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Part 3: reading comprehension (40 points)
Booklet Number: PART 3: READING COMPREHENSION (40 points)
Choose the option which best completes the meaning of the following
paragraphs. Then fill in the correct space on your answer sheet.
A. Questions 1-5 (5 points)
1. A series of experiments were carried out by B. Latané and J.Darley. They studied
the reaction of bystanders to emergency situations. Since car accidents, drownings, fires, attempted suicides etc. cause feelings of fear and interest, these situations attract large numbers of people watching the event. ______________.
a. The results of the experiments confirmed the theory b. Thus, people have little experience with handling them c. Yet, often nothing is done to help the victim d. Emergencies are sudden and unforeseen, and they require instant action
2. ______________________. A lease specifies the length of time the person must
stay in the apartment and the amount of rent he must pay. It can limit the number of people allowed to live in the apartment and restrict the renter from having pets. A lease may prohibit the renter from subletting and include a provision by which he is charged a certain amount of money if he breaks the contract.
a. Most people cannot afford to rent a comfortable apartment b. If you want to rent an apartment, the easiest thing to do is to have a lease c. Landlords usually require a renter to sign a very complicated contract called a
d. It is impossible today to rent an apartment without having signed a lease
3. A love and understanding of children is innate with successful babysitters. These
qualities help them allay the fears that children are likely to experience when parents are away. ______________________. One way to distract the child from seeing them is for the babysitter to bring with her a box filled with such items as a key chain, a few crayons, a ball or any safe objects to hold the child’s attention. Opening and examining the contents keep the small child occupied while the parents make their departure.
a. Another responsibility of a competent babysitter is to ensure the baby’s safe
b. This involves great responsibility, for the babysitter is accountable for the
safety and well being of the children in her care
c. Thinking that the child may get bored during the day, the babysitter should
d. Experienced babysitters know that the time of the parents’ departure can be
4. ______________________. What makes these cycles unique is that all the members of
a species tend to flower and then seed at the same time. Something else that is unique is that these simultaneous seeding cycles generally occur at rather lengthy intervals of perhaps fifteen to sixty years or more. This means that a particular species of Asian bamboo may not flower and seed for many decades and then, when this species does flower and seed, all of its members tend to flower at the same time.
The flowering cycle of the Chinese bamboo is rather extreme among other species
Many species of Asian bamboo have rather unique flowering and seeding cycles
One particular species of Asian bamboo tends to flower and seed less than once a century
When this species of bamboo flowered and seeded in the late 1960’s, it flowered and seeded in widely divergent areas
5. Aspirin’s origins go back at least as early as 1758. In that year, Englishman Edward Stone
noticed a distinctive bitter flavour in the bark of the willow tree. To Stone, this particular bark seems to have much in common with “Peruvian Bark”, which had been used medicinally since the 1640s to bring down fevers and to treat malaria. Stone decided to test the effectiveness of the willow bark. He obtained some, pulverised it into tiny pieces, and conducted experiments on its properties. ______________________. In 1763, Stone presented his findings to the British Royal Society.
The chemists, Brugnatelli and Fontana, determined an active chemical that was responsible for the medicinal characteristics in the willow bark
His tests demonstrated that this pulverized willow bark was effective both in reducing high temperatures and in relieving aches and pains
The British Royal Society started using the Peruvian Bark prior to aspirin
Later, further studies on the medicinal value of the willow bark were being conducted by two Italian scientists
Choose the best answer for each question. Then fill in the correct space on
your answer sheet.
B. Questions 6-12 (7 points)
Presidents, praying, sunglasses, media pacts, movie deals, family rifts. In the immediate
aftermath of the carnival atmosphere of Camp Hope, it was almost as if the appeal of the
rescued miners corroded
as soon as it hit the atmosphere. They seem to need the help of Max
Clifford – only the Public Relations expert can help them avoid the dangers of sudden fame.
So mysterious, heroic and unknowable while trapped
below ground, once they were out, for
all they had suffered, they could have been all the Big Brother
contestants in history being evicted at once. Stories started generating. This miner was sulking because he didn’t get to emerge last. This sister was furious because she didn’t get to throw the welcome home party. The arrival of a wife and mistress at the camp provoked universally playful coverage. At least
Indeed, while the miners are said to have received “media training”, are they truly prepared
for what’s to come? The media attack, the inevitable reaction. Considering what may lie ahead, maybe they should have sent Max Clifford down in that capsule for a quick chat before they came up.
