N. 2 Abril /April 2008
Centro de Documentación / Documentation Center
Objetivos/ Objectives
Identificar y atender las necesidades de información, adquisición, organización, almacenamiento, generación, uso y difusión de la información en salud pública veterinaria y proveer recursos bibliográficos técnicos-científicos al equipo de profesionales de la unidad y a los usuarios externos. Identify and take care of the needs of information, acquisition, organization, storage, generation, use and diffusion of the information in veterinary public health and provide technical scientific bibliographical resources to the professional staff of the unit and to the users external. Temas de interés general / Subjects of general interest
Pedro N. Acha Award for Veterinary Public Health
Call for Nominations 2008

The Pan American Health and Education Foundation (PAHEF) is accepting nominations for the Pedro N.
Acha Award for Veterinary Public Health Award. This ward is one of five awards of The Awards for
Excellence in Inter-American Public Health Program, a partnership between the Pan American Health
Organization (PAHO) and the Foundation.
The Pan American Health and Education Foundation is celebrating its 40th anniversary, and is proud to
manage this award. It was created in 1993 to recognize outstanding research by an undergraduate
student in veterinary public health within the last three years.
The Foundation advises nominees to careful y read and follow the guidelines. Nominations must be
received no later than Friday, May 30, 2008.
To learn more, please visit our website, e-mail us at, or call 202-974-3416.
Premio Pedro N. Acha a la Salud Pública Veterinaria
Convocatoria 2008
La Fundación Panamericana de la Salud y Educación (PAHEF) está aceptando nominaciones para el Premio Pedro N. Acha a la Salud Pública Veterinaria. Este premio es uno de los cinco galardones otorgados por la Fundación a través del Programa de Premios a la Excelencia en la Salud Pública Interamericana, en sociedad con la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS). La Fundación Panamericana de la Salud y Educación está celebrando su 40. º Aniversario y está orgullosa de administrar este galardón. Este premio fue creado en 1993 para reconocer la investigación sobresaliente realizada en los últimos tres años por un estudiante de salud pública veterinaria. La Fundación aconseja a los nominadores leer cuidadosamente el reglamento del premio y cumplir con
las normas establecidas. La fecha límite para recibir nominaciones es el viernes, 30 de Mayo de
Para más información favor visite el website, envíe un e-mail a, o llame al 202 974-3416. Informaciones disponibles en formato electrónico / Information available in electronic format
Fiebre Aftosa /Foot-and-Mouth Disease
Analytic approximation of spatial epidemic models of foot and mouth disease
Parham PE, Sing BK, Ferguson NM
Theor Popul Biol. 2008 May;73 (3): 349-68
The effect of spatial heterogeneity in epidemic models has improved with computational advances, yet
far less progress has been made in developing analytical tools for understanding such systems. Here, we
develop two classes of second-order moment closure methods for approximating the dynamics of a
stochastic spatial model of the spread of foot and mouth disease. We consider the performance of such
'pseudo-spatial' models as a function of R(0), the locality in disease transmission, farm distribution and
geographically-targeted control when an arbitrary number of spatial kernels are incorporated. One
advantage of mapping complex spatial models onto simpler deterministic approximations lies in the
ability to potentially obtain a better analytical understanding of disease dynamics and the effects of
control. We exploit this tractability by deriving analytical results in the invasion stages of an FMD
outbreak, highlighting key principles underlying epidemic spread on contact networks and the effect of
spatial correlations.
Text in English

Epidemiological Patterns of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Worldwide
Rweymamu M, Roeder P, Mackay D, Sumption K, Brownlie J, Leforban Y, Valarcher JF, Knowles
JN, Saraiva V
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2008 Feb; 55 (1): 57-72
Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) is a clinical syndrome in animals due to FMD virus that exists in seven
serotypes, whereby recovery from one sero-type does not confer immunity against the other six. So
when considering intervention strategies in endemic settings, it is important to take account of the
characteristics of the different serotypes in different ecological systems. FMD serotypes are not
uniformly distributed in the regions of the world where the disease still occurs. For example, the
cumulative incidence of FMD serotypes show that six of the seven serotypes of FMD (O, A, C, SAT-1,
SAT-2, SAT-3) have occurred in Africa, while Asia contends with four sero-types (O, A, C, Asia-1), and
South America with only three (O, A, C). Periodically there have been incursions of Types SAT-1 and
SAT-2 from Africa into the Middle East. This paper describes the global dynamics for the seven sero-
types and attempts to define FMD epidemiological clusters in the different regions of the world. These
have been described on a continent by continent basis. The review has reaffirmed that the movement of
infected animals is the most important factor in the spread of FMD within the endemically infected
regions. It also shows that the eco-system based approach for defining the epidemiological patterns of
FMD in endemic, which was originally described in South America, can apply readily to other parts of the
world. It is proposed that any coordinated regional or global strategy for FMD control should be based
on a sound epidemiological assessment of the incidence and distribution of FMD, identifying risk sources
as either primary or secondary endemic eco-systems.
Text in English

