chemicalWATCH Factsheet
Background info:
isomers are the most insecticidally active and toxicity is to the central nervous system, and therefore the most toxic.10 The half-life of seizures have been reported in severe cases Permethrin is in a class of compounds known permethrin in soil is 30 days, although it is of pyrethroid intoxication. However, accord- as synthetic pyrethroids. Synthetic pyre- less in soil with more organic matter in it.
ing to the EPA, there are no reports of sei- throids are synthesized derivatives of natu- The half-life on foliage is 10 days.11 The rally occurring pyrethrins, which are taken trans-isomer has been shown to degrade Permethrin.17 At relatively high doses, neu- from extracts of dried chrysanthemum flow- more rapidly than the more toxic cis-isomer.12 rotoxic symptoms in mammals include trem- ers.1 Synthetic pyrethroids are more stable Permethrin for agricultural uses is classified ors, loss of coordination, hyperactivity, pa- as a “Restricted Use” pesticide. Restricted ralysis, and an increase in body tempera- longer lasting in the field.2 Although syn- Use pesticides are limited to licensed pesti- thetic pyrethroids are oftenthought of as “safe as chrysan- Chemical Class: Synthetic Pyrethroids
Use: Insecticide- for humans, animals, and agriculture;
used to control mosquitoes, termites, roaches, ants, ticks, fleas, chiggers, lice, and scabies Toxicity: Class II or III; moderately to practically non-
Signal Word: Warning or Caution
Carcinogenity: Class C, possible human carcinogen
Long-term Health Effects: Suspected Endocrine
Disruptor, immunotoxin, neurotoxin, reproductive effects 10 times more toxic than the trans- Environmental Effects: Highly toxic to fish, aquatic
cide applicators or their employees, and only creases from 20% to 80% of the solution.22 for the uses covered by the applicators cer- the active ingredient include: Nix, Elimite, tification or on the pesticide label.13 How- Human Toxicity:
ever, permethrin products labeled for spot For humans, acute toxicity is fairly low, flank, Pounce, Perthrine, Picket, and Astro.
treatments or other over the counter prod- producing symptoms mainly of irritation.
Permethrin comes in many forms, including sprays, dusts, fogs, emulsifiable concen- trates, and creams. Additionally, in 2003, Acute Toxicity
sensations that include itching, burning, According to the U.S. EPA, permethrin is amoderately to practically non-toxic pesticide, and numbness, and irritative symptoms inthe eyes and upper respiratory tract.24 To Like all synthetic pyrethroids, Permethrin and falls into either toxicity class II or III, kills insects by strongly exciting their ner- containing permethrin must bear the signal DDT.9 In terms of its chemical arrangement, molecules that have the same molecular for- trointestinal tract, minimally through intact mula, but have a different arrangement of skin, and by inhalation of dust and spray days.25 Additionally, synthetic pyrethroids the atoms in space. On permethrin, the cis mist.16 The most severe synthetic pyrethroid BEYOND PESTICIDES
701 E Street, S.E., Suite 200, Washington DC 20003
202-543-5450 (v) • 202-543-4791 (f)
info@beyondpesticides.org • www.beyondpesticides.org