After all they’ve been through, if any people deserve to benefit, it’s these people, if only for
the way they generated worldwide publicity for the dangerous state of mines worldwide (another disaster was announced in China this weekend). They seem more than entitled to make a bit of money. The question is: how long before the world starts getting tired of them?
At the very least, there is bound to be hand-wringing over the miners being corrupted by
fame and money. Funny how it’s only the poor we worry about in these circumstances.
Modern culture dictates that while it’s fine for the rich and famous to continue to be corrupted by fame and money, it’s deemed an absolute tragedy when the poor give in to them.
Hence we’re curiously at peace with Paris Hilton waltzing around town with her one brain
cell. Yet along come people such as the Chilean miners and before long it’s “what havoc will
fame and money wreak upon them?” The exact same patronizing nonsense was aimed at the glorious young stars of the Oscar winning movie, Slumdog Millionaire
. To their credit, the film-makers made great efforts to look after and guide them, but it didn’t stop the western worrywarts: “Now little Indian children, you are being rewarded for appearing in an international movie hit. Don’t go blowing it all on sweeties or heroin, will you?”
In truth, no one needs to be concerned about the miners being “corrupted”. As with any
situation, the stupid ones will blow it, while the smart ones won’t. The real concern is that they’ll end up with far too much fame and not nearly enough money.
6. corroded (line 3) is closest in meaning to ___________________.
7. trapped (line 5) is closest in meaning to _______________.
8. According to the author, Max Clifford is expected to help the miners by _______________.
a. giving them advice on the dangers of sudden fame
b. going down in the capsule and rescuing them
c. giving them advice on how to invest their money
d. giving the miners the proper medication
9. All of the following are true about the story of the Chilean miners EXCEPT that
a. one of them was bad-tempered and he wanted to get out last
b. one of the miner’s sister was angry because she wanted to hold a welcome party
c. one of the miner’s wife and mistress came to the camp at the same time
d. one of the Chilean miners was offered to be a “Big Brother” contestant
10. After all they’ve been through, the miners deserve to benefit because they ______________.
a. are out of the mine with a lot of stories the media could use b. received “media training” while they were in the mines c. raised awareness about the dangers of the mines d. were very heroic as they waited to be saved
11. The Chilean miners and “Slumdog Millionaire” stars have all of the following in common
a. they both suffered from poverty throughout their lives
b. they both made a “big break” that changed their lives completely
c. they are both expected to be corrupted by their new-found fortune
d. they are both expected to make a fortune out of the fame they’ve gained
12. People believe that the poor are more easily corrupted by fame and money.
C. Questions 13-19 (7 points)
A rather surprising geographical feature of Antarctica is that a huge freshwater lake, one of the
world’s largest and deepest, lies hidden there under four kilometres of ice. Now known as Lake
Vostok, this huge body of water is located under the ice block that comprises Antarctica. The lake
is able to exist in its unfrozen state beneath this block of ice because its waters are warmed by
geothermal heat from the earth’s core. The thick glacier above Lake Vostok actually insulates
from the frigid temperatures (the lowest ever recorded on earth) on the surface.
The lake was first discovered in the 1970s while a research team was conducting an aerial
survey of the area. Radio waves from the survey equipment penetrated the ice and revealed a body of water of indeterminate size. It was not until much more recently that data collected by satellite
made scientists aware of the tremendous size of the lake; the satellite-borne radar detected an
extremely flat region where the ice remains level because it
is floating on the water of the lake.
The discovery of such a huge freshwater lake trapped under Antarctica is of interest to the
scientific community because of the potential that the lake contains ancient microbes that have survived for thousands upon thousands of years, unaffected by factors such as nuclear fallout and
elevated ultraviolet light that have affected organisms in more exposed areas. The downside
discovery, however, lies in the difficulty of conducting research on the lake in such a harsh climate
and in the problems associated with obtaining uncontaminated samples from the lake without
actually exposing the lake to contamination. Scientists are looking for possible ways to accomplish
13. it (line 11) refers to _____________.
14. insulates (line6) means _____________.
15. downside (line 16) means _____________.
