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Name:_I AM THE KEY____________________ ANTHSCI 178A/278A - Past and Present Pestilence In-class Exam (30 Minutes)
1. Name the three disease designations by origin of transmission (2 pts each – name and definition) (HINT: Hubalek article) 1. Zoonotic – Animal to human transmission (also acceptable in the –osis form)
2. Anthroponotic – human to human transmission
3. Sapronotic – transmission from the environment

2. Name the three manifestations of plague in humans (2pts each – name and definition) 1 Bubonic – swollen lymph nodes, transmitted by fleas, causes “buboes”

2 Septicemic – the Black Death – extremities go black from gangrene

3 Pneumonic – transmitted among humans or from animals directly by aerosol

3. What is the number of H antigens and N antigens on the Influenza A virus? What does this mean for the virus and for us? a. H – 15 (16 also acceptable, one more than the chart specified in non-human
(if you interpreted this as H & N on one virus and said 1 of each, I will accept this

c. Meaning – rapid antigenic change means hard to develop an immune reaction,

also hard to develop a vaccine, as we don’t always have an idea of which flu will
emerge from the animal reservoir

4. What does DOTS stand for? Briefly describe it? a. DOTS – Directly Observed Treatment – Short course
b. What? Watching the patient take their medication to ensure compliance;

prevents the emergence of resistant strains – 6 month course rather than longer

Name:_I AM THE KEY____________________ 5. What does MDR TB stand for? Name a drug that is used to combat TB?
a. MDR TB Multiple Drug Resistant Tuberculosis
b. Drug – Rifampicin, Rifabutin, Ciprofloxacin, Amikacin, Ethambutol,

Streptomycin, Clarithromycin, Azithromycin, Pyrazinamide, Izoniazid
6. What is the difference between HIV and AIDS?
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, whereas AIDS is Acquired Immune
Deficiency Syndrome, and is a disease characterized by a suite of secondary infections, a
CD4+ count <200, and is when the immune system simply no longer functions

7. Matching – Dates and numbers (2 pts each) People who have died of AIDS so far (UNAIDS estimate) Matching – Names and diseases (2pts each) Has killed more people than any other disease Second to Black Death in epidemic deaths Affects about 1500 people in the US each year Showed mosquito transmission of Yellow Fever Name:_I AM THE KEY____________________ 8. In your own words, what is “viral chatter”? In what context was it used in this class? In what other cases might it be relevant (doesn’t have to be a virus)?
“Viral chatter” is a term used to describe repeated introductions of pathogens from
animals into human hosts. We discussed it in terms of SIV and HIV, where bushmeat
hunters are likely to have introduced SIV from chimps and other primates into their blood,
repeatedly, so it was only a matter of time before a viral strain that matched and was
successful in transmission to other humans, arose. This is relevant in any zoonotic
emergence, where frequent animal-human pathogen transmission occurs – it only takes the
right mutation or strain to exploit the human host and persist.

9. What are the steps necessary for zoonotic disease emergence? Use a specific example from
class to describe this in context

The necessary steps for zoonotic disease emergence are: contact with the animal reservoir
that is sufficient to result in pathogen transmission; the pathogen must persist within the
human host; the pathogen must transmit between humans (either directly or through
another vector). Successful emergence can either simply be due to repeated infection from
the animal reservoir, or from disease establishment and persistence in the human
Any disease from class that established is an appropriate example…

10. What is the definitive host for human malaria? Discuss some factors in the spread of the
disease? What is the potential for further spread; what prevention methods work or do not? 10pts
The definitive host for human malaria is the anopheline mosquito (the malaria reproduces
in them). Factors in the spread of malaria include providing appropriate mosquito habitat
(agricultural conversion, logging, etc.), providing sufficient warm blood meals within flight
distance (human crowding, human encroachment into sylvatic areas), flying it all over the
world (planes, globalization, mosquito transport). Further spread? More crowding, global
warming, lack of eradication, further land conversion, etc. Prevention – DDT: indoor
spraying good, environmental spraying bad; bednets – useful at the individual level to
prevent infective bites, hard to implement at a large scale; vaccination – useless;
prophylactic drugs: useful until resistance evolves; waiting for a blood borne mutation –
ambitious and not practical.

Bonus 2pts: we’ve looked at 6 major diseases in class, but we’ve mentioned more than 20 other
zoonotics. Name up to 10 emerging, re-emerging or potential zoonotic diseases, excluding the
big six we’ve studied in detail.
e.g. Nipah
Yellow Fever
Venezuelan Hemmorhagic Fever Hantavirus
Lyme Disease
Ross River Fever
Lassa Fever Japanese encephalitis
St Louis Encephalitis
West Nile Fever


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