. W. Squyres and J. F. Bell III (Cornell University), P. H. Christensen (Arizona State University),
T. Economou (University of Chicago), G. Klingelhöfer and P. Held (T.H. Darmstadt), L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L Jolliff
(Washington University), and R. Rieder (Max Planck Institut für Chemie, Mainz).
The scientific study of Mars by rovers
chemical standard derived from an iron ore deposit. AKB-1
requires instrumentation for elemental and mineralogical
is an amygdaloidal basalt from the Keweenawan peninsula
analyses of surface materials. Athena, the rover payload for
(MI). MAN-74-342A is an impact melt rock from
the Mars Surveyor 2001 mission, includes a panoramic
camera with multispectral imaging capability (Pancam), a
Results and Discussion.
Representative spectra are
thermal emission spectrometer (Mini-TES), an alpha proton
shown in Figure 1. Specific elements and mineralogies firmly
x-ray spectrometer (APXS), a Mössbauer spectrometer, and
identified in each sample are listed in Table 1 by instrument.
(possibly) a Raman spectrometer. It also includes a
Note (1) that the APXS instrument has good energy
microscopic imager, plus a coring device (the Mini-Corer)
resolution which produces high-quality elemental abundance
that can obtain samples of soil and rocks for subsequent
data and (2) that the mineralogy instruments (particularly
Mössbauer and Raman) provide a detailed and
In order to demonstrate the comprehensive,
comprehensive mineralogical assessment. Although
discriminating, and synergistic nature of the instruments on
Mössbauer and Raman are the most sensitive to mineralogy,
the Athena payload, we analyzed seven samples using flight
they (like APXS for elemental abundance measurements)
prototypes for the Mini-TES, APXS, and Mössbauer
require proximity to samples for analysis. Because Pancam
instruments, an Athena-like laboratory Raman instrument,
and Mini-TES can perform analyses on any area in the field
and Pancam spectra calculated from convolution of
of view, they can be used to map rock types whose
laboratory reflectance data over the Pancam bandpasses.
mineralogies (and elemental composition) are then determined
We analyzed Zagami (a SNC meteorite) that
more precisely with all five instruments. The figure and table
contains primary igneous phases, plus six analogs for
demonstrate how the instruments will work together in
Martian surface materials. TRATIV1 is a sample of massive
different and complementary ways to analyze Martian
calcite (travertine). The remaining four samples are heavily
materials, and to select samples for collection and return to
oxidized. HWMK600 and HWMK24 are palagonitic and
jarositic tephra samples from Mauna Kea (HI). BCS-301 is a
Table 1. Elements (>2% abundance) and mineralogies firmly identified by Athena instruments.
1. Ol=olivine; Px=pyroxene; OPx=orthopyroxene; CPx=clinopyroxene; Pl=plagioclase; Sil=silicate; Ma=maskelynite;Zeo=zeolite; Phy=phyllosilicate; TiMt=titanomagnetite; Ilm=ilmenite; Hm=hematite; Gt=goethite; npOx=nanophase ferricoxide; FeOx=iron oxide; FeSul=iron sulfide; Jar=jarosite; Cal=calcite; Car=Fe,Mg,Ca-carbonate; Ap=apatite; Wh=whitlockite.
2. Not analyzed.
IN SITU ANALYSIS OF MARTIAN SURFACE MATERIALS: Morris R. V. et al.
Athena composition and mineralogy instruments.
Except as noted, samples are powders. (a) Pancam
spectra. (b) Mini-TES emissivity spectra from a
(c) X-Ray and (d) alpha spectra from APXS flight protype. (e) Backscatter
Zagam; calculated from transmission spectrum).
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