Permethrin has also been linked to prostate application of permethrin to adult rats led to cancer; in a study of farmers and professional neuronal cell death in various parts of the pesticide applicators, permethrin was shown brain, which could lead to motor deficits and to increase the risk of prostate cancer in men allergies.27 Besides asthma, other allergic with a family history of prostate cancer.36 results led the researchers to conclude, “it is likely that subchronic [dermal] exposure to Immune System Effects:
Ingestion of even small doses of permethrin vice personnel during the Persian Gulf War has been shown to reduce the ability of im- has played an important role in the develop- Animal Toxicity:
mune system cells to recognize and respond ment of illnesses in some veterans after the Many flea and tick treatments for dogs con- to foreign proteins. Doses equivalent to 1/ Gulf War. ”48 Another study found that low tain permethrin as their active ingredient.
100 of the LD inhibited T-lymphocytes and levels of permethrin were related to lower “Spot-On” treatments especially contain natural killer cells by over 40%.37 In a study large quantities of permethrin (45-65%). Even that applied varying doses of permethrin to of the protein alpha-synuclein. Both of these small amounts of this can be quite toxic and shaved regions of mice, researchers found even fatal to cats. Exposure to cats often that dermal absorption caused antibody pro- Parkinson’s condition, although not neces- occurs accidentally from contact with dogs duction to significantly decrease. The study being treated with permethrin.29 There have concluded that low-level topical permethrin Other Chronic effects:
immunotoxicity.38 A follow-up study found Internet, people give experiences with vari- that exposure to sunlight worsened this re- formed by the EPA that exposed rats, mice, and dogs to permethrin, all the studies noted Biospot. The site lists hundreds of stories effects on the liver even at the lowest levels of people who have used these permethrin- Effects on Reproduction:
of permethrin.50 Other chronic effects in- containing products on their cats and dogs Permethrin affects both male and female re- clude enlarged adrenal glands (in a rabbit and had adverse reactions—mostly seizures, productive systems.40 EPA lists permethrin feeding study) and increased kidney weights vomiting, behavioral changes, and death.30 (in a rat feeding study).51 Permethrin may Permethrin binds to receptors for androgen also be linked to pediatric brain tumors. The Childhood Susceptibility
findings of a 1997 study indicate that chemi- Children may be more sensitive to permethrin males.42 It also binds to the peripheral ben- cals used in flea/tick products may increase than adults: a study found that permethrin zodiazepine receptor, which stimulates pro- risk of pediatric brain tumors. Permethrin is is almost 5 times more toxic to 8 day old rats duction of testosterone.43 In a long-term than to adult rats due to incomplete devel- feeding study of mice, permethrin was shown to cause reduced testes weights.44 In an- pyrethroids in the liver.31 Additionally, stud- Residues on food:
permethrin had significant estrogenic po- permethrin may inhibit neonatal brain devel- tency as it inhibited the binding of estradiol finds permethrin on food. In 1996, the found that permethrin was the 13th most commonlydetected pesticide on food.53 In 2001, it was Long-term Health Effects
the 8th most commonly detected pesticide on Cancer:
At the time of EPA’s last evaluation of the salmonella have shows permethrin to be non- carcinogenic potential of permethrin in 1989, mutagenic,46 permethrin was found to have they classified permethrin as Group C—a mutagenic effects in three tests with human Environmental Effects
cell cultures, one with hamster cells, and one Permethrin is highly toxic to fish, due to the Health Organization reported that permethrin with fruit fly larvae. In the human cell cul- sensitivity of their nervous systems. It is increased the frequency of lung tumors in also highly toxic to many aquatic inverte- female mice in 2 out of 3 studies that it re- crease in chromosome aberrations, chromo- brate animals; its effects on insects and crus- taceans are particularly severe. Permethrin permethrin on breast cancer cells, research- is practically non-toxic to birds, although ers found that permethrin increases the ex- Neurotoxicity:
there may be some long-term effects.55 Some pression of a gene that is involved with pro- endangered toads and salamanders may also liferation of cells in the mammary gland.35 Gulf War syndrome, researchers found that be at risk from permethrin.56 Permethrin nega- BEYOND PESTICIDES
701 E Street, S.E., Suite 200, Washington DC 20003
202-543-5450 (v) • 202-543-4791 (f)
info@beyondpesticides.org • www.beyondpesticides.org