16. The purpose of the passage is to _____________.
a. explain how Lake Vostok was discovered
b. provide satellite data concerning Antarctica
d. present an unexpected aspect of Antarctica’s geography
17. Which of the following is true about Lake Vostok?
18. All of the following are true about the 1970 survey of Antarctica EXCEPT that it __________.
did not measure the exact size of the lake
19. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as a reason why Lake Vostok is important
It may have elevated levels of ultraviolet light.
It has been polluted by external factors.
D. Questions 20-25 (6 points)
Most people picture sharks as huge, powerful, frightening predators, ready at any moment to use
their sharp teeth to attack unwary swimmers without provocation. There are numerous fallacies,
however, in this conception of sharks.
First, there are about 350 species of shark, and not all of them are large. They range in size
from the peaceful dwarf shark, which can be only 6 inches (.5 feet) long and can be held in the palm of the hand, to the whale shark, which can be more than 55 feet long.
A second fallacy concerns the number and type of teeth, which can vary tremendously among
the different species of shark. Shark teeth are embedded in the gums rather than directly affixed to the jaw, and are constantly replaced throughout life. A shark can have from one to seven sets of
teeth at the same time, and some types of shark can have several hundred teeth in each jaw. It is
true that the fierce and predatory species do possess extremely sharp and brutal teeth used to rip the prey
apart; many other types of shark however, have teeth more adapted to grabbing and holding
than to cutting and slashing.
Finally, not all sharks are predatory animals ready to strike out at humans on the least whim. In
fact, only 12 of the 350 species of shark have been known to attack humans, and a shark needs to be provoked in order to attack. The types of shark that have the worst record with humans are the tiger shark, the bull shark, and the great white shark. However, for most species of shark, even some of the largest types, there are no known instances of attacks on humans.
20. “prey” (line 12) is something that is ___________________.
21. The author’s main purpose in the passage is to ___________________.
a. categorize the different kinds of sharks throughout the world
b. warn humans of the dangers posed by sharks
c. describe the characteristics of shark teeth
22. The longest shark is probably the ___________________.
a. whale shark b. great white shark c. bull shark d. tiger shark
23. Which of the following is NOT true about a shark’s teeth?
d. All sharks have extremely sharp teeth.
24. The passage indicates that a shark attacks a person ___________________.
25. Which of the following species of shark is NOT among the ones that attack people?
E. Questions 26-35 (10 points)
Glass, in one form or another, has long been in noble service to humans. As one of the most
widely used of manufactured materials, and certainly the most versatile, it can be as imposing
a telescope mirror the width of a tennis court or as small and simple as a marble rolling across
dirt. The uses of this adaptable material have been broadened dramatically by new technologies:
glass fibre optics – more than eight million miles – carrying telephone and television signals across nations; glass ceramics serving as the nose cones of missiles and as crowns for teeth; tiny glass beads taking radiation doses inside the body to specific organs; even a new type of glass fashioned of nuclear waste in order to dispose of that unwanted material.
On the horizon are optical computers. These could store programs and process information
by means of light – pulses from tiny lasers – rather than electrons. And the pulses would travel over glass fibres, not copper wire. These machines could function hundreds of times faster than today’s electronic computers and hold vastly more information. Glass has also widened its horizons in the field of art.
The use of glass as art, a tradition going back at least to Roman times, is also booming.
Nearly everywhere, it seems, men and women are blowing glass and creating works of art. ‘I
didn’t sell a piece of glass until 1975,’ Dale Chihuly said, smiling, for in the 18 years since the
end of the dry spell
, he has become one of the most financially successful artists of the 20th
The secret of the versatility of glass lies in its interior structure. Although it is rigid, and thus
like a solid, the atoms are arranged in a random disordered fashion, characteristic of a liquid. In the melting process, the atoms in the raw materials are disturbed from their normal position in the molecular structure; before they can find their way back to crystalline arrangements the glass cools. This looseness in molecular structure gives the material what engineers call tremendous ‘formability’ which allows technicians to tailor glass to whatever they need.
Today, scientists continue to experiment with new glass mixtures and building designers test
own imaginations with applications of special types of glass. A London architect, Mike
Davies, sees even more dramatic buildings using molecular chemistry. ‘Glass is the great
building material of the future, the “dynamic skin”,’ he said. ‘Think of glass that has been
treated to react to electric currents going through it, glass that will change from clear to opaque
at the push of a button, that gives you instant curtains. Think of how the tall buildings in New
York could perform a symphony of colours as the glass in them is made to change colours
instantly.’ Glass as instant curtains is available now, but the cost is exorbitant
. As for the glass
changing colours instantly, that may come true. Mike Davies’s vision may indeed be on the way
26. their (line 28) refers to _____________.
