s í s i f o / e d u c a t i o n a l s c i e n c e s j o u r n a l · n o . 1 · s e p / d e c 0 6 Archives and Education: the construction of educational memory Maria João MogarroHigh School of Education of Portalegre Abstract:School archives cause a profound concern regarding the safe‑keeping and preservation of documents which are fundamental tools for the history of a school and for the construc‑tion of educational memory. Their importance has come to be recognized and has led to considering their preservation, conditions of installations, the correct organization of the documents and access to the information therein. The school archives are a repository of sources of information directly related to the functioning of educational institutions, which confers upon them a growing importance in the new paths of research in educa‑tion. This places these institutions in a centralised position as regards understanding ed‑ucational phenomena and the socialisation processes of the younger generations. In this paper we intend to reflect about: the role of school archives in educational institutions; the documents, their nature and the potentials for research in education; school archives from an interdisciplinary perspective; the archives, school culture and the construction of educational memory.
Keywords:School Culture, Archive, Historical Sources, Memory.
Mogarro, Maria João (2006). Archives and Education: the construction of educational memory. Sísifo. Educational Sciences Journal, 1, pp. 71‑84.
Retrieved [month, year] from evance for the research process into the problems already expounded (Mogarro, 2001a, p. 38). If it is true that the historian invents his sources, combin‑ Archives and their documents have acquired a ing and interlocking them for the purpose of study growing importance in the field of the history of and inserting them into the historic reality (and ed‑ education. They contain information which allows ucational, which is what interests us here) in which the introduction of a uniformity in the analyses car‑ they were produced and used, in the case of school ried out on the various discourses produced by the archives we have sources of information which are educational performers — teachers, pupils, employ‑ traditionally sacred (filed documents) although they ees, local and national authorities all have sundry are also traditionally considered of minor impor‑ roles within the school expressed in diverse ways. tance in the realm of history and, because of this, The archive, having a solid nucleus of information are relegated to second place (being scholastic and, on the school, corresponds to a homogenous whole therefore, revealing educational processes). This and occupies a central position of reference in the state of things is gradually being modified, with a cosmos of information sources which can be used growing consciousness towards the aspects of daily to reconstruct the itinerary of the scholastic insti‑ life and the “ordinary activities” of the school, two tution. The junction established from among the of the new items from a considerable amount of his‑ data obtained through analysis of the documents from a school archive, enables the close relation‑ The new methods of analysis and historico‑edu‑ ship among the sundry information (also obtained cational development force a new way of looking at from documental fonts outside the school) to be at‑ the documents in the scholastic archives and a the‑ tained, revealing a high index of internal coherence oretico‑methodological opening that consolidates and logic in the archival sources and the central the stimulating information therein. The founda‑ role of the documents in the understanding of the tion of these archives is mainly paper documents organization and functioning of the institution pro‑ organized into books, dossiers and loose sheets ducing them (Mogarro, 2001a, pp. 43‑44).
produced by educational protagonists and by the But this understanding can only be established institution itself within the ambit of its activities through research processes. In the case of school and at a rate that we can consider almost daily.
archives, we work with documents which, in the The importance of the archive in the scholastic main, are stored in the silence of these self‑same ar‑ institution has accompanied the assertion of this chives and remain (and probably will continue to same institution like a microcosm with forms and remain) there until a researcher evaluates their rel‑ specific methods of organization and functioning. sísifo 1 | maria joão mogarro | archives and education: the construction of educational memory Schools are complex structures, specific universes, documents of an educational nature and whose im‑ where many of the characteristics and contradic‑ portance must interlock with the historical periods tions in the educational system are condensed. At in which they were produced and with the condi‑ the same time, they have their own identity, full of tions then existing in educational systems.
history, making it possible to construct, systematize In the Portuguese case, the preoccupation with and rewrite the itinerary of the life of an institution the preservation and evaluation of the historical (and the people connected to it), in its multidimen‑ patrimony is consensual, although those responsi‑ sional aspects, the archives taking on a fundamen‑ ble do not act accordingly or make much needed tal role in the building up of a scholastic memory urgent decisions. The study carried out in 1996, and in the historical identity of a school.
