17-estradiol and the influence of native and oxidised chylomicron remnants on cholesterol esterification in thp-1 cells k. batt *, m. napolitano, e. bravo, m. avella*, k. botham*. *the royal veterinary college, london nw1 0tu, uk; sect. biochemistry of lipids, lab. metabolism and pathol. biochem. istituto superiore di sanità, rome, italy.
Embryonic muscle development in fast‐ and slow‐growing chickens:
role for IGF‐I and myogenic transcription factors
Sara L. Al-Musawi and Neil C. Stickland
Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU, UK.
Results: embryonic movement
Results: gene expression analyses
Chickens (Gallus gallus
) have been genetically selected
for different traits: fast-growing broilers have been
intensively selected and reared for high growth rate and
muscle ma ss (predominantly breast muscle).
The maturation and patterning of myoblasts into
multinucleated myotubes and fusion into myofibers is
dependent on the tightly orchestrated activation of a
myriad of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) e.g. myf5,
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays major roles in
onic da -
modulating skeletal muscle mass and fibre size. In ovo
Broiler chicks expressed more IGF-I mRNA in the pectoral
administration of IGF-1 stimulates post-natal muscle
Broiler chicks are more motile (A) and heavier (B) than layers.
muscle (A) by hatch; IGF-I mRNA only remained higher in the broilers
until ED15 in the gastrocnemious muscle (B)
Results: gene expression analyses
Discussion and Conclusion
To determine whether differences in muscle phenotype of
Broiler chicks are more active in ovo
and show raised body mass
fast- and slow-growing chicks originated during
embryonic development and whether such differences
Broiler chick appear to display a larger expression of myoblast
were a result of movement-dependent experiences that
commitment (myoD mRNA) in both pectoral and gastrocnemious
drive differential MRF and IGF-I expression patterns.
Materials and Methods
There appears to be a greater proportion of differentiated fibres
(myogenin mRNA) in the broiler pectoral muscle (ED15) but more
Ross (broiler) & White Leghorn (layer)
myogenin in layers in the gastrocnemious at the same time point.
eggs incubated at 37.5oC with daily rotations
Great muscle growth (IGF-I mRNA) towards hatch in the broiler
ni da L-17
pectoral muscle; trend not seen in the gastrocnemious muscle.
nclusion, we have shown prolonged muscle cell proliferation
(also in line with histological findings) and greater extent of
differentiation and growth in the broiler pectoral muscle prior to hatch.
Hammond CL, Simbi BH & Stickland NC.
gastrocnemius muscle) for histology &
influences embryonic motility and growth of
limb tissues in the chick (Gallus gallus
). J Exp
Reagents were purchased from Sigma and Qiagen Ltd. UK.
(Pt 15): 2667-75.
Broiler chicks expressed more myoD mRNA on ED15 in both muscle
Kocamis H, Kirkpatrick-Keller DC,
QuantiTect SYBR Green kit used for RT-PCR.
types (A and B). Myogenin mRNA was greater in broilers on ED16 in the pectoral
Klandorf H, Killefer J.
(1998) In ovo
PCR product sequences were analysed by GeneService, UK
muscle (C); however myogenin was greater in the layer gastrocnemious (D) earlier
administration of recombinant human insulin-
One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test
like growth factor-I alters postnatal growth and
(* P< 0.05 ** P< 0.01 *** P< 0.0001)
development of the broiler chicken. Poult
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