No está claro cuán grande es el papel de los antibióticos https://antibioticos-wiki.es en las relaciones competitivas entre los microorganismos en condiciones naturales. Zelman Waxman creía que este papel era mínimo, los antibióticos no se forman sino en culturas limpias en entornos ricos. Posteriormente, sin embargo, se descubrió que en muchos productos, la actividad de síntesis de antibióticos aumenta en presencia de otros tipos o productos específicos de su metabolismo.
POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CLINICAL TRIALS
Is this course for me?
This [online] course is suitable for those who have general or specialist experience in clinical trials and aims to broaden their
role in the design, management, analysis and reporting of clinical trials as well as for those wishing to gain an understanding
of trials before moving into this increasingly important field."
Professor Diana Elbourne, Course Director
Ground breaking clinical trials: Crash2
Ian Roberts, Professor of Public Health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, speaks about the ground
breaking Crash2 clinical trial. This uncovered the importance of early treatment with tranexamic acid in bleeding trauma
patients. The Crash2 Research Paper[external link]
POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CLINICAL TRIALS
Structure and Syllabus
11 modules (4 compulsory core, 5 elective, one compulsory elective, plus integrating module)
8 (4 compulsory core plus four elective modules)
4 compulsory core modules
Four core compulsory modules
Plus elective modules (four for Postgraduate Diploma, 5 for MSc)
At least three modules must be taken from selection group CTM2. The remaining module(s) can
be chosen from other CTM2 modules, or selection groups EPM3/PHM2
Plus one compulsory elective module (MSc only)
Plus compulsory integrating module (MSc only)
Selection group CTM2 - Clinical Trials elective modules
Additional elective modules available from selection group EPM3
Additional elective modules available from selection group PHM2
If you are choosing to study elective modules from the Epidemiology course
i.e. EPM3 modules, please note that the CD-ROMs provided for use with those modules are
All CT modules successfully completed will be assigned 15 credits each; the integrating report will be assigned 30
For Postgraduate Diploma/MSc students, credit for one or two modules studied at LSHTM (blended learning study)
may be allowed in place of one or two of the above elective modules, subject to module restrictions. An additional
At the discretion of the Examiners, students who have been examined in and have passed three CTM1 modules
(which must include CTM101) may be permitted to proceed to elective module studies.
Restrictions and prerequisites may apply to some of the modules.
POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CLINICAL TRIALS - How you study
You study independently, at a time and pace that suits you (subject to some course-specific deadlines), using the
comprehensive study materials provided, with learning
We know that if you have a full-time job, family or other commitments, and wish to study at a distance, you will have many
calls on your time. We therefore allow you between 1-5 years in which to complete the Postgraduate Certificate, and between
The study year runs from the beginning of October through to the June exams, during which time tutorial support is
available. Students carrying out projects are assigned personal supervisors to support their project work throughout the
Those writing the Clinical Trials integrating report will also continue to have tutorial support over the summer. Deadlines for
submission of coursework vary per course but are usually in March,
The support you receive
a web-based conferencing system allows you to pose questions and engage in academic discussions with tutors and
teaching staff provide written, personalised feedback and advice on assignments
you can communicate with other distance learning students, either individually or by setting up your own learning
You receive your study materials after you register. Clinical Trials students receive details of how to use the online learning
environment effectively. Study materials may include Subject guides, Readers, Textbooks, CD-ROMs/additional computer
software (e.g. Stata), Past examination papers and Examiners’ reports, and Handbooks. You also have access to the
POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CLINICAL TRIALS - ASSESSMENT
Assessment varies from module to module but will include a combination of unseen written papers and written assignments.
Details are given in the module specifications.
Examinations take place once a year in June (please note: it is not possible to hold examinations
at other times of year). These are normally held in a student’s country of residence. We have examination centres in over
190 countries worldwide (for details please visit our
They are arranged mainly through Ministries of Education or the British Council. Students taking examinations outside
London will need to pay a fee to their local examination centre. Please note that if you fail an examination at the first entry
you will be allowed one further attempt.
POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CLINICAL TRIALS - Entrance requirements
(a) A first or second class honours degree, or the equivalent, from a university or other institution acceptable
to the University of London, in a subject appropriate to the course
(b) An appropriate professional or technical qualification, together with at least three years’ relevant experience, which
satisfies the University as a qualification equivalent to a second class honours degree. All applications in this category will be
considered on an individual basis. Students who do not satisfy the above requirements may still be admitted at the discretion of the School on the basis of their academic qualifications, work experience and references.
Students who do not satisfy the above requirements may still be admitted at the discretion of the School on the basis of their
academic qualifications, work experience and references.
English language :
All applicants must have an advanced level of ability to work in English. Applicants may be required
to pass or to have passed within the last three years, at the appropriate level, a test of proficiency in English acceptable to
the University - for example a TOEFL score of 600 (or 250 in the computerised test) and a minimum of 4.5 in the TWE or a
British Council (IELTS) overall score of 7 or over with a minimum of 7 in the written sub-test.
Minimum PC computer specification
All applicants will need a computer capable of running the software provided:
Hard disk space:
If you wish to use a Mac you will need OS X 10.1 or later (OS X 10.3 or later).
The computer will need to be fitted with a CD-ROM drive and attached to either a laser or inkjet printer. You will also
need one of the following browsers: Internet Explorer 6.0 or
above, Firefox 2.0 (or later version). Email and Web access are also essential. 56k modem or higher.
Students who wish to submit assignments in pdf format must have Adobe Acrobat.
Students studying elective module CTM209 should check the module outline for further specifications.
Please note that the CD-ROMs which are provided with the modules from selection group EPM3 are not compatible
Sound card and headset (recommended), or sound card, speakers and microphone.
POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CLINICAL TRIALS : Fees
The fees given below refer to the 2012-2013 academic year and are subject to annual review. Fees may be paid in one of
, on registration, a single payment covering the registration fee and all module fees.
pay the registration fee, plus the fee for each module you are taking in your first year. Then, in subsequent years, you
pay the fee for each new module you take.
TOTAL Postgraduate Certificate
TOTAL Postgraduate Diploma
the University reserves the right to amend previously announced fees, if necessary.
How you pay your fees
All fees must be paid in pounds sterling, which may be paid either by a credit card (Visa, Mastercard, Maestro, Electron or
JCB) OR by banker's draft, cheque or UK postal order, made payable to 'The University of London' and crossed 'a/c payee'.
Besides the fees payable to the University, you should also budget for the fee levied by your local examination centre to
cover their costs (if you do not sit your exams in London).
For your convenience:into your local currency
Hyperglycemic Crisis in Adults: Pathophysiology, Editor’s note: This article is the 9th in a 12-part series reviewing the funda- mentals of diabetes care for physicians in training. Previous articles in the series can be viewed at the Clinical Diabetes website (http://clinical. water and the flow is incessant . . . . Life is short, unpleasant and painful, thirst unquen
Richards BL, Whittle SL, Buchbinder R. Neuromodulators for pain management in rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jan 18;1:CD008921. BACKGROUND: Pain management is a high priority for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Despite deficiencies in research data, neuromodulators have gained widespread clinical acceptance as adjuvants in the management of patients with