under the coordination of António Nóvoa, showed In the specific case of the Portuguese situation, that the state of conservation of documents in the in most schools the essentials of their archives are archives of Portuguese secondary schools could, on dispersed throughout different locations such as the whole, be considered reasonable. 72.3% of the attics, basements, stairwells and other hidden and institutions under consideration at this level of ap‑ disused places with not even the minimum con‑ preciation fell into this category, 11.5% good, 10.3% ditions necessary for storing archive documents. bad and 5.7% were in the category of “no informa‑ In general, the respective offices and administra‑ tion” (Nóvoa, 1997, p. 71). Nevertheless, tive services mix documents of varied origins and “The reasonable state of conservation of the uses: a) current documents — still regularly used, documents could… be questioned in the short (usually) organized and readily available; b) docu‑ term, as the capacity for storage in most schools ments which are occasionally needed — teachers’ is lessening… This situation is tending to worsen and students’ records from which copies certified rapidly as the storage capacity of new documents is by the institution are requested and relatively eas‑ nil in about half of the schools and greatly reduced ily found; c) obsolete documents — in this phase in the rest… The fact, therefore, shows a situation of their life‑cycle, the documents are usually kept at saturation point and the total breakdown in the in places which do not guarantee the necessary capacity of most schools to conserve their archives. conditions for their safeguard and preservation, In the very short term, the two negative phenomena piled up in a disorganized heap of papers of very usual in these circumstances could be aggravated: the heedless elimination or the disorganized up‑ In Portugal, the importance of school archives has become manifest in projects developed in re‑cent years originating in reference publications A situation which has not changed in recent (Nóvoa & Santa‑Clara, 2003; Ramos do Ó, 2003; years except in the secondary schools where there Magalhães, 2001). This process is similar to the has been a systematic intervention in the organiza‑ movement consolidated in the Brazilian pano‑ tion of their archives within the scope of research rama of research in this area, significant examples projects (Nóvoa & Santa‑Clara, 2003). When of works on educational institutions and their ar‑ thinking about the measures to adopt in the future, chives, published by Moraes and Alves (2002), Vi‑ it must be kept in mind that, in many cases, school dal and Zaia (2002) and Vidal and Moraes (2004), archives have occupied diverse physical places, and also the publication of important documents because they have been successively transferred relating to feminine presence in education in São throughout the history of the scholastic institute to Paulo in the second half of the 80s, by Maria Lúcia which they belong; also, during these transferences Hilsdorf (1999), who effected a study of the sources the initial logical organization may have been lost. in the state archives and of the S. Paulo University. Today, we are usually presented with the documen‑ The contents of this work refer to the need to put tation kept by chance and which shows the lack of into perspective school archives and their liaison organization of the archives caused by changes of with other archives of a more general character (na‑ location throughout time (but could also originate tional, central, ministerial, etc.), but also integrate from the beginning, depending on the situations).
sísifo 1 | maria joão mogarro | archives and education: the construction of educational memory Therefore, it is necessary to gather all existing ensure the flow of communication between the tute‑ documentation, make an inventory and organize lage policy‑making organism and the school itself; the archives according to technical and scientific • Administrative and pedagogic documents criteria. To this end, there have been developments which make up a large part of the pile of archives of in the field of projects related to educational insti‑ tutions and in which the archival perspective and • External publications — books, newspaper the related technical preoccupations have assumed and magazine articles etc. They are scientific, ped‑ a significant dimension (Vieira, 2003; Zaia, 2004), agogic and cultural works, poetry, which very of‑ since they constitute the preliminary indispensable ten appear in the local and teaching press, written work to accomplish scientific research and peda‑ by the institution’s teachers, who also published gogic activities. There is a long way to go in order books, expressing their professional culture in to save and preserve documents containing valu‑ able information on the history of the school and • School equipment, furniture and various oth‑ for the study of the school culture, being a principal • Didactic material found in the school and, in many cases, also from that amassed outside the in‑stitution; • Pupils’ school work which, in general, are pri‑ vate property and reveal the significance given to the school and the educational processes during The documents in the archives (handwritten and its lifetime; Photographs and other documents of typed, in the more recent cases) reflect the life of the institution which produced them. However, • Oral testimonies of teachers, pupils, function‑ the information furnished by these documents has aries and others with functions in the educational to be cross‑checked with details found from other system, in the school and in the community.
sources, shown in various aids and in diverse forms. In its entirety, these sources of information mean Many of these sources of information are found out‑ that the researcher must be particularly heedful of side the respective school (and, consequently, out‑ the educational and cultural contexts in which they side its archive), being an integral part of a universe were produced and of the selection to which they which, today, is multiple and complex. This uni‑ were successively submitted by the generations of verse encompasses the more traditional and vener‑ social protagonists who tutored, occupying differ‑ ated sources of information, as well as those which ent levels of decision‑making power regarding them have recently won their place in this context, inte‑ and their preservation or destruction. As a conse‑ grating both internal and external sources. Many quence, these documents constitute multiple pro‑ of the documents are characterised by their mate‑ ductions which reflect the multidimensional and riality and bases, others by the jargon with which complex scholastic and training realities, and also the educational protagonists expressed themselves the diversity and plurality of the means of interven‑ in their discourses. When these materials are local‑ ized, a documental geography of the school can be Establishing a specific outline in this universe of sources of information for the history of education • Legal texts and documents originating from and also of the school, the documents integrated in the school archives can be put into a particular per‑ spective. The place they occupy retains the wealth of • Technical reports written by inspectors, rec‑ their documents and the range of themes and prob‑ lems which are possible to research in a significant • Rules, circulars, norms and other texts gener‑ approximation of daily school life and pedagogical ated by the scholastic institution and internal cir‑ practices. The analysis of the depth of the docu‑ culation, but which may also be documents which ments of scholastic archives of institutions which sísifo 1 | maria joão mogarro | archives and education: the construction of educational memory ensured the training at different levels of education between documents of diverse character and the (Mogarro, 2001a, 2003a, 2005; Mogarro & Crespo, investigations that these permitted, a relationship 2001), enabled the establishment of a relationship which is developed in the following diagram.
