Table 1. Nutrient analysis of experimental diets and Effects of supplemental Yeast Culture on yield and composition of milk during early lactation were evaluated with six primiparous and 12 multiparous Holstein cows.
Total mixed rations fed behind Calan gates contained 41.7% corn silage and 58.3% concentrate (DM basis) ----------------------- % DM ---------------------- without (Control) or with Yeast Culture substituted for .7% CP of DM. A preliminary period during the first 2 wk ADF postpartum was followed by an 11 wk experimental NDF period. Cows were milked twice daily and milk samples Lignin were taken on two consecutive days at the end of the wk Ca of the preliminary period and wk 3, 6, 9, and 11 of the P experimental period. Addition of yeast culture to the diet Mg tended to increase yields of milk and 3.5% Fat Corrected Milk but reduced percentages of milk lactose and Solids NEC, Non-Fat. Efficiency of production was increased from 1.30 to 1.42 lb milk/lb dry matter intake and income over UIPC, feed cost was $.55/cow/day higher when Yeast Culture A Diamond V Yeast Culture, Diamond V Mills, Inc., Materials and methods
B Composition of concentrate (% DM basis): ground corn 33.27, wheat middlings 20.39, soybean meal Six primiparous and 12 multiparous Holstein cows were (48%) 2.42, cottonseed meal (41%) 30.96, meat & assigned to one of two treatments at parturition based on bone meal 7.10, limestone 2.43, magnesium oxide parity and previous treatment in a randomized block .83, sodium bicarbonate 1.21, Dynamate 1.07, salt design. The control diet composed of 41.7% corn silage .09, premix .23. (Premix: 1.5% Fe, 2.7% Zn, 1.5% and 58.3% (DM basis) concentrate (Table 1) and was fed Mn, 4,000 ppm Cu, 115 ppm Co, 300 ppm I, 265 ppm as a total mixed ration (TMR) twice daily behind Calan Se, 2,000,000 IU/kg Vitamin A, 900,000 IU/kg Vitamin gates (American Calan Inc., Norwood, NH) for ad libitum C Calculated using values from NRC.
consumption. After a 2 wk preliminary period, Yeast Culture (Diamond V Mills, Inc., Cedar Rapids, IA) was substituted for .7% of control TMR DM. Data and Milk yield was recorded at each milking and averaged for samples were collected for the following 11 weeks of each wk. Milk samples were collected from each of the last four consecutive milkings of wk 2 of the preliminary period and wk 3, 6 and 9 of the experimental period.
Samples of corn silage, concentrate and refusal were Samples were composited by cow each wk and shipped taken daily and dried at 60°C for 48 hr in a forced air oven to Virginia DHIA for analysis of milk fat, protein, lactose for determination of DM concentrations. Daily samples and SNF concentrations.
were ground using a Wiley mill (Arthur H. Thomas, Philadelphia, PA) to pass through a 1 mm screen and Data were analyzed as a split plot design using general analyzed for CP, NDF, ADF, 72% sulfuric acid lignin, Ca, linear model procedures of SAS. The statistical model P, K, and Mg. Concentrations of undegraded intake used for the analysis of covariance was: protein and NE were calculated using NRC values.
Table 2. Intake and production response of cows fed
TMR with or without supplemental Yeast
DMI, lb/d
C(T) = effect of cow nested within treatment i, Milk, lb/d
Fat, lb/d
3.5% FCM, lb/d
Protein, %
Preliminary DMI (for DMI analysis) and FCM (for production Protein, lb/d
analysis) were used as covariates. Cow nested within Lactose, %
treatment was used as the error term for testing treatment Lactose, lb/d
effects. All other independent variables were tested SNF, %
SNF, lb/d
Results and discussion
lb FCM/lb DMI for control and Yeast Culture, respectively.
Based on chemical analysis of diet ingredients and TMR Increased milk yield has been reported for cows fed Yeast (Table 2), diets provided adequate amounts of nutrients to Culture during early lactation and for high producing support milk yield observed throughout the trial. Dry groups, but not for cows in mid- lactation or in low matter intake was not different (P=.56) among cows fed producing groups. In contrast to results of the current control or Yeast Culture supplemented diets. This is in trial, increased percent milk fat and milk protein and/or agreement with observations of other researchers.
decreased milk protein have been reported when Yeast Although not significantly different, yield of milk and 3.5% FCM were 12.1% (P=.24) and 9.6% (P= .20) higher for Differences in nutrient intake cannot explain the observed cows fed diets with Yeast Culture. These numeric trends in milk and 3.5% FCM yield as cows consumed differences in milk yield were evident at wk 2 of the equal amounts of DM and nutrients based on chemical experimental period and continued throughout the analysis of TMR. Supplemental Yeast Culture apparently remainder of the trial as illustrated in Figure 1. Milk increased utilization of nutrients, possibly through altering composition was not different among cows due to ruminal fermentation as discussed previously.
treatment although percent milk lactose and SNF tended to be lower (P = .13 and .21, respectively) for cows fed Conclusions
Yeast Culture. Efficiency of milk production was not different between treatments and averaged 1.30 and 1.44 Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were not significantly different among cows consuming TMR Figure 1. Effect of Yeast Culture on milk yield.
diets with or without Yeast Culture during early lactation although milk yield of cows fed the Yeast Culture tended to be higher throughout the trial. Based on increased feed cost of $.07 per cow due to Yeast Culture, income over feed cost was increased $.55 per cow per day by supplemental Yeast Culture when 3.5% fat milk was priced at $10 per cwt. Additional research is needed to determine the effect of Yeast Culture on nutrient utilization Research source
J.K. Bernard and F.M. Kelly, 1992, Department of Animal Science, Agricultural Experiment Station, The University Figure 1. Effect of Yeast Culture on milk yield.

Source: http://www.diamondv.com/secure/files/Dairy/Transition%20-Early%20Lactation/DA002-s.pdf

Microsoft word - p450 chart.doc

This is an illustrative guide to the cytochrome P450 contribution to drug interactions likely for medication pairs that are substrates, inhibitors or inducers of the same enzyme. More than one-half of patients also carry genetic variations in CYP 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, and 2D6 genes that can dramatically alter patient drug exposures, and for which DNA testing can be ordered. The GeneMedRx drug int


FILOSOFÍA Y BIOÉTICA DE LA RESPONSABILIDAD SOCIAL EMPRESARIAL Edgar Raúl Navarro Medrano Resumen: El presente trabajo pretende analizar la cuestión de la responsabilidad social de las empresas desde oro punto de vista a la luz de los principios éticos, reflexionando sobre las condiciones que impiden que una empresa sea responsable y dando una perspectiva Palabras Clave

Copyright ©2018 Sedative Dosing Pdf