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Color profile: DisabledComposite Default screen APPENDIX E
The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.
Note: City of Seattle ordinance 121524 adopts Appendix D as part of the 2003 Seattle Fire Code.
ditions as well as potential variations of physical character and type of explosive under consideration.
E101.1 Scope. This appendix provides information, explana-
Test methods or guidelines for hazard classification of ener- tions and examples to illustrate and clarify the hazard catego- getic materials used for in-process operations shall be ap- ries contained in Chapter 27 of the International Fire Code.
proved by the fire code official. Test methods used shall be The hazard categories are based upon the DOL 29 CFR. Where DOD, BATF, UN/DOT or other approved criteria. The re- numerical classifications are included, they are in accordance sults of such testing shall become a portion of the files of the with nationally recognized standards.
jurisdiction and be included as an independent section of This appendix should not be used as the sole means of haz- any Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) re- quired by Section 3305.2.1. Also see Section 104.7.2.
Examples of materials in various Divisions are as fol- SECTION E102
1. Division 1.1 (High Explosives). Consists of explo- HAZARD CATEGORIES
sives that have a mass explosion hazard. A mass ex- E102.1 Physical hazards. Materials classified in this section
plosion is one which affects almost the entire pile of material instantaneously. Includes substances that, E102.1.1 Explosives and blasting agents. The current
when tested in accordance with approved methods, UN/DOT classification system recognized by international can be caused to detonate by means of a blasting cap authorities, the Department of Defense and others classifies when unconfined or will transition from deflagration all explosives as Class 1 materials. They are then divided to a detonation when confined or unconfined. Exam- into six separate divisions to indicate their relative hazard.
ples: dynamite, TNT, nitroglycerine, C-3, HMX, There is not a direct correlation between the designations RDX, encased explosives, military ammunition.
used by the old DOT system and those used by the current 2. Division 1.2 (Low Explosives). Consists of explo- system nor is there correlation with the system (high and sives that have a projection hazard, but not a mass ex- low) established by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and plosion hazard. Examples: nondetonating encased Firearms (BATF). Table 3304.3 provides some guidance explosives, military ammunition and the like.
with regard to the current categories and their relationship to 3. Division 1.3 (Low Explosives). Consists of explo- the old categories. Some items may appear in more than one sives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast division, depending on factors such as the degree of confine- hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a ment or separation, by type of packaging, storage configura- mass explosion hazard. The major hazard is radiant heat or violent burning, or both. Can be deflagrated In order to determine the level of hazard presented by ex- when confined. Examples: smokeless powder, pro- plosive materials, testing to establish quantitatively their ex- pellant explosives, display fireworks.
plosive nature is required. There are numerous test methods 4. Division 1.4. Consists of explosives that pose a minor that have been used to establish the character of an explosive explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely material. Standardized tests, required for finished goods confined to the package and no projection of frag- containing explosives or explosive materials in a packaged ments of appreciable size or range is expected. An in- form suitable for shipment or storage, have been established ternal fire must not cause virtually instantaneous by UN/DOT and BATF. However, these tests do not consider explosion of almost the entire contents of the pack- key elements that should be examined in a manufacturing age. Examples: squibs (nondetonating igniters), ex- situation. In manufacturing operations, the condition and/or plosive actuators, explosive trains (low level the state of a material may vary within the process. The in-process material classification and classification require-ments for materials used in the manufacturing process may 5. Division 1.5 (Blasting Agents). Consists of very in- be different from the classification of the same material sensitive explosives. This division is comprised of when found in finished goods depending on the stage of the substances which have a mass explosion hazard, but process in which the material is found. A classification are so insensitive that there is very little probability of methodology must be used that recognizes the hazards com- initiation or of transition from burning to detonation mensurate with the application to the variable physical con- under normal conditions of transport. Materials are 2003 SEATTLE FIRE CODE
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not cap sensitive; however, they are mass detonating Class IC liquids shall include those having flash when provided with sufficient input. Examples: points at or above 73°F (23°C.) and below 100°F oxidizer and liquid fuel slurry mixtures and gels, am- monium nitrate combined with fuel oil.