Development of research from archived documents Stress among teachers: debates, conflicts, coordination strategies, internal reflection regarding the institution, positions taken individually Ways of tackling disciplinary problems among pupils Internal orientation of the life of the school Characterization and evolution of the teaching staff of the scholastic institution: geographical origin, academic and professional training, professional itinerary and evaluation, years connected with the institution Profiles of pupils who attended the school throughout the years: geographical origin, interaction with the community and the region, age on entering and leaving the institution, quantitative relationship of genders, study of the training of the local, social and economic elite, etc.
Evaluation of the results obtained by the pupils and establishment of rates Understanding of the school’s daily life, values, norms and rules, disciplinary Knowledge of the teacher’s work (via institutional and private registers of people who consent to it) and the relationships (complicity and/or conflict) Characterization work planning and pedagogical organization of the scholastic institution Identification of internal supervision of educators and educational affairs, such as organization of scholastic time and space Documents regarding post‑graduate training, • Analysis of the institutional interpretation relating to study plans, disciplinary instructions and those of school practices, to try and understand the significance the school attributed to its training activities Identification of parties, shows, exhibitions, demonstrations and other very Characterization of the institutional relationships with the tutelage organisms and evaluation of the degree of autonomy of the scholastic institutions granted by the central authority Circulars originating from the central services sísifo 1 | maria joão mogarro | archives and education: the construction of educational memory Understanding of the image the school created regarding its activity and functioning from the perspective of the institution’s board Acquaintance with and analyses of the categories used in these documents Systematization of the historical aspects of the curriculum and of the scholastic subjects and pedagogical relations , allowing the School Material (books, inventories, etc.) Understanding of the daily life in the classroom and the nature of the Inventory and files of the School Library Identification of the tendencies that marked the development of learning and the cultural and pedagogical models in the school Analysis of the mechanisms on which the teaching‑learning process is based and the significance of the output demanded within the various school subjects Understanding from the pupils’ point of view (a perspective only very recently given importance), of the developments and profound changes undergone in the field of education Valuation of this type of information source which has rarely been kept in the institutional school’s own archives and which has awakened a fresh interest in the new paths of research in education Evaluation of the management and the criteria applied to the schools’ budget, alluding to questions of economy in education administration and accounts of the School Documents relating to auxiliary personnel Identification of the discourses (individual and group) of teachers and Newspapers and magazines of the scholastic pupils from the analysis of these publications, in which the authors express their views of the world, the profession and the school Assembling these works, which are also rarely kept in the institution’s Other publications of teachers and pupils Observation and analysis of a wide variety of iconographic documents of/ about the school, to enable the understanding of the wealth of the facilities, the environment, objects and people. This documentation also is rarely kept in the respective scholastic institution’s archives.
The relationship between the documents and and on the capacity to use its complexity to trace the research arising from them is not uniform and new paths in its research and in the problematic exclusive. The diagram above is to highlight the realities of education. The cross‑referencing of importance and wealth of the archive documents contents is, in this sense, a fundamental operation. for studies into the educational institution, school Therefore, the diagram furnishes important indica‑ culture, the curriculum, presenting the potential‑ tions, but does not have a prescribed or rigid nature ity of each type of document. However, the neces‑ and does not reduce a set of themes and problems sary cross‑referencing of the information cannot to a single type of document. These documents en‑ be forgotten. The documents’ contributions are able the understanding of the educational reality in fundamental to a vast universe of themes and prob‑ which they were produced, but can be read from lems — the flexibility and agility that the researcher various points of view. They express, in their sub‑ imprints on the process of research is based on the stance and content, the wealth of the production completeness of the documentation under analysis contexts — isolated, they are fragments of the past, sísifo 1 | maria joão mogarro | archives and education: the construction of educational memory the historian having the responsibility to confer va‑ pupils in an institution, for example), is applicable lidity, coherence, logic and unity in the necessary the specific archives because, as mentioned before, establishment of relationships with other docu‑ other fonts may have documents relating to the edu‑ cational themes under research and which comple‑ment the data gleaned from the school archive. Cer‑tainly the Ministry of Education’s archives contain an enormous amount of documents about different schools and these documents are not found, most probably, among those kept by the institution. The In the context of the diversity of the sources of infor‑ National Archives of Torre do Tombo also have in mation, school archives embody the fundamental their depths documents fundamental to the under‑ reference since their documents constitute by their specific nature the “hard nucleus” of the research In a more localised dimension, documents re‑ process and guarantee an added solidity and valid‑ garding education may be found in organisms and ity to the conclusions at the end of the research.