tively affects many species of beneficial Permethrin was the most commonly detected ficial stance at the time was that permethrin arthropods (those arthropods that are use- ful in agriculture). For example, permethrin the assistant administrator for pesticides and is extremely acutely toxic to honey bees, Regulatory Status and History
toxic substances at the time, wrote that, “The Permethrin was first marketed in 1977 for use likelihood of oncogenic effects in humans from exposure to low levels of permethrin is leaching into water is low because permethrin allow an expansion of permethrin registra- nonexistent or extremely low.”63 However, adsorbs strongly to soil particles and has a tions to include use on livestock, poultry, Dr. Adrian Gross dissented on the EPA’s short half-life in water,58 the U.S. Geological eggs, vegetables, and fruit—a 500% expan- evaluation, bringing to their attention that Survey has found permethrin in ground and sion of the market for permethrin.61 This surface water in numerous locations.59 Fur- decision was quite controversial, and was thermore, a very recent study of pesticides opposed by EPA staff pathologist, M.
cer rates as high as between 5-10% of the in bodies of water in the agriculture-domi- population! He wrote, “I should think that nated Central Valley in California found high presents an intolerable statistical risk of risks of cancer of this order for a relatively levels of synthetic pyrethroids in stream causing cancer.62 This controversy largely new insecticide are unacceptable to any ra- focused on the results and validity of the tional person.”64 However, permethrin is not were toxic to freshwater bottom dwellers in original EPA tests on permethrin. EPA’s of- scheduled for re-registration until June 2006.
almost 50% of the sampled locations.
Permethrin chemicalWATCH Factsheet Bibliography
1 Reigart J. R. and J. R. Roberts (eds). 1999.
For the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Recognition and Management of Pesticide Service. < http://infoventures.com/e-hlth/ Poisonings, 5th ed. Washington DC: EPA, 87.
pestcide/permethr.html> (Accessed 6-23-04).
31 Cantalamessa, F. 1993. Acute toxicity of two 2 Gosselin R. E., R. P. Smith, H. C. Hodge, and J.
14 Brown, A. E. 2000. Restricted Use Pesticides: pyrethroids, permethrin and cypermethrin, in E. Braddock. 1984. Clinical Toxicology of Pesticide Information Leaflet No. 2. Maryland neo-natal and adult rats. Archives of Toxicology Commercial Products. Fifth ed. Baltimore: www.pesticide.umd.edu/pil2.pdf> (Accessed 6-25- 32 Imamura L, H. Hasegawa, K. Kurashina, T.
3 Mueller-Beilschmidt, D. 1990. Toxicology and environmental fate of synthetic pyrethroids.
Journal of Pesticide Reform 10(3): 32-37.
16 World Health Organization (WHO). 1984.
(permethrin) represses activity-dependent c-fos Permethrin. Data Sheets on Pesticides 51.
mRNA expression in cerebellum. Archives of 5 World Health Organization (WHO). 1990.
<http://www.inchem.org/documents/pds/pds/ Permethrin. Environmental Health Criteria 94: pest51_e.htm> (Accessed 6-25-04).
US EPA. 2002. List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. Office of Pesticide 6 Cox, C. 1998. Permethrin. Journal of Pesticide 7 Whitmore, R. W., J. E. Kelly, and P. L.
Kasat K., V. Go, and B. G. Pogo. 2002. Effects of pyrethroid insecticides and estrogen on pesticide use survey. Final Report,Volume 1: WNT10B proto-oncogene expression. Environ- Executive Summary, Results, and Recommenda- ment International 28(5): 429-32.
tions. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research agricultural pesticides and prostate cancer risk in 8 Buzz Off Insect Shield. 30 July 2003. Insect 27 Extension Toxicology Network (ETN). 1994.
the agricultural health study cohort. American Repellent Apparel Registered by the EPA. <http:/ Pyrethroids. Pesticide Information Profiles.
Journal of Epidemiology 157: 800-814.
/www.buzzoff.com/news.asp> (Accessed 6-25-04).
<http://ace.orst.edu/cgi-bin/mfs/01/pips/ Blaylock, R. L, M. Abdel-Nasser, S. M.
pyrethrin.htm> (Accessed 6-28-04).
McCarty, J. A. Knesel, K. M. Tolson, P. W.
28 Harte, J., C. Holdren, R. Schneider, and C.
Ferguson, and H. M. Mehendale. 1995.
11 National Pesticides Telecommunications Shirley. 1991. Toxics A to Z: A Guide to Suppression of cellular immune responses in Network. 1997. Permethrin Fact Sheet. Oregon Everyday Pollution Hazards. Berkeley, Califor- State University. <http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/ nia: University of California Press, 389.
permethrin. Bulletin of Environmental Contami- permethrin.pdf> (Accessed 6-23-04).
29 Richardson, J. A. 2000. Permethrin Spot-On nation and Toxicology 54 (5): 768-774.
12 Kaufman, D. D., S.C. Haynes, E.G. Jordan, and Toxicoses in Cats. The Journal of Veterinary Punareewatta, K. 1999. “Immune function A.J. Kayser. 1977. Permethrin degradation in Emergency and Critical Care 10(2): 103-106. < determination in mice dermally exposed to soil and microbial cultures. Pages 147-161 in M.
permethrin.” Blacksburg, Va.: University Elliott, ed. Synthetic pyrethroids. Washington, veccs_april00.pdf?docID=130> (Accessed 6-28- Libraries, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State 13 Information Ventures, Inc. 1995. Permethrin, 30 Terbush, J. 2002. Farnam’s Bio Spot Flea & Prater, M. R., B.L. Blaylok, and S. D.
Holladay. 2003. Molecular mechanisms of cis- BEYOND PESTICIDES
701 E Street, S.E., Suite 200, Washington DC 20003
202-543-5450 (v) • 202-543-4791 (f)
info@beyondpesticides.org • www.beyondpesticides.org