6. Division 1.6. Consists of extremely insensitive arti- Class II liquids shall include those having flash cles which do not have a mass explosive hazard. This points at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F division is comprised of articles which contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances andwhich demonstrate a negligible probability of acci- Class IIIA liquids shall include those having flash dental initiation or propagation. Although this cate- points at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F gory of materials has been defined, the primary application is currently limited to military uses. Ex- Class IIIB liquids shall include those liquids hav- amples: Low vulnerability military weapons.
ing flash points at or above 200°F (93°C).
Explosives in each division are assigned a compatibility E102.1.4 Flammable solids. Examples include:
group letter by the Associate Administrator for Hazardous 1. Organic solids: camphor, cellulose nitrate, naphtha- Materials Safety (DOT) based on criteria specified by DOTn 49CFR. Compatibility group letters are used to spec-ify the controls for the transportation and storage related to 2. Inorganic solids: decaborane, lithium amide, phos- various materials to prevent an increase in hazard that might phorous heptasulfide, phosphorous sesquisulfide, po- result if certain types of explosives were stored or trans- tassium sulfide, anhydrous sodium sulfide, sulfur.
ported together. Altogether, there are 35 possible classifica- 3. Combustible metals (except dusts and powders): ce- tion codes for explosives, e.g., 1.1A, 1.3C, 1.4S, etc.
E102.1.2 Compressed gases. Examples include:
E102.1.5 Combustible dusts and powders. Finely divided
flammable solids which may be dispersed in air as a dust
1. Flammable: acetylene, carbon monoxide, ethane, eth- cloud: wood sawdust, plastics, coal, flour, powdered metals ylene, hydrogen, methane. Ammonia will ignite and burn although its flammable range is too narrow for it E102.1.6 Combustible fibers. See Section 2902.1.
to fit the definition of flammable gas.
E102.1.7 Oxidizers. Examples include:
2. Oxidizing: oxygen, ozone, oxides of nitrogen, chlo- rine and fluorine. Chlorine and fluorine do not contain 1. Gases: oxygen, ozone, oxides of nitrogen, fluorine oxygen but reaction with flammables is similar to that and chlorine (reaction with flammables is similar to 3. Corrosive: ammonia, hydrogen chloride, fluorine.
2. Liquids: bromine, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, 4. Highly toxic: arsine, cyanogen, fluorine, germane, hydrogen cyanide, nitric oxide, phosphine, hydrogen 3. Solids: chlorates, chromates, chromic acid, iodine, ni- trates, nitrites, perchlorates, peroxides.
5. Toxic: chlorine, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen sulfide, E102.1.7.1 Examples of liquid and solid oxidizers ac-
cording to hazard.
6. Inert (chemically unreactive): argon, helium, kryp- Class 4: ammonium perchlorate (particle size greater than 15 microns), ammonium permanganate,guanidine nitrate, hydrogen peroxide solutions more 7. Pyrophoric: diborane, dichloroborane, phosphine, than 91 percent by weight, perchloric acid solutions more than 72.5 percent by weight, potassium 8. Unstable (reactive): butadiene (unstabilized), ethyl- C l a s s 3 : a m m o n i u m d i c h r o m a t e , c a l c i u m E102.1.3 Flammable and combustible liquids. Examples
hypochlorite (over 50 percent by weight), chloric acid (10 percent maximum concentration), hydrogenperoxide solutions (greater than 52 percent up to 91 percent), mono-(trichloro)-tetra-(monopotassium Class IA liquids shall include those having flash dichloro)-penta-s-triazinetrione, nitric acid, (fuming points below 73°F (23°C) and having a boiling —more than 86 percent concentration), perchloric acid solutions (60 percent to 72 percent by weight),potassium bromate, potassium chlorate, potassium Class IB liquids shall include those having flash dichloro-s-triazinetrione (potassium dichloro- points below 73°F (23°C) and having a boiling isocyanurate), sodium bromate, sodium chlorate, so- dium chlorite (over 40 percent by weight) and sodium 2003 SEATTLE FIRE CODE
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dichloro-s-triazinetrione (sodium dichloro- peroxide over 98 percent concentration, t-butyl hydroperoxide 90 percent, t-butyl peroxyacetate 75percent, t-butyl peroxyisopropylcarbonate 92 per- Class 2: barium bromate, barium chlorate, barium cent, diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate 100 percent, hypochlorite, barium perchlorate, barium permanga- di-n-propyl peroxydicarbonate 98 percent, and nate, 1-bromo-3-chloro-5, 5-dimethylhydantoin, cal- di-n-propyl peroxydicarbonate 85 percent.