associations in the neighbourhood of the school. The archive documents are the most traditional Municipal archives contain information relating as a basis for the writing of history, but the new to the scholastic institutions and the development paths of research in education do not allow them to of the educational system, making it possible, by confer this place of centralization, of original refer‑ analysing them, to reconstruct the dynamics of re‑ ence, by the consistency of their information and lationship between the schools and the enveloping the certainty transmitted to the researchers. The community and the role the teachers played in the new sources of information express the preoccupa‑ local society, for example. Another significant as‑ tion with the voices of the social and educational pect and one which enables the cross‑checking of protagonists (favouring the oral witnesses and the data is that of the periodicals (newspapers and mag‑ logical narratives of a personal nature) or with the azines), both local and regional which, regularly materialism associated with the practices (like the throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, published movable objects which are part of the museologi‑ articles of an educational nature, expressing in this cal assets of the schools), but the configuration of way the importance that the model school assumed the historical and institutional identity has to go in contemporary society. These publications are an through the archives, being the repository of the important source of information, the data of which “bookkeeping” process of the school. In each insti‑ can be correlated with the documents of the school tution, the school archive guarantees the unity, co‑ herence and consistency that the individual memo‑ In a more intimate record of private life, the ries about the school or isolated objects it produces private archives of old pupils and teachers contain and uses cannot in themselves confer the memory “booty” of the most varied material, usually pro‑ and identity which has become fundamental to duced by the owners of the archives themselves. The conservation of these documents during a life‑ Once more, we emphasise the need to cross‑ time and the emotion with which they are revisited check and link the information of every type of doc‑ by the trustees/producers, reveals the importance ument with other documents pertinent to the study people gave to the scholastic and training process‑ being made. In this way, the dialogue between the es in their life stories, as well as careers, as in the various sources of information (the various docu‑ case of teachers. These assets integrate scholastic ments) can be established in a complementary and material and work, photographs, publications, end articulate perspective. This approach, made on the products resulting from the activities of the teach‑ documents of an archive themselves and also on ing staff, documents which are not normally found various types of documents (to compare the data in the archives of the scholastic institutions. This gleaned from the school archives with official sta‑ is why they complement, in a particularly fortu‑ tistics, with regard to the number of teachers or nate way, the school archives where these pupils sísifo 1 | maria joão mogarro | archives and education: the construction of educational memory and teachers lived through phases of their training of the history of education: the ethnomethodologi‑ and in exercising their profession, making them ir‑ cal models and the instruments of the new cultural replaceable today to paint a richer, more complete history. The former highlight the role of the indi‑ and objective picture of education, especially in the viduals in the building of social relations, shifting the importance of the structures to the importance The growing attention given by historians of of the concept of network of the communities to education to school archives stems from an at‑ which they belong and of the unique strategies. titude of plural dialogue in which the question of Allied to the anthropological and sociological per‑ the sources of information emerges as a priority in spectives, they facilitate comprehension of the edu‑ the theoretic‑methodology of the history of educa‑ cational protagonists and life experiences, raising tion and cultural history. It has become urgent to the value of the micro level of historical analysis. localize, systematize, organize and divulge these Thus the ways in which individuals create the social sources, questioning them and validating them so world can be reconstructed, developing strategies that they can sustain the new themes and objectives of alliance and confrontation, networks of solidar‑ of study included in the scientific field of the his‑ ity or attitudes of conflict. In this sense, historical tory of education: the students, in their individual‑ analysis seeks the subjectivity inherent in social re‑ ity (such as the renewed attention imparted in in‑ lations and the awareness and strategies developed fancy), the teachers and professional staff, the train‑ by communities, groups and individuals (Chartier, ing of teachers, the scholastic institutions, informal 1994), adapting itself to educative contexts in a par‑ education, questions of gender, minority public ticularly assertive way. In this way, an exclusively schools, the daily life of schools, pedagogic knowl‑ macro point of view favouring the power and con‑ edge, the circulation and appropriation of cultural models and the ways they are propagated. These Between these two levels of analysis (micro and themes presuppose the use of adequate approaches macro), another has become relevant: the meso ap‑ and the reinforcement of interdisciplinary relations proaches, which fall upon the educational institu‑ that historians of education have started to develop. tions, the universe of the productions of archive Today, they have a huge range of methodological documents, as has been stressed. The meso ap‑ instruments at their disposal for their research and proach favours relations with the macro level of the policy decisions (of which the legal texts constitute The problem of the paradigms of modern sci‑ the support arrangements) and integrate the mi‑ ence and the relationship of previously dominant cro dimension, including the perspectives that the theoretic models, has freed the research processes educational protagonists, especially the teachers, from the constraints which limited their flexibility present regarding their institution, their profes‑ with regard to the subject under study. Neverthe‑ sion and social practices. The historians of educa‑ less, it is necessary to it is necessary to point out tion have only recently become occupied with the that theories have not lost their importance, only archaeological material of the school, keeping in the influence exercised over the research and in‑ mind the reticence of the history of teaching and vestigation processes. The plurality and diversity overcoming the forgetfulness of intra‑history of the of the scientific approaches, with their conceptual, school and the distinction itself of the educational methodological and instrumental perspectives, lead to interdisciplinary reconciliations and in‑ On the other hand, the new cultural and intel‑ tersections, motivated by this previous strategy of lectual history has assumed a growing importance flexibility relative to the subject under study and by in the scientific field of history and the history of the need to understand, through the most suitable education. The theoretic and methodological in‑ means and strategies, the logic and internal ration‑ struments enable suitable approach to the new themes, contributing towards the understanding Two current methodologies have to be affirmed of the discourses produced by the educational as bearers of significant potential for the new paths protagonists within the social space they occupy. sísifo 1 | maria joão mogarro | archives and education: the construction of educational memory The generation of the linguistic turn is the origin the present and the realities of the past, in an effort of a change, which proposes a shift of the histo‑ of understanding in which the latter are questioned rians’ concentration on the external aspect of the to reach the intelligibility of present times.