Modelling foot-and-mouth disease: A comparison between the UK and Denmark
Tildesley MJ, Keeling MJ
Prev Vet Med. 2008 Jun; 85 (1-2): 107-24
Whilst the UK 2001 FMD (foot-and-mouth disease) outbreak provides an extremely rich source of spatio-
temporal epidemic data, it is not clear how the models and parameters from the UK can be translated to
other scenarios. Here we consider how the model framework used to capture the UK epidemic can be
applied to a hypothetical FMD outbreak in Denmark. Whilst pigs played a relatively minor role in the UK
epidemic (being the infected animal on just 18 farms), they dominate the Danish livestock landscape. In
addition, it is not clear whether transmission parameters from the UK will transfer to Denmark where
farming practices may be significantly different. We therefore explore a large volume of high-
dimensional parameter space, but seek to relate final epidemic size, risk of spread to Danish islands and
potential success of control measures, to early indicators of epidemic dynamics. The results of this
extensive modelling exercise therefore allow us to provide timely advice on control options based on the
observed behaviours of the first few generations.
Text in English

Influenza Aviar /Avian Influenza
Confronting an influenza pandemic with inespensive generic agents: can it be done?
Fedson DS
Lancet Infect Dis. 2008
Avian influenza A H5N1 presents a serious and possibly imminent pandemic threat. In such an event,
adequate supplies of affordable vaccines and antiviral agents will be unavailable to most people in the
world. In view of the overwhelming need for effective alternatives, generic agents that target the host
immune response or the pandemic virus should be considered. Many scientists doubt the effectiveness
of these agents. Nonetheless, several studies suggest that statins improve outcomes in patients with
bacteraemia and pneumonia and might be similarly effective against influenza. An experimental study
has shown that the fibrate gemfibrozil, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha
agonist, reduces mortality in H2N2 influenza virus-infected mice. There is substantial molecular cross-
talk between statins and PPAR agonists, and their clinical effects are additive in patients with
cardiovascular diseases. Chloroquine increases endosomal pH, impairing influenza virus release into the
cytosol. Statins, fibrates, and chloroquine are produced as generic medications in developing countries.
They are inexpensive, could be stockpiled, and would be available on the first pandemic day. With a lack
of realistic alternatives for confronting the next pandemic, research is urgently needed to determine
whether these and other generic agents could mitigate the effects of what might otherwise become an
unprecedented global public-health crisis.
Text in English (article in press)

Development of methods for detection and quantification of avian influenza and
newcascle disease virus in compost by real-time reverse transcription polymerase
chain reaction and virus isolation

Guan J, Chan M, Ma B, Grenier V, Wilkie DC, Pasick J, Brooks BW, Spencer JL
Poult Sci. 2008 May; 87 (5): 838-43
Composting has been used for disposal of poultry carcasses and manure following outbreaks caused by
avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), but methods are needed to test for
survival of the viruses in compost to ensure biosecurity. Methods developed in the present study include
extracting viruses from compost and purifying viral RNA. The extracted viruses were detected by virus
isolation using embryonated chicken eggs, and the purified RNA was detected by real-time reverse
transcription PCR (RRT-PCR). The virus isolation and the RRT-PCR methods were evaluated with 3
compost preparations that were produced from chicken manure mixed with corn silage, wood shavings,
or wheat straw. The detection limits of both methods were 1,700 and 1,000 embryo lethal doses of AIV
and NDV per gram of compost, respectively. The copy number of viral RNA quantified by RRT-PCR was
highly correlated with the amount of virus in compost. The results suggested that the RRT-PCR method
may be used as an alternative to the virus isolation method for rapid detection and accurate
quantification of AIV and NDV in compost.
Text in English