cium chlorate, calcium chlorite, calcium hypochlorite(50 percent or less by weight), calcium perchlorate, Class II: acetyl peroxide 25 percent, t-butyl calcium permanganate, chromium trioxide (chromic hydroperoxide 70 percent (with DTBP and t-BuOH acid), copper chlorate, halane (1, 3-dichloro-5, diluents), t-butyl peroxybenzoate 98 percent, t-butyl 5-dimethylhydantoin), hydrogen peroxide (greater peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 97 percent, t-butyl than 27.5 percent up to 52 percent), lead perchlorate, peroxyisobutyrate 75 percent, t-butyl peroxy- lithium chlorate, lithium hypochlorite (more than 39 isopropyl-carbonate 75 percent, t-butyl peroxypi- percent available chlorine), lithium perchlorate, mag- valate 75 percent, dybenzoyl peroxydicarbonate 85 nesium bromate, magnesium chlorate, magnesium percent, di-sec-butyl peroxydicarbonate 98 percent, perchlorate, mercurous chlorate, nitric acid (more di-sec-butyl peroxydicarbonate 75 percent, than 40 percent but less than 86 percent), perchloric 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,5,5-trimethyecyclohexane acid solutions (more than 50 percent but less than 60 95 percent, di-(2-ethythexyl) peroxydicarbonate 97 percent), potassium perchlorate, potassium per- percent, 2,5-dymethyl-2-5 di (benzoylperoxy) hex- ane 92 percent, and peroxyacetic acid 43 percent.
superoxide, silver peroxide, sodium chlorite (40 per-cent or less by weight), sodium perchlorate, sodium Class III: acetyl cyclohexane sulfonal peroxide 29 perchlorate monohydrate, sodium permanganate, so- percent, benzoyl peroxide 78 percent, benzoyl perox- dium peroxide, strontium chlorate, strontium per- ide paste 55 percent, benzoyl peroxide paste 50 per- chlorate, thallium chlorate, trichloro-s-triazinetrione cent peroxide/50 percent butylbenzylphthalate (trichloroisocyanuric acid), urea hydrogen peroxide, diluent, cumene hydroperoxide 86 percent, zinc bromate, zinc chlorate and zinc permanganate.
di-(4-butylcyclohexyl) peroxydicarbonate 98 per-cent, t-butyl peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 97 percent, Class 1: all inorganic nitrates (unless otherwise classi- t-butyl peroxyneodecanoate 75 percent, decanoyl fied), all inorganic nitrites (unless otherwise classi- peroxide 98.5 percent, di-t-butyl peroxide 99 percent, fied), ammonium persulfate, barium peroxide, 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexane 75 calcium peroxide, hydrogen peroxide solutions percent, 2,4-dichlorobenzoyl peroxide 50 percent, (greater than 8 percent up to 27.5 percent), lead diox- diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate 30 percent, ide, lithium hypochlorite (39 percent or less available 2,-5-dimethyl-2,5-di-(2-ethylhexanolyperoxy)-hex- chlorine), lithium peroxide, magnesium peroxide, ane 90 percent, 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di-(t-butylperoxy) manganese dioxide, nitric acid (40 percent concentra- hexane 90 percent and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide 9 tion or less), perchloric acid solutions (less than 50 percent active oxygen diluted in dimethyl phthalate.
percent by weight), potassium dichromate, potassiumpercarbonate, potassium persulfate, sodium carbon- Class IV: benzoyl peroxide 70 percent, benzoyl per- ate peroxide, sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione oxide paste 50 percent peroxide/15 percent water/35 dihydrate, sodium dichromate, sodium perborate (an- percent butylphthalate diluent, benzoyl peroxide hydrous), sodium perborate monohydrate, sodium slurry 40 percent, benzoyl peroxide powder 35 per- perborate tetrahydrate, sodium percarbonate, sodium cent, t-butyl hydroperoxide 70 percent, (with water persulfate, strontium peroxide and zinc peroxide.
diluent), t-butyl peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 50 percent,decumyl peroxide 98 percent, di-(2-ethylhexal) E102.1.8 Organic peroxides. Organic peroxides contain
peroxydicarbonate 40 percent, laurel peroxide 98 per- the double oxygen or peroxy (-o-o) group. Some are flam- cent, p-methane hydroperoxide 52.5 percent, methyl mable compounds and subject to explosive decomposition.
ethyl ketone peroxide 5.5 percent active oxygen and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide 9 percent active oxygen Class V: benzoyl peroxide 35 percent, 1,1-di-t-butyl 3. Solids (usually finely divided powers).
peroxy 3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexane 40 percent,2,5-di-(t-butyl peroxy) hexane 47 percent and E102.1.8.1 Classification of organic peroxides ac-
2,4-pentanedione peroxide 4 percent active oxygen.
cording to hazard.