educational processes to the internal work of the school and the contextual approach for the textual analysis of the discursive practices. The language and the texts occupy a central place in this new his‑ toriographic perspective and the works of Michel Foucault and Roger Chartier, among others, have In the interior of complex structures, such as contributed decisively towards its assertion.
schools, the people determine the relationships of The texts and discourses do not hide any real‑ power and communication, transmit and grasp a ity but are complete in themselves, while modes culture and are, in their turn, creators of cultures. of expression of language and mental structures, Thus, a specific universe is represented, which systems of construction of this reality, which pre‑ throughout time, has left us documents and wit‑ scribe as much as describe, are material products nesses so that we can understand and grasp insti‑ of mediation between personal and social reali‑ tutional life. Consequently, renewed attention is ties. In this sense, historical research is not centred given the internal work of production of a scholastic only in the materiality of the facts, but also in the culture which has its own peculiarities and cannot discursive community which interprets them and be seen as merely a protraction of the cultures in registers them in a determined time and space. The conflict in society, despite being related to them.
attention of the scientists focuses on the experience In this perspective, the function of the archive and forms that this constitutes in the discursive is integrated in the process of knowledge and un‑ practices of the educational protagonists (directors, derstanding of the scholastic culture. The essence teachers, pupils), who interpret and reinterpret of archives is made up of specific documents, pro‑ their world, attributing a sense of their scholastic duced daily in the context of administrative and and professional experiences and registering their pedagogical practices; they are products of the sys‑ ideas in the archived documents which have come tematic “bookkeeping” of the school and reveal the social relationships which, essentially, were devel‑ The texts and documents are historical events oped by the educational protagonists.
and products, relating with their various produc‑ The scholastic institution is made up of its own tion and reception contexts in a complex way, at peculiar culture and historically consolidated, as it the same time containing essential elements for the is also the producer of the features/documents of this reconstruction of the contexts in which they were culture. These documents in their diversity and vari‑ elaborated, divulged, (re)adapted and used. The ety represent the educational heritage of each school question of the primary sources of information and — the physical space (building and surroundings) the school archives becomes urgent within this the‑ materializes this universe, the archival, museologi‑ cal and bibliographical assets integrate the docu‑ We are at a frontier, a cross‑roads of new perspec‑ ments, bearers of valuable information which bring tives in the history of education, cultural history, so‑ us, from both the past and the present, aspects of cial history and also the sciences of education. We school life making it possible to write the itinerary are witnessing a renewal of theoretic questions and of the institution. Within the realm of investigation a re‑creation of fields of research, sources of infor‑ processes, the analysis of these documents and the mation, research practices and methodological trap‑ comparison established between the different infor‑ pings in which the historiographic perspective is mation in its entirety enables us to check past aims affirmed by the old approaches of an essentially so‑ and also understand the constitution/ consolidation ciological origin. The affirmation of a history which of the school culture within the web of relationships demands a critical cultural thinking establishes an which this establishes with other cultures present in agenda of dialogue between the preoccupations of sísifo 1 | maria joão mogarro | archives and education: the construction of educational memory A broad and far‑reaching concept, the scholas‑ Portugal and Brazil. The new approaches that the tic culture presents a deep and fundamentally his‑ researchers into the history of education directed toric nature. The perspective of the school as the towards the heritage and history of the school also producer of a specific and original culture has, in put the educational protagonists’ memories in first recent years, come to occupy the attention of edu‑ place and projects of research and intervention on cational historians who emphasize the virtualities these themes were developed. In its turn, a signifi‑ of this concept, considering it a powerful analytic cant combination of initiatives, with very diverse instrument of educational realities in its collecta‑ objectives, stressed the wider dimension of this nea of viewpoints (Julia, 1995, 2000; Chervel, 1998; interest, rooting itself in a social search of identity Viñao Frago, 1998, 2001; Ruiz Berrio, 2000; Es‑ and recuperation of the memory around the school. colano Benito & Hernández Díaz, 2002). It is not The identification of this profound movement con‑ up to this article to establish the differences which tributed to the need to evaluate and recuperate the its perspectives present, but only to