Inocuidad de los Alimentos /Food Safety
Assessing the effectiveness of critical control points to guarantee food safety
Doménech E, Escriche I, Martorell S
Food Control 2008 Jun; 19 (6): 557-65
Regulation No. 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004, on the hygiene of foodstuffs, is compulsory in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States since 1 January 2006. Articles 12 and 13 state food business operators should establish and operate food safety programmes and procedures based the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles as the HACCP system is an instrument to help food business operators attain a higher standard of food safety. In addition, article 15 establishes the HACCP requirements should take account of the seven principles contained in the Codex Alimentarius. Production of safe food based on the implementation of the principles of the HACCP ultimately relies on the effectiveness of the control and monitoring systems implemented at each of its critical control points (CCP). Thus, it is worthy to have a method available to estimate the CCP effectiveness as it could be used to provide quantitative measure of the suitability of the HACCP plan. This paper presents a method to assess the effectiveness of the critical control point based on the consideration of the performance of the couple control-monitoring system. An application example is also provided showing how the new approach performs in assessing CCP effectiveness by appropriately assessing and differentiating the influence of the capability and reliability of the control- monitoring system.
Text in English

Probabilistic risk assessment model for allergens in food: sensitivity analysis of the
minimum eliciting dose and food consumpatiom

Kruizing AG, Briggs D, Crevel RW, Knulst AC, Bosch LM, Houben GF
Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 May; 46 (5): 1437-43
Previously, TNO developed a probabilistic model to predict the likelihood of an allergic reaction, resulting
in a quantitative assessment of the risk associated with unintended exposure to food allergens. The
likelihood is estimated by including in the model the proportion of the population who is allergic, the
proportion consuming the food and the amount consumed, the likelihood of the food containing an
adventitious allergen and its concentration, and the minimum eliciting dose (MED) distribution for the
allergen. In the present work a sensitivity analysis was performed to identify which parts of the model
most influence the output. A shift in the distribution of the MED reflecting a more potent al ergen, and
an increase in the proportion of the population consuming a food, increased the number of estimated
allergic reactions considerably. In contrast, the number of estimated allergic reactions hardly changed
when the MEDs were based on a more severe response, or when the amount of food consumed was
increased. Development of this work will help to generate a more accurate picture of the potential public
health impact of allergens. It highlights areas where research is best focused, specifically the
determination of minimum eliciting doses and understanding of the food choices of allergic individuals.
Text in English

Seasonal incidence and molecular characterization of Salmonella from dairy cows,
calves, and farm environment

Pangloli P, Dje Y, Ahmed O, Doane CA, Oliver SP, Draughon FA
Foodborne Pathogen Dis. 2008; 5 (1): 87-96
The occurrence patterns and molecular characteristics of Salmonella are important for surveillance and
control of the pathogens. Objectives of this study were to determine month-to-month variation and
seasonal effects on the occurrence of Salmonella in dairy animals and environments and to characterize
selected Salmonella isolates. A total of 7680 animal and environmental samples, collected monthly from
a dairy farm, were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella during a 12-month study. Major sources of
Salmonella on the dairy farm (% positive) were milking parlor air (62%) and bird droppings (63%)
during winter; feeds (50-58%), water (53-67%), calf bedding (63%), soils (60-63%), milking parlor air
(60%), and bird droppings (50%) in spring; all animal and environmental samples (40-92%) except
milking parlor air (25%) and bulk tank milk (29%) in summer; and feeds (60-71%), cow beddings
(59%), cow soils (50%), air (46-71%), and insects (63%) during fall. Salmonella ribotyping indicated
that most serovars came from different sources but some might have originated from a common source
and transmitted from site to site on the farm. These data provide some important information on key
animal and environmental sampling sites needed to initiate on-farm management programs for control
of this important foodborne pathogen.
Text in English

Lengua Azul / Bluetongue
Bluetongue virus: European Community inter-laboratory comparison tests to
evaluate ELISA and RT-PCR detection methods