E102.1.9 Pyrophoric materials. Examples include:
Unclassified: Unclassified organic peroxides are ca-pable of detonation and are regulated in accordance 1. Gases: diborane, phosphine, silane.
Class I: acetyl cyclohexane sulfonyl 60-65 percent ethylberyllium, diethylphosphine, diethylzinc, concentration by weight, fulfonyl peroxide, benzoyl dimethylarsine, triethylaluminum etherate, tri- 2003 SEATTLE FIRE CODE
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ethylbismuthine, triethylboron, trimethylaluminum, 3. Solids: (aceto) phenylmercury (phenyl mercuric ace- tate), 4-aminopyridine, arsenic pentoxide, arsenic tri- 3. Solids: cesium, hafnium, lithium, white or yellow oxide, calcium cyanide, 2-chloroacetophenone, phosphorous, plutonium, potassium, rubidium, so- aflatoxin B, decaborane(14), mercury (II) bromide (mercuric bromide), mercury (II) chloride (corrosivemercury chloride), pentachlorophenol, methyl para- E102.1.10 Unstable (reactive) materials. Examples in-
thion, phosphorus (white) and sodium azide.
E102.2.2 Toxic materials. Examples include:
Class 4: acetyl peroxide, dibutyl peroxide, dinitroben-zene, ethyl nitrate, peroxyacetic acid and picric acid 1. Gases: boron trichloride, boron trifluoride, chlorine, chlorine trifluoride, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen sul-fide, phosgene, silicon tetrafluoride.
Class 3: hydrogen peroxide (greater than 52 percent),hydroxylamine, nitromethane, paranitroaniline, perchloric acid and tetrafluoroethylene monomer.
2,3-epoxypropane, chloroformic acid (allyl ester), Class 2: acrolein, acrylic acid, hydrazine, methacrylic 3-chloropropene (allyl chloride), o-cresol, acid, sodium perchlorate, styrene and vinyl acetate.
crotonaldehyde, dibromomethane, diisopropylamine, Class 1: acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide 35 percent to 52 diethyl ester sulfuric acid, dimethyl ester sulfuric percent, paraldehyde and tetrahydrofuran.
acid, 2-furaldehyde (furfural), furfural alcohol, phos-phorus chloride, phosphoryl chloride (phosphorus E102.1.11 Water-reactive materials. Examples include:
Class 3: aluminum alkyls such as triethylaluminum, 3. Solids: acrylamide, barium chloride, barium (II) ni- isobutylaluminum and trimethylaluminum; bromine trate, benzidine, p-benzoquinone, beryllium chloride, pentafluoride, bromine trifluoride, chlorodiethyl- cadmium chloride, cadmium oxide, chloroacetic acid, chlorophenylmercury (phenyl mercuric chloride),chromium (VI) oxide (chromic acid, solid), 2,4- Class 2: calcium carbide, calcium metal, cyanogen bro- dinitrotoluene, hydroquinone, mercury chloride (cal- mide, lithium hydride, methyldichlorosilane, potassium omel), mercury (II) sulfate (mercuric sulfate), os- metal, potassium peroxide, sodium metal, sodium perox- ide, sulfuric acid and trichlorosilane.
P-phenylenediamine, phenylhydrazine, 4-phenyl- Class 1: acetic anhydride, sodium hydroxide, sulfur morpholine, phosphorus sulfide, potassium fluoride, monochloride and titanium tetrachloride.
potassium hydroxide, selenium (IV) disulfide and so- E102.1.12 Cryogenic fluids. The cryogenics listed will ex-
ist as compressed gases when they are stored at ambient E102.2.3 Corrosives. Examples include:
1. Acids: Examples: chromic, formic, hydrochloric 1. Flammable: carbon monoxide, deuterium (heavy hy- (muriatic) greater than 15 percent, hydrofluoric, nitric drogen), ethylene, hydrogen, methane.
