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Microsoft word - molecules

Molecules – General
Inorganic Molecules
(metabolism) if the chemicals are
dissolved in some liquid (=solvent)
~2/3rd ‘s of body consists of inorganic molecules more things dissolve in water than in any general characteristics:
b. chemical reactant
small molecules: only a few atoms & bonds water molecules are directly used in some Major kinds of inorganic molecules inside cells: c. ability to stabilize temperature
The human body is made up mostly of water; can live for several weeks or a month without food d. acts as lubricant
but not more than a few days without water its unique properties relate to its structure, strong polar nature and hydrogen bonds it can form eg. heart, lungs, joints, stomach, intestine, etc a. Universal solvent
e. cushioning
Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 a. Calcium
99% of Ca++ is in bones as reservoir (eg.Calcium f. transport medium
b. Sodium
main cation (+) in extracellular fluid (ECF) 2. Electrolytes (ions)
molecules that tend to disperse in solution into [some organic molecules are also electrolytes] c. Potassium
most of body’s iron is in form of hemoglobin and organisms are extremely sensitive to changes in a. help maintain salt/water balanceb. acid/ base balance e. Iodine
I2 (=iodine gas) is a poison, but I is essential for life Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 Organic Molecules
~1/3rd of body consists of organic molecules acids and bases
large – made of 100’s, 1000’s 10,000’s atoms acids ! release H+ (proton donors)bases ! releases OH- (proton acceptors) contain lots of carbon = carbon backbone
easily forms chains, rings, branching structures body is protected from drastic pH changes by the presence all major organic molecules except vitamins can be 3. Gasses
1. carbohydrates
2. lipids
3. proteins
4. nucleic acids (include ATP)
5. vitamins
most larger organic molecules are polymers of
NO gas (nitric oxide)
carbohydrates
proteins
nucleic acids
Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 Carbohydrates
in process of forming disaccharide, a molecule of water is removed = dehydration synthesis
addition of water to break bond = hydrolysis
larger ones contain long chains of carbon atoms table sugar: refined from sugar cane, sugar beets galactose-glucosemain carbohydrate in milk (30 – 50% of milks energy) Simple Carbohydrates = sugars
Complex Carbohydrates = starches and fiber
starches (complex carbohydrates)
simple sugars (monosaccharides)
simple sugars polymerize to form starches consist of many glucose units and sometimes a eg. glucose, fructose, ribose, deoxyribose disaccharides
hook two monosaccharides togethereg.
General Functions of Carbohydrates:
1. decomposition to provide most energy for cell Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 90% of dietary fats and oils are triglycerides 3. synthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids responsible for much of the flavor, tenderness, 4. ribose and deoxyribose to synthesize DNA and polymers of glycerol (3C’s) and 3 Fatty Acids
2. Phospholipids:
replace one fatty acid with phosphate group 3. Sterols
General Functions of Lipids:
Structure of Different Kinds of Lipids
2x’s energy/gm than carbohydrates contain 1. Triglycerides:
2. carry with them fat soluble vitamins: ADEK Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 3. protective insulation from heat and cold 4. insulation around neurons = myelin
5. phospholipids are one of main components of all ! small chains = polypeptides
! long chains = proteins
6. sterols are used to manufacture bile & some the sequence of amino acids in each protein
determines its shape
and therefore its function
Proteins
their different 3-D shapes determine their function second most abundant organic molecules in body sequence of amino acids
! conformation
! function
proteins are very sensitive to environmental changes often polymers of 100’x or 1000’s amino acids ! changes in temp, pH, salts, etc can cause them to “denature” and become nonfunctional all amino acids have the same basic structure: they uncoil or loose their shape and function eg. cooked cheese, eg mozzarella and Swiss, becomes stringy ! proteins unwind and get hooked together ! ~ half are essential nutrients
the body can synthesize ~ half of the 20 AA’s Functions of Proteins
8 AA’s are essential to adults and must be gotten in the AA’s of dietary protein are used to synthesize: Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 10. enzymes
1. structural elements or fibers
up to 50,000 different kinds of reactions in each cell eg. collagen in bones and teeth, tendons and many genetic diseases are the result of an error in a gene that substitutes the wrong amino acid into a 2. hormones
critical part of a protein causing it to have the wrong shape and therefore doesn’t function 3. transport proteins
Nucleic Acids
4. membrane carriers
comprise <1% by wt of body but vitally important: 1. stores genetic code (genes on chromosomes)2. controls cell division (mitosis and meiosis) 5. antibodies
attaches to antigen in inactivate or kill it 6. buffers
very complex molecules that represent the basis for all 7. regulate salt/water balance
as proteins build up draws water in (edema) 8. clotting
both are polymers of nucleotides
9. photoreceptors
each nucleotide consists of three major parts:
eg. rhodopsin is light sensitive changes shape with light hits sugar
phosphate

Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 Nitrogen base
ATP is a special energy transfer molecule ATP is the immediate source of energy for cells ! releases energy from food and stores it as ATP The energy released by the catabolism of glucose is Vitamins - General
other than proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids 2. used in very small amounts3. don’t form polymers4. most cannot be made by body5. cannot be broken down for energy [but may play an important role in energy pathways water soluble and fat soluble vitamins
! affects: a. what foods they are found in Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 blood concentrations are maintained because body Water Soluble (B’s, C)
stored in liver and fat cells and accumulate; not can reach toxic levels if consumed inexcess absorbed directly into blood and travel freely play major roles in growth and maintenance their presence affects health and functions of Fat Soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
tend to appear in different foods than water generally require protein transport molecules to Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3 Biochemistry: Molecules; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2010.3

Source: http://www2.austin.cc.tx.us/sziser/Biol%202404/2404LecNotes/2404LNExI/Molecules.pdf

Pii: s0016-7185(99)00012-3

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