urocanic acid and permethrin-indced alterations Abou-Donia. 2001. Subchronic dermal applica- D. C.: Food and Drug Administration, Center for in cutaneous immunity. Photodermatology, tion of N,N-diethyl- m toluamide (DEET) and Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. <http:// Photoimmunology, and Photomedicine 19(6): permethrin to adult rats, alone or in combina- tion, causes diffuse neuronal cell death and cytoskeletal abnormalities in the cerebral cortex 41 Illinois Environmental Protection Agency.
and the hippocampus, and Purkinje neuron loss in 1997. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. Springfield, the cerebellum. Experimental Neurology 42 Eil, C. and B. C. Nisula. 1990. The binding 49 Suh, Christine. 24 March 2003. Data link insecticide and Parkinson’s. Science News. 60 Weston, D.P, J.C. You, and M.J. Lydy. 2004.
fibroblast androgen receptors and to sex hormone Washington: United Press International (UPI).
Distribution and Toxicity of Sediment-Associated binding globulin. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry Pesticides in Agriculture-Dominated Water Bodies of California’s Central Valley. Environmental 43 Ramadan, A. A. et al. 1988. Actions of 52 Pogoda J. M., and S. Preston-Martin. 1997.
Science and Technology 38 (10): 2752-2759.
pyrethroids on the peripheral benzodiazepine Household pesticides and risk of pediatric brain 61 Marshall, E. 3 December 1982. The Odds on receptor. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology tumors. Environmental Health Perspectives 105 Cancer: EPA’s Recent Bets. Science 218: 976- 53 Food and Drug Administration. 1998. Pesticide 45 Chen, H., J. Xiao, G. Hu, J. Zhou, H. Xiao, and Program: Residue Monitoring 1996. Washing- 63 Wines, M. 18 June 1983. Scandals at EPA may X. Wang. 2002. Journal of Toxicology and ton, D. C.: Food and Drug Administration, Center have done in Reagan’s move to ease cancer Environmental Health, Part A 65(19): 1419- for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. <http:// controls. National Journal 1264-1267.
54 Food and Drug Administration. 2003. Pesticide Permethrin. Office of Pesticides and Toxic 48 Abdel-Rahman A., A. K. Shetty, and M. B.
Program: Residue Monitoring 2001. Washington, BEYOND PESTICIDES
701 E Street, S.E., Suite 200, Washington DC 20003
202-543-5450 (v) • 202-543-4791 (f)
info@beyondpesticides.org • www.beyondpesticides.org

Source: http://ticksquad.com/documents/permethrin.pdf

Microsoft word - varenicline nhs ce.doc

Is varenicline cost-effective enough to be funded by the NHS now? John Stapleton, Kings College London - Institute of Psychiatry 8/12/2006 These are promising times for those treating smokers in the UK services with the launch of an effective new smoking cessation medication after many years when there has been little new to offer those unable to quit with existing treatments. ASH ha

Microsoft word - program

Symposium for Rheumatologists, Immunologists and Pediatricians (in French): Maladies fébriles récurrentes et syndromes auto-inflammatoires : Diagnostic et traitement de l’enfant à l’adulte Young Investigators Meeting Opening Ceremony: Jurg Tschopp Memorial Lecture: What’s new in auto-inflammation since 2010? : Michael McDermott , Tribute to Jurg Tschopp: Fabio Ma

Copyright ©2018 Sedative Dosing Pdf