(greater than 6 percent, perchloric, sulfuric (4 percent 2. Oxidizing: fluorine, nitric oxide, oxygen.
3. Corrosive: fluorine, nitric oxide.
2. Bases (alkalis): hydroxides—ammonium (greater than 10 percent), calcium, potassium (greater than 1 4. Inert (chemically unreactive): argon, helium, kryp- percent), sodium (greater than 1 percent); certain car- 5. Highly toxic: fluorine, nitric oxide.
3. Other corrosives: bromine, chlorine, fluorine, iodine, E102.2 Health hazards. Materials classified in this section
Note: Corrosives that are oxidizers, e.g., nitric acid,
E102.2.1 Highly toxic materials. Examples include:
chlorine, fluorine; or are compressed gases, e.g., ammo-nia, chlorine, fluorine; or are water-reactive, e.g., con- 1. Gases: arsine, cyanogen, diborane, fluorine, germane, centrated sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, are physical hydrogen cyanide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, hazards in addition to being health hazards.
ozone, phosphine, hydrogen selenide, stibine.
2. Liquids: acrolein, acrylic acid, 2-chloroethanol (eth- SECTION E103
ylene chlorohydrin), hydrazine, hydrocyanic acid, EVALUATION OF HAZARDS
2-methylaziridine (propylenimine), 2-methyl-acetonitrile (acetone cyanohydrin), methyl ester E103.1 Degree of hazard. The degree of hazard present de-
isocyanic acid (methyl isocyanate), nicotine, pends on many variables which should be considered individu- t e t r a n i t r o m e t h a n e a n d t e t r a e t h y l s t a n n a n e ally and in combination. Some of these variables are as shown in Sections E103.1.1 through E103.1.5.
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E103.1.1 Chemical properties of the material. Chemical
properties of the material determine self reactions and reac- (Equation E-1)
tions which may occur with other materials. Generally, ma-terials within subdivisions of hazard categories will exhibit For multi-component mixtures where more than one similar chemical properties. However, materials with simi- component has a listed LC , the LC of the mixture is es- lar chemical properties may pose very different hazards.
Each individual material should be researched to determine its hazardous properties and then considered in relation to other materials that it might contact and the surrounding en- (Equation E-2)
E103.1.2 Physical properties of the material. Physical
properties, such as whether a material is a solid, liquid or gas = LC of the mixture in parts per million (ppm).
at ordinary temperatures and pressures, considered along with chemical properties will determine requirements for = concentration of component (i) in decimal containment of the material. Specific gravity (weight of a percent. The concentration of the individual liquid compared to water) and vapor density (weight of a gas components in a mixture of gases is to be ex- compared to air) are both physical properties which are im- pressed in terms of percent by volume.
portant in evaluating the hazards of a material.
= LC of component (i). The LC of the com- E103.1.3 Amount and concentration of the material. The
ponent is based on a 1-hour exposure. LC50 amount of material present and its concentration must be data which are for other than 1-hour exposures considered along with physical and chemical properties to shall be normalized to 1-hour by multiplying determine the magnitude of the hazard. Hydrogen peroxide, the LC for the time determined by the factor for example, is used as an antiseptic and a hair bleach in low indicated in Table E103.1.3.1. The preferred concentrations (approximately 8 percent in water solution).
mammalian species for LC data is the rat, as Over 8 percent, hydrogen peroxide is classed as an oxidizer specified in the definitions of toxic and highly and is toxic. Above 90 percent, it is a Class 4 oxidizer “that toxic in Chapter 2 of the International Fire can undergo an explosive reaction when catalyzed or ex- Code. If data for rats are unavailable, and in posed to heat, shock or friction,’’ a definition which inciden- the absence of information to the contrary, tally also places hydrogen peroxide over 90-percent data for other species may be utilized. The concentration in the unstable (reactive) category. Small data shall be taken in the following order of amounts at high concentrations may present a greater hazard preference: rat, mouse, rabbit, guinea pig, cat, than large amounts at low concentrations.
