Toxicology Brief managing common poisonings in companion animals
P E T F O O D R E C A L LAminopterinand melamine
identified in some of thetested samples of the re-
called pet foods manufac-tured by Menu Foods
(www.menufoods.com). How thesesubstances entered the pet food chainhasn't been determined. Investigatorsalso don't know whether these sub-
etformin is an antihyper-
glycemic prescription med-ication labeled for the treat-
stances are the sole cause of the illness
agent and an antimetabolite. At highdoses, it can cause crystalluria.
MECHANISM OF ACTION
utilized in some fertilizers in Asia. The
cause of their higher risk of serious ad-
crystals in their renal tubules. The pre-
cise composition of the crystals hasn’t
to insulin.1,4,5 To a lesser degree, met-
and urinalysis are recommended insymptomatic animals that have in-
help dissolve the renal crystals. Ani-mals that are treated immediately or
can be submitted to a diagnostic labora-tory for further analysis, or the body can
“Metformin overdose in dogs and cats” was
contributed by Jacqueline B. Heller, DVM,
ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center, 1717 S.
Philo Road, Suite 3, Urbana, IL 61802. Dr.
Heller’s current address is VCA Aliso Viejo
Dr.Volmer is an assistant professor at theCollege of Veterinary Medicine, University
of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802. She depart-ment editor for “Toxicology Brief.”
Toxicology Brief PEER-REVIEWED
tion half-life in people is 6.2 hours.
most common nor any deaths have been directly at-
in cases of acute overdoses is rare.
glyburide or glipizide), met-
cose from lactate (via the Cori cycle).
Toxicology Brief PEER-REVIEWED
Drug Dosages for Treating Gastrointestinal Upset
Dosage for Dogs
Dosage for Cats
0.1– 0.4 mg/kg every 6 hours orally,
Same as for dogs
subcutaneously, or intramuscularly
0.5–1 g orally every 8 to 12 hours
0.25–0.5 g orally every 8 to 12 hours
0.5 mg/kg orally, subcutaneously, or
Same as for dogs
intramuscularly every 12 to 24 hours
0.5–2 mg/kg orally, intravenously, or
2.5 mg/kg intravenously every 12 hours
intramuscularly every 8 to 12 hours
or 3.5 mg/kg orally every 12 hours
0.5–1 mg/kg orally once daily
0.7 mg/kg orally once daily
In general, an animal’s prognosis after
ive care directed toward specific signs.
signs are routinely all that develop.
Rosendale M. Diabetes medications. In: Plumlee KH, ed.
Clinical veterinary toxicology
. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby, 2004;316-318.
Michels GM, Boudinot DF, Ferguson DC, et al. Pharmaco-
kinetics of the antihyperglycemic agent metformin in cats.Am J Vet Res
Cowan SM, Bunch SE. Oral antidiabetic drugs for cats. Com-
pend Contin Educ Prac Vet
Ellenhorn MJ. Drugs. In: Ellenhorn’s medical toxicology: diag-
such as metoclopramide (Table 1
nosis and treatment of human poisoning
. 2nd ed. Baltimore, Md:
Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1997;728-731.
Kirpichnikov D, McFarlane SI, Sowers JR. Metformin: an
update. Ann Intern Med
fluids, such as lactated Ringer’s solu-
Cheng AY, Fantus IG. Oral antihyperglycemic therapy for
type 2 diabetes mellitus. CMAJ
Plumb DC. Veterinary drug handbook
. 5th ed. Ames: Iowa
State University Press, 2005;498-499.
POISINDEX editorial staff: Metformin and related agents,
POISINDEX System, Vol. 124, MICROMEDEX, Englewood,
Colo. Expires 6/2005. Access it at: http://www.mi-cromedex.com/products/poisindex.
Glucophage [drug insert]. Bristol-Myers Squibb Co;
Princeton, NJ. Revised March 2004.10.
Greco DS. Treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
using oral hypoglycemic agents. In: Bonagura JD, ed. Kirk’s current vet-
erinary therapy XIII
. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co, 2000;350-354.
AHFS drug information. McEvoy GK, ed. American Society
of Health-System Pharmacists, Bethesda, Md 2003;3024-3025.
Teale KF, Devine A, Stewart H, et al. The management of
metformin overdose. Anaesthesia
Spiller HA, Weber JA, Winter ML, et al. Multicenter case se-
ries of pediatric metformin ingestion. Ann Pharmacother
Nelson R, Spann D, Elliott D, et al. Evaluation of the oral
antihyperglycemic drug metformin in normal and diabeticcats. J Vet Intern Med
Phillips SL, Polzin DJ. Clinical disorders of potassium
homeostasis. Hyperkalemia and hypokalemia. Vet Clin NorthAm Small Anim Pract
Reduction of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms by psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in swine slurries. 1 Caroline Côté *, 2 Daniel I. Massé and 3 Sylvain Quessy 1 Research and development institute for the agri-environment, 3300 Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, 2 Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre, Research Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lennoxville, Quebec,
2. A BRIEF REVIEW OF THE CURRENT DIABETES DRUGS Two of the largest selling drugs, to help control blood sugar, are Avandia® and Actos®. In the first six months of 2007 increasingly adverse reports were widely publicized about these as a result of new printed scientific studies in peer-reviewed journals: 1. Female Diabetics using these drugs have started to develop fractures of the hands