No está claro cuán grande es el papel de los antibióticos en las relaciones competitivas entre los microorganismos en condiciones naturales. Zelman Waxman creía que este papel era mínimo, los antibióticos no se forman sino en culturas limpias en entornos ricos. Posteriormente, sin embargo, se descubrió que en muchos productos, la actividad de síntesis de antibióticos aumenta en presencia de otros tipos o productos específicos de su metabolismo.

  The first prophylactic antibiotic dose should provide a sufficient antibiotic serum level throughout the surgery to combat organisms   The first dose be timed to occur within 60 minutes before the surgical incision is made.   If a fluoroquinolone or vancomycin is chosen for administered within 120 minutes of the start of   For most surgeries, the use of prophylactic antibiotics should end within 24 hours after   Cefazolin or cefuroxime are suggested for prophylactic antibiotics up to 72 hours to Cardiothoracic Cefazolin or cefuroxime; if beta 72-hour duration
lactam allergy, vancomycin or advocated by some, but

24 hours is likely to be

Cefazolin or cefuroxime; if beta
lactam allergy, vancomycin
with or without gentamicin, or

Oral: neomycin, with
Combination of oral and
erythromycin base or
parenteral prophylaxis
may decrease infection

Adapted with permission from Bratzler DW, Houck PM. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery: an advisory statement from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project. Clin Infect Dis 2004,38:1707.   Adapted with permission from Bratzler DW, Houck PM. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery: an advisory statement from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project. Clin Infect Dis 2004,38:1707.   Incidence of incarceration ~10% among   Cannot be reduced into the abdominal   Strangulated hernias have incarcerated   Frequently, intense pain is caused by   Incarcerated inguinal hernias present with abdominal distention, pain, nausea, and vomiting due to intestinal obstruction.   Plain abdominal X-rays may verify intestinal obstruction in cases of incarceration.   Etiology for extensive resection:   Congenital anomalies leading to short bowel syndrom include –   Midgut volvulus w/ intestinal necrosis   Extensive resection due to malignancy.   Resection resulting in less than 120cm of intact   Resection of up to 50% of smal bowel is   Resection of up to 70% is tolerated if terminal   Infants may tolerate upto 85% of smal bowel   Loss of the ileocecal valve results in rapid emptying of enteral contents into the colon and reflux of colonic bacterial flora into smal bowel.   The entire jejunum can be resected without serious adverse nutritional sequela.  Cel ular hyperplasia and bowel hypertrophy occur over a 2- to 3-year period, increasing the absorptive surface area.  Fat absorption is most likely permanently   Hyperoxaluria & Nephrolithiasis   Gastric hypersecretion – in early postop period. Increased acid load may injure distal bowel mucosa  hypermotility & impaired absorption.   Cholelithiasis – altered bilirubin metabolism after ileal resection  increased risk of pigmented gal stones stones that is 2nd to a decreased bile salt pool. TPN also may lead to increased risk of cholelithiasis.   Hyperoxaluria & Nephrolithiasis –  Excessive fatty acids within the colonic lumen  Unbound oxalate that normal y is made insoluble by Ca-binding and is excreted in feces is thus, readily absorbed.  This results in hyperoxaluria and calcium  Caused by rapid intestinal transit.  Presence of hyperosmolar enteric contents.  Disruption of enterohepatic bile acid  Fat absorption is most severly impaired by  Loss of ileocecal valve permits reflux of  Intestinal dysmotility increases colonization.  Bacterial overgrowth & change in flora results in pH alteration & deconjugation of bile salts.  This results malabsorption, fluid loss,   Irreversibly acetylates cyclooxygenase   Results in inhibiting plt synthesis of   Higher doses than > 80 – 160mg PO / day   GPC – streptoccocci, syphilis,   GPR - Neisseria m., C. perfringens,   Beta-hemolytic strep, antrax   Not effective for Staph or Enterococcus   Ampicil in/amoxicil in: PCN + Enterococcus coverage   Unasyn: PCN + GPC (staph & strep), GNR +/-   NOT FOR Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, or Serratia.   Sulbactam & Clavulanic acid – are beta-lactamase


Lei n.º 37/2003, de 22 de Agosto (Versão consolidada) Incorpora as alterações introduzidas pela Lei n.º 49/2005, de 30 de Agosto. Não dispensa a consulta do Diário da República em Estabelece as bases do financiamento do ensino superior A Assembleia da República decreta, nos termos da alínea c) do artigo 161.º da Constituição, para valer como lei geral da Rep

Conduct of seminars, discussions, round-tables and workshops devoted to the boardaspects of telecommunications policy, organisation, performance, technology re-search, consumer protection, telecom laws, etc., Involving providers and consumersof service, economists, intellectuals and policy makers; ICTs AND SOCIETY Involving consumer associations and providers of service in discussions; Editor

Copyright © 2010-2014 Sedative Dosing Pdf