= component 1, component 2 and so on to the E103.1.3.1 Mixtures. Gases—toxic and highly toxic
gases include those gases which have an LC of 2,000 parts per million (ppm) or less when rats are exposed for Examples:
a period of 1 hour or less. To maintain consistency with a. What is the LC of a mixture of 15-percent chlo- the definitions for these materials, exposure data for peri- ods other than 1 hour must be normalized to 1 hour. Toclassify mixtures of compressed gases that contain one or The 1-hour (rat) LC of pure chlorine is 293 ppm.
more toxic or highly toxic components, the LC of the = 1 / (0.15 / 293) or 1,953 ppm. Therefore, mixture must be determined. Mixtures that contain only two components are binary mixtures. Those that contain b. What is the LC of a mixture of 15-percent chlo- more than two components are multi-component mix- rine, 15-percent fluorine and 70-percent nitrogen? tures. When two or more hazardous substances (compo- The 1-hour (rat) LC of chlorine is 293 ppm. The nents) having an LC below 2,000 ppm are present in a 1-hour (rat) LC of fluorine is 185 ppm.
mixture, their combined effect, rather than that of the in- dividual substances (components), must be considered.
In the absence of information to the contrary, the effects ppm. Therefore the mixture is toxic.
of the hazards present must be considered as additive.
c. Is the mixture of 1 percent phosphine in argon Exceptions to the above rule may be made when there is a toxic or highly toxic? The 1-hour (rat) LC is 11 good reason to believe that the principal effects of the dif- ferent harmful substances (components) are not additive.
= 1 / [0.01 / (11 2)] or 2,200 ppm. There- For binary mixtures where the hazardous component is diluted with a nontoxic gas such as an inert gas, the highly toxic. Note that the 4-hour LC50 LC of the mixture is estimated by use of the following 2003 SEATTLE FIRE CODE
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TABLE E103.1.3.1
9. What must the material be protected from? Consider NORMALIZATION FACTOR
other materials, temperature, shock, pressure, etc.
TIME (hours)
10. What effects of the material must people and the environ- 11. How can protection be accomplished? Consider: 11.1. Proper containers and equipment.
11.2. Separation by distance or construction.
11.3. Enclosure in cabinets or rooms.
11.4. Spill control, drainage and containment.
11.5. Control systems — ventilation, special electri- cal, detection and alarm, extinguishment, ex- 11.6. Administrative (operational) controls—signs, ignition source control, security, personnel E103.1.4 Actual use, activity or process involving the
training, established procedures, storage plans material. The definition of handling, storage and use in
closed systems refers to materials in packages or containers.
Evaluation of the hazard is a strongly subjec- Dispensing and use in open containers or systems describes tive process; therefore, the person charged with situations where a material is exposed to ambient conditions this responsibility must gather as much relevant or vapors are liberated to the atmosphere. Dispensing and data as possible so that the decision will be ob- use in open systems, then, are generally more hazardous sit- jective and within the limits prescribed in laws, uations than handling, storage or use in closed systems. The actual use or process may include heating, electric or other It may be necessary to cause the responsible sparks, catalytic or reactive materials and many other fac- persons in charge to have tests made by quali- tors which could affect the hazard and must therefore be fied persons or testing laboratories to support contentions that a particular material or process E103.1.5 Surrounding conditions. Conditions such as
is or is not hazardous. See Section 104.7.2 of the other materials or processes in the area, type of construction of the structure, fire protection features (e.g., fire walls,sprinkler systems, alarms, etc.), occupancy (use) of adjoin-ing areas, normal temperatures, exposure to weather, etc.,must be taken into account in evaluating the hazard.
E103.2 Evaluation questions. The following are sample eval-
uation questions:
1. What is the material? Correct identification is important; exact spelling is vital. Check labels, MSDS, ask respon-sible persons, etc.
2. What are the concentration and strength? 3. What is the physical form of the material? Liquids, gases and finely divided solids have differing requirements forspill and leak control and containment.
4. How much material is present? Consider in relation to permit amounts, maximum allowable quantity per con-trol area (from Group H occupancy requirements),amounts which require detached storage and overallmagnitude of the hazard.
5. What other materials (including furniture, equipment and building components) are close enough to interactwith the material? 7. What is the activity involving the material? 8. How does the activity impact the hazardous characteris- tics of the material? Consider vapors released or hazardsotherwise exposed.
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Trabajos de autores extranjeros • Traducción realizada por la Dra Claudia Rodari con autorización de las partes involucradas Recomendaciones y bases para el tratamiento de la enfermedad pelviana inflamatoria Oluwatosin Jaiyeoba, Gweneth Lazenby, David E Soper Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical University of South Carolina. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2011;9(1):61-70 Rep

Ordinance no. 06-648, ordinance 648


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