emphasize the documents the school had been producing about it‑ importance of this concept and the converging as‑ self, daily, of the regular activity with which it wove Made up of a set of theories, knowledge, ideas The initiatives mentioned were led by people and principles, norms, rules, rituals, routines, and institutions preoccupied with this question habits and practices, school culture in its broader and we can trace the evolution of this movement, meaning also refers to the ways of doing and think‑ centralising attention on a specific example. In ing, of the behaviours, consolidated throughout Portalegre, the educational community gave light time and which are presented as traditions, regu‑ to this interest with the realization, between 1998 larities and rules, but with intentional insinuations, and 2001, of meetings, exhibitions and publica‑ which are shared by the educational protagonists tions about educational heritage and school culture in the bosom of the institutions. The characteristic (Mogarro, 2001b, 2001c), also effecting its promo‑ features of school culture (continuity, persistence, tion in international, national and regional con‑ institutionalization and relative autonomy) enable gresses and meetings (Mogarro, 2003a, 2002; Mog‑ the creation of results which give the configuration arro & Crespo, 2001). A second phase was begun in of an independent culture. This culture is made up 2002, with a process of reflection on the work car‑ of a substratum formed throughout time of layers ried out and which led to the elaboration and im‑ more interwoven than overlapping, which makes it plementation of a research and intervention project important to separate and analyse. The archive has designated “Rede de Museus Escolares de Portale‑ an important function in this historiographic proc‑ gre (REMEP)” (Network of Scholastic Museums of ess of investigation into school culture.
Portalegre) (Mogarro, 2003b). This project, how‑ Basically made up of written documents, the ever, was not limited to the material objects which archive occupies a central place which arises from integrated the educational heritage of a scholastic the direct relationship of the school with the uni‑ institution; it assumed a wider perspective in its verse of written culture. The writing in itself has field, conceiving the various assets (archival, mu‑ an important central position in the daily life of seological and bibliographic) in an articulate way, the school (in administration, in pedagogic rela‑ although always safeguarding the technical charac‑ tionships, in the building of knowledge, in social teristics derived from the nature of the documents relations) being present throughout the whole life of each of these assets and the respective backups.
of the institution. The archive reflects this intimate The designation of this project is also under‑ relationship in the material of the documents and stood to recognize the importance of the material in a more consistent and logical way than the other objects which are linked to the clarity they confer acquisitions, thus holding the central place in the on past events and social phenomena. With them, the ordinary citizen and the population in general In the final years of the 20th century, a signifi‑ are reminded of their childhood and youth, the cant interest in the school and its past arose both in stories of their lives, the memories, their past up to sísifo 1 | maria joão mogarro | archives and education: the construction of educational memory the present day. The success these initiatives have tional memory, stimulating cultural reality and brought together with the communities constitutes present teaching methods. In this context, the re‑ a determining factor for the attention and support alization of exhibitions and educational and cul‑ that the local entities (such as some town councils) tural examples, whether temporary or permanent, have shown, exhibitions and the creation of scho‑ gains a new purpose, with museological and archi‑ lastic museums. This success is also an important val bases of the institutes and others obtained on indicator to take into account in the organization loan. Even in local accomplishments, these projects of the scientific work on these themes which refer should undertake permanent communication with to the establishment of partnerships, the adoption other areas. Their objectives should also aim at of attitudes and methods and the promotion of ac‑ creating conditions for research in the cultural and educational fields, in the history and memories With a formation of a Network of Scholastic (constitution of a data base and documental re‑ Museums in Portalegrea, it is hoped to contribute sources, elaboration of related projects, realization towards the construction and consolidation of an of conferences and meetings referred to before), in educational memory and, in this way, of an iden‑ such a way as to encourage the study and the diffu‑ tity. In this sense, it is important to strengthen the sion of new knowledge, both locally as well as na‑ link of the schools and their historical itineraries in tionally. On the other hand, the integration of this a perspective of appraisal of the institutional paths theme should be motivated with national research and school culture, promoting the population’s projects and projects of international cooperation, relationship with its scholastic past and creating a especially between Portugal and Brazil.
sense of belonging to a collective entity.