Batten CA, Bachanek-Bankowska K, Bin-Tarif A, Kgosana L, Swain AJ, Corteyn M, Darpel K,
Mellor OS, Elliott HG, Oura CA
Vet Microbiol. 2008 May; 129 (1-2): 80-8
European Community national reference laboratories participated in two inter-laboratory comparison tests in 2006 to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of their 'in-house' ELISA and RT-PCR assays for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies and RNA. The first ring trial determined the ability of laboratories to detect antibodies to all 24 serotypes of BTV. The second ring trial, which included both antisera and EDTA blood samples from animals experimentally infected with the northern European strain of BTV-8, determined the ability of laboratories to detect BTV-8 antibodies and RNA, as well as the diagnostic sensitivity of the assays. A total of six C-ELISAs, six real-time RT-PCR and three conventional RT-PCR assays were used. All C-ELISAs were capable of detecting the BTV serotypes currently circulating in Europe (BTV-1, 2, 4, 8, 9 and 16), however some assays displayed inconsistencies in the detection of other serotypes, particularly BTV-19. All C-ELISAs detected BTV-8 antibodies in cattle and sheep by 21dpi, while the majority of assays detected antibodies by 9dpi in cattle and 8dpi in sheep. All the RT-PCR assays were able to detect BTV-8, although the real-time assays were more sensitive compared to the conventional assays. The majority of real-time RT-PCR assays
detected BTV RNA as early as 2dpi in cattle and 3dpi in sheep. These two ring trails provide evidence
that national reference laboratories within the EC are capable of detecting BTV antibodies and RNA and
provide specificity and sensitivity information on the detection methods currently available.
Text in English

Rabia /Rabies
[An historical view of rabies in Chile]
Laval E, Lepe P
Rev Chilena Infectol. 2008 Apr;25 (2): s2-s7
In this review international and national historical features of rabies are presented remarking the start of
preventive immunization in Chile, at year 1896, with the creation of the first service for rabies
vaccination and la descentralización of preventive treatment from year 1929. Figures of human cases
produced by this zoonosis between 1950 and 1986 are described, señalándose changes that occurred in
local epidemiology of rabies since 1990, with an endemic pattern in bats and almost disappearance of
canine rabies.
Text in Spanish

[Rabies in Chile: 1989-2005]
Favi CM, Rodriguez AL, Espinosa MC, Yung PV
Rev Chilena Infectol. 2008 Apr;25 (2): s8-s13
A retrospective epidemiological study about epidemiology of rabies in Chile between years 1989 and
2005 was done. A data base of 39793 national registries of rabies samples was analyzed by means of
statistical packages. Out of 39793 analyzed cases, 719 bats, 7 dogs, 7 cats, 1 bovine and 1 human were
positive to rabies throughout the 17 years of this study. The statistical analysis established a significant
increase in the proportions of positivity in bats, with predominance of variant 4 between the reservoirs.
Given the complexity of the wild cycle of the rabies in Chile, it is necessary to maintain a program
control of rabies, directed to educate people for a responsible possession of domestic animals, due to
the risk of rabies transmission from bat to the susceptible species.
Text in Spanish

Zoonosis Emergentes / Emerging Zoonoses
Emerging zoonoses: the challenge for public health and biodefense
Murphy FA
Prev Vet Med. 2008
The concept of new and emerging diseases has captured the public interest and has revitalized the
public health infectious disease research community. This interest has also resulted in competition for
funding and turf wars between animal health and public health scientists and public officials and, in
some cases, has delayed and hindered progress toward effective prevention, control and biodefense.
There is a dynamic list of outbreaks causing substantial morbidity and mortality in humans and often in
the reservoir animal species. Some agents have the potential to grow into major epidemics. There are
many determinants that influence the emergence of diseases of concern that require the use of current
understanding of the nature of agent persistence and spread. Additional factors that are global must be
added to plans for prevention and control. To this complex mix has been added the potential for
accidental or malicious release of agents. The nature of emerging infectious agents and their impact is
largely unpredictable. Models that strive to predict the dynamics of agents may be useful but can also
blind us to increasing disease risks if it does not match a specific model. Field investigations of early
events will be critical and should drive prevention and control actions. Many disease agents have
developed strategies to overcome extremes of reservoir qualities like population size and density. Every
infectious agent spreads easier when its hosts are closer together. Zoonoses must be dealt with at the
interface of human and animal health by all available information. Lessons learned from the emergence
of and response to agents like West Nile virus, H5N1 avian influenza, SARS and bovine spongiform
encephalopathy, the cause of new-variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, must be used to create
better plans for response and meet the challenge for public health and biodefense.
Text in English (article in press)
Pan American Foot and Mouth Disease Center Centro de Documentación / Documentation Center (CEDOC)
Teléfono / Phone: 55 21 3661-9
Se puede tener acceso a las publicaciones en el link citado bajo los resúmenes o solicitarlas a nuestro Centro de Documentación a través del correo electrónico. It’s possible to have access to publications in the mentioned link under the summaries or to ask our Documentation Center for them via e-mail.


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