27. imposing (line 2) means _____________.
28. exorbitant (line 35) means _____________.
29. All of the following are examples of the use of glass in new technologies EXCEPT
a. TV and telephone signals are being transported by glass fibre optics
b. Crowns for teeth are made of glass ceramics
c. Radiation is carried to different organs with little glass particles
d. Glass is used as nuclear waste so as to dispose of it
30. Optical computers are able to do all of the following EXCEPT _____________.
31. Dale Chihuly has become well-known as _____________.
a. the art gained a great importance in Roman times b. his students in both sexes blew glass and created works of art c. the art of glass blowing gained significance after 1975 d. glass as a work of art could be seen everywhere
32. During the period of “dry spell” (line 18) people _____________.
a. could produce art and earn a lot b. could produce art but couldn’t find any buyers c. could not produce due to lack of water d. could produce in spite of the lack of water
33. Engineers say “glass has tremendous formability” because _____________.
a. its molecular structure is similar to that of a solid b. its molecular structure isn’t similar to that of a liquid c. there’s a looseness in its molecular structure d. the atoms in its molecular structure are rigid
34. Which of the following is NOT an example of glass being used as “dynamic skin”?
a. Glass that acts as a source for electric currents b. Glass that turns dark at the push of a button c. Glass that could change colour rapidly d. Glass that is used as curtains
35. Both conventional and optical computers store programs and process information by
F. Questions 36-40 (5 points)
Hemophilia is a condition in which the blood either clots slowly or fails to clot at all. Most people who get a little cut on a finger can put a bandage on the cut, and the cut on the finger will heal because the blood will clot. A blood clot forms from the polymerization of protein fibers that circulate in the blood. A number of protein factors take part in the process, and it is
necessary for all of the protein factors to function correctly for blood to clot. Hemophilia exists when any of the factors is either missing or not functioning.
The most common kinds of hemophilia are hemophilia A (or classic hemophilia) and
hemophilia B (or Christmas hemophilia), which was named after the first person known to have contracted it. Hemophilia A occurs when clotting factor 8 is not functioning properly; 85
percent of those who suffer from hemophilia have hemophilia type A. Hemophilia B occurs when factor 9 is not functioning properly; almost all of the rest of those who suffer from hemophilia have hemophilia B.
Hemophilia is generally passed from mother to son, though sometimes it seems to develop
spontaneously in some women. Women carry the recessive gene but do not develop the disease.
A mother who carries the defective gene may or may not pass it
on to her children. If a mother
passes the defective gene to a daughter, the daughter will carry the gene but will most likely not
develop the disease. If a mother passes the defective gene to a son, then the son will most likely
develop the disease.
36. it (line 15) refers to ____________.
a. disease b. recessive gene c. defective gene d. blood
37. When blood clots, bleeding _____________.
38. If your mother has hemophilia, _______________.
a. you are more likely to develop the illness if you are a boy b. you are more likely to develop the illness if you are a girl c. you will carry the defective gene and will definitely develop the disease if you are a girl d. you will carry the defective gene and are unlikely to develop the disease if you are a boy
39. Nearly all of the people suffering from hemophilia, suffer from hemophilia B.
40. Both defective and recessive genes might cause the disease to develop.
PART 3: READING COMPREHENSION (40 points)
FRETS-25Xaa Peptide Library FRETS: Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Substrates All library products have the general structure: D-A2pr(Nma)-Gly-[Phe/Ala/Val/Glu/Arg]-[Pro /T y r/L y s /I le/As p ]-Gly-Ala-Phe-Pro-Lys(Dnp)-D-Arg-D-Arg where A2pr(Nma) = Nβ-[2-(N-Methylamino)benzoyl]-2,3-Diaminopropionic Acid All substrates are sold as trifluoroacetate salt and contain 1 µmol of st
Less Rigid Practices Required to Deliver Widespread Uptake of EDC in Phase IV Phase 4 is the fastest-growing area of clinical research today. A changing regulatory environment, growing concerns about the safety of new medicines, and various uses for real-world data on marketed drugs’ safety and efficacy are primary drivers of the growth. We need to improve the way we support the clinic