In Europe, the move towards preservation and The same project aims to strengthen the rela‑ valuation of educational heritage has gained a grow‑ tionship between the school and the community, ing relevance in the scientific fields of education taking as a reference this element common to (al‑ and history. Linking lines of investigation in this most) everyone — the school, the memory of school area with initiatives of great depths which clarify and childhood, and also the material objects which the history of the school and the heritage of educa‑ tion in various countries, there have arisen in the The public schools (and youth in general) also last few years publications whose authors belong to constitute a preoccupation with projects of this the scientific communities of history and education nature, aiming to promote a training rooted in the and are simultaneously linked to the creation, re‑ evolution of the educational system, the institutions vitalization and direction of educational museums and the teaching‑training processes, in a perspec‑ of international prestige. In France, a collective tive of continuity which provides references to the work of reference about national educational herit‑ present innovations. The pupils have already been age (Bidon; Compère & Gaulupeau, 1999) is linked involved in activities of this nature and the themes with the action developed by the Musée National of educational heritage and school culture should de l’Éducation (Rouen), which belongs to the INRP be incorporated in the educational practices, in — Institut National de Recherche Pédagogique. In curricular subjects and in work developed by the Spain, the books appearing on this theme (already pupils, especially at the level of the classroom or indicated) are included in a move which led to the clubs regarding the history of the school (Vidal & creation of the Mupega — Museo Pedagoxico de Gali- Zaia, 2002). In these activities it is fundamental to cia, as well as other initiatives arising in the country use the documents of the school itself, in a direct in the realm of museology of education and child‑ relationship between present and past to which it hood. In Great Britain, the more theoretic studies is subjacent. But once more, the central place of the on school material (Lawn & Grosvenor, 2005) cor‑ archive acquires visibility and pertinence.
respond in several initiatives of the same genre.
The sustainable development of these projects Returning to the specific question of school ar‑ implies a programme of cultural activities, various chives, we must again emphasize the place of refer‑ events and publications to recuperate the educa‑ ence which they occupy in the joint accumulation sísifo 1 | maria joão mogarro | archives and education: the construction of educational memory of scholastic records. The task of recuperating, essary to define orientations and give consistency to preserving, studying and divulging the educational the move which today makes sense, as much at the heritage, especially the school archives, has ac‑ social level as the scientific regarding the school, its quired a new sense of urgency, which makes it nec‑ sísifo 1 | maria joão mogarro | archives and education: the construction of educational memory Chartier, R. (1988). A história cultural entre práticas e representações. Lisboa: Difel.
1. The “Rede de Museus Escolares de Portalegre” Chartier, R. (1994). L’ histoire aujourd’hui: (Network of Scholastic Museums of Portalegre) was doutes, défis, propositions. València: Universitat instituted with the signing of a protocol between the de València/Asociación Vasca de Semiótica.
founding institutions, regulation which derived from Chervel, A. (1998). La culture scolaire. Une ap- the position of each one in the educational system at a proche historique. Paris: Belin.
local level: the schools are the trustees of the respec‑ Escolano Benito, A. & Hernández Díaz, J. tive historical backgrounds, other organisms govern (2002). La memoria y el deseo. Cultura de la es- these same schools or develop research and interven‑ cuela y educación deseada. Valência: Tirant lo tion projects within this ambit. The protocol was signed by the Municipal Council of Portalegre, the Hilsdorf, M. L. S. (1999). Tempos de Escola: fon- Regional Board of Education of the Alentejo (DREA), tes para a presença feminina na educação — S. the Mouzinho da Silveira Secondary School, the S. Paulo (Século XIX). S. Paulo: Editora Plêiade.
Lourenço Secondary School, the Group of Schools Julia, D. (1995). La culture scolaire comme objet nº. 1 and nº. 2, Portalegre, the Polytechnic Institute of historique. In A. Nóvoa; M. Depaepe & E.V. Portalegre and the School of Further Education. The Johanningmeier (eds.), The colonial experience formation of this network enables the project to take in education: historical issues and perspectives. root institutionally and socially, involving the auton‑ Gent: Paedagogica Historica. International omous government, the schools and the educational Journal of the History of Education (Supple‑ decision‑makers at a local and regional level.
The Network of Scholastic Museums of Por‑ Julia, D. (2000). Construcción de las disciplinas es‑ talegre is made up of Scholastic nuclei which work colares en Europa. In J.R. Berrio (ed.), La cultura together according to the up‑to‑date conceptions escolar de Europa. Tendências históricas emer- which defend the fact that the past and its material gentes. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, pp. 45‑78.
witnesses belong to the community heirs of the pro‑ Lawn, M. & Grosvenor, I. (eds.) (2005). Materi- ducers of these same materials. In this way, the nuclei alities of schooling. Design, technology, objects, in the Mouzinho da Silveira Secondary School (the routlines. Oxford: Symposium Books.
old Lyceum), the Secondary School of S. Lourenço Magalhães, J. (2001). Roteiro de fontes para a (old technical school) were constituted and the con‑ história da educação. Lisboa: Instituto de Ino‑ stitution of a nucleus in the primary school is being studied, starting from the teams which are develop‑ Mogarro, M. J. & Crespo, M. E. (2001). O liceu ing work in the two School Groups in Portalegre; the de Portalegre — percurso entre a memória e o viability of other nuclei is also being analysed, such arquivo. In História e Memória da Escola. Actas as the old Escola do Magistério Primário, now ex‑ do III Encontro de História Regional e Local do tinct, whose archives are kept by the local Polytech‑ Distrito de Portalegre. Lisboa: APH – Associa‑ nic Institute. These nuclei are made up of teams of ção de Professores de História, pp. 73‑77.
teachers of the schools themselves, who propose to Mogarro, M. J. (2001a). A formação de professores extract and organize the respective assets and devel‑ no Portugal contemporâneo — a Escola do Mag- op activities based on their documents particularly istério Primário de Portalegre. Tese de douto‑ involving the pupils of each institution.
ramento. Cáceres: Universidade da Extremadu‑ra (texto policopiado).
Mogarro, M. J. et al. (2001b). Catálogo da Ex‑ posição História e Memória da Escola. In Actas do 3.º Encontro de História Regional e Local do Bidon, D. A.; Compère, M. M. & Gaulupeau, Y. Distrito de Portalegre. História e Memória da (1999). Le patrimoine de l’éducation nationale. Escola — 2.º vol. Lisboa: A.P.H. — Associação de Professores de História, pp. 75‑103.
sísifo 1 | maria joão mogarro | archives and education: the construction of educational memory Mogarro, M. J. (2001c). Projecto: História e do aluno liceal (último quartel do século XIX memória da escola. Aprender – Revista da Es- — meados do século XX). Lisboa: Educa.
cola Superior de Educação de Portalegre, n.º 24, Ruiz Berrio, J. (ed.) (2000). La cultura escolar de Europa. Tendencias históricas emergentes. Ma‑ Mogarro, M. J. (2002). O lugar dos museus nas correntes pedagógicas em Portugal — uma per‑ Vidal, D. G. & Moraes, C. S. V. (orgs.) (2004). Es- spectiva histórica. Revista Ícone Educação, 8, 1 e cola de Aplicação: o arquivo da escola e a memória escolar. CR ROM. S. Paulo: Centro de Memória Mogarro, M. J. (2003). Liceu Mouzinho da Sil‑ veira — Portalegre. In A. Nóvoa & A.T. Santa‑ Vidal, D. G. & Zaia, I. B (2002). De arquivo Clara (coords.), “Liceus de Portugal”. Históri- morto a permanente: o arquivo escolar e a con‑ as, Arquivos, Memórias. Lisboa: Edições ASA, strução da cidadania. In C.S.V. Moraes & J.F. Alves (orgs.), Inventário de fontes documen- Mogarro, M. J. (2003a). Os museus pedagógicos em tais. Contribuição à pesquisa sobre o ensino Portugal: história e actualidade. In V.P. Saavedra técnico no Estado de S. Paulo. S. Paulo: Centro (coord.), I Foro Ibérico de Museísmo Pedagóxico Paula Souza e Imprensa Oficial do Estado, pp. — O Museísmo Pedagóxico en España e Portugal: itinerarios, experiencias e perspectivas. Santiago Vieira, J. (2003). A vertente arquivística do pro‑ de Compostela: Xunta da Galicia / Mupega — Mu‑ jecto. In A. Nóvoa & A.T. Santa‑Clara seu Pedagóxico da Galicia, pp. 85‑114.
(coords.), “Liceus de Portugal”. Histórias, Ar- Mogarro, M. J. (coord.) (2003b). Projecto: Rede de quivos, Memórias. Lisboa: Edições ASA, pp. Museus Escolares de Portalegre (REMEP). Por‑ Viñao Frago, A.(2001). Fracasan las reformas Mogarro, M. J. (2005). Os arquivos escolares nas educativas? La respuesta de un historiador. instituições educativas portuguesas. Preservar a Educação no Brasil: história e historiografia. informação, construir a memória. Revista Pro- Campinas/S. Paulo: Autores Associados, SBHE Posições, 16, 1, 46, Jan./Abr., pp. 103‑116.
— Sociedade Brasileira de História da Edu‑ Moraes, C. S. V. & Alves, J. F. (org.) (2002). In- ventário de fontes documentais. Contribuição à Viñao Frago, A. (1998). Por una historia de la cul‑ pesquisa sobre o ensino técnico no Estado de S. tura escolar: cuestiones, enfoques, fuentes. In Paulo. S. Paulo: Centro Paula Souza e Imprensa Culturas y civilizaciones. III Congreso de la Aso- ciación de Historia Contemporánea. Valladolid: Nóvoa, A. & Santa‑Clara, A. T. (coords.) (2003). Universidad de Valladolid, pp. 167‑183.
“Liceus de Portugal”: arquivos, histórias, Zaia, I. B. (2004). O acervo escolar: organização e memórias. Porto: Edições Asa.
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