Microsoft word - natl curric sample tests version 3

This section includes examples of tests for each of the levels described, Basic, Intermediate I, Intermediate II, Advanced I, and Advanced II. The texts are chosen based on their relevance to the professional interests of the students as well as their connection to the material taught in class. The criteria for selecting texts for tests include appropriate content and suitable level. Multiple factors determine the level of a text: level of abstraction, vocabulary, and readability. Since readability and vocabulary are easily measured, we have included guidelines for these measures to aid in the selection of texts for testing. The suggested lengths are appropriate for a 1 1/2 to 2 hour testing session. The guidelines are presented in the table below. Guidelines for Texts Level The length of a text can be determined by counting the words or by using the word count feature of most word processing programs or by using an online text analysis program. Vocabulary 1-1000 refers to the percentage of words in the text drawn from the 1000 most frequently used English words. Easier texts in general include a larger percentage of high-frequency words. AWL refers to the academic word list (Coxhead,1998). This list is compiled from corpus studies, and it contains around 500 words that appear very frequently in academic texts. The Flesch Reading Ease figure is a popular readability measure based on the average length of the words in a text and the average length of the sentences. The higher the readability, the easier the text. The Sample Texts at a Glance 510 83.65 3.77 3.77
Intermediate Outstanding 1222 77.21 4.21
Intermediate I - Level 4 (Psychometric 77-84)
Article: The Price of Success
1. Like a soldier preparing for battle, Kensuke Suzuki leads a regimented life. He's up at 6:30 every morning. Gymnastics practice begins at 7: 15. From 9 a.m. until 3:00 p.m. there is intensive class work, then four more hours of athletics. Dinner follows at 8 p.m. Three nights a week he attends an extra 80 minute academic session. Then comes homework and TV. Exhausted, by midnight Kensuke collapses into bed. It's a demanding schedule - especially when you're only 13 years old. Yet Kensuke plunges into his days with a chipper, can-do spirit. He knows the grinding classroom work and the afterdinner sessions at the supplementary school, or Juku, are part of the price of success in Japan's educational school system. "Sometimes I'm tired and I don't feel like going to Juku or gym practice," he concedes. But if I don't go, I'll fall behind." 2. Although his peers in most other countries would find Kensuke's schedule appalling, his is a typical day for Japanese junior high school students. Tokyo's ministry of education sets nation-wide standards for achievement, measuring what pupils actually know, rather than their aptitude. High marks assure admission to a top-ranked university and a good career; poor grades and test scores can mean a second-rate college and a job with little promise. The result is a near mania on the part of Japanese kids for memorization of facts, figures and formulas, which can be parroted back during exams. 3. To get an edge, more than half of Japan's urban junior-high students attend Juku. Kensuke started going when he was eleven. "My grades weren't so hot," he confides. His mother, Junko Suzuki, concedes that special help is a good idea. "What high school he gets into depends entirely on his grade average, so if he doesn't get the extra tutoring, his future is at risk," she says. The classes, which cost about $100 a month, concentrate on one subject per session, including Japanese, math and English. Unlike the lockstep pace of the regular classroom, there's time at Juku for explanations if a student has trouble with a concept. "It's more fun to study there, I understand the material better." 4. Kensuke has already decided that he wants to attend Waseda University, a prestigious private school in Tokyo, from which his father, a civil engineer and construction company executive, graduated. He hopes to gain admission to the high school affiliated with Waseda, which should make getting into the university a bit easier. "If I can get into Waseda I think I'll be able to get a job with a good company," he says. Despite all the rigors of his schedule, Kensuke remains a happy, even cheerful child. He genuinely enjoys gymnastics - although sports will do him no good when it comes to getting into university. He enjoys music and has even exchanged puppy-love notes with a girl in his class. They haven't gone out on a date yet. After all, they see each other at school all the time. Questions
1. Translate the following noun phrases. I) an extra 80 minute academic session 2) a 7) Japan's urban junior-high students 8) b) caused him to be too tired to enjoy anything outside school. c) did not destroy his positive approach to life. d) forced him to do far more than he could. 3. Kensuke was willing to follow this schedule because (paragraph 2) . a) all Japanese children have the same program. b) his aim was to get into a very good university. c) the regular Japanese standards were too high. 4. Mark: TRUE or FALSE. (paragraph 2). Justify from the text. Japanese standards of education do not take the mental ability of the student into consideration. TRUE/FALSE Justify: 5. The writer's attitude to "memorization of facts" is critical. TRUE/FALSE 7. Good grades are important in Japan because 8. Kensuke liked the Juku classes, since in the regular classes he 9. Translate the mother's statement in paragraph 3.
Article: Methods of Education: East Versus West
1. A teacher from a Western country recently visited an elementary school in an Asian country. In one class, she watched sixty young children as they learned to draw a cat. The class teacher drew a big circle on the blackboard, and sixty children copied it on their papers. The teacher drew a smaller circle on top of the first and then put two triangles on top of it. The children drew in the same way. The lesson continued until there were sixty-one identical cats in the classroom. Each student's cat looked exactly like the one on the board. 2. The visiting teacher watched the lesson and was surprised. The teaching methods were very different from the way of teaching in her own country. A children's art lesson in her own country produced a room full of unique pictures, each one completely different from the others. Why? What causes this difference in educational methods? In a classroom in any country, the instructor teaches more than art or history or language. He or she also teaches culture (the ideas and beliefs of that society). Each educational system is a mirror that reflects the culture of the society 3. In a society such as the United States or Canada, which has many national, religious, and cultural differences, people highly value individualism - the differences among people. Teachers place a lot of importance on the qualities that make each student special. The educational systems in these countries show these values. Students do not memorize information. Instead, they work individually and find answers themselves. There is often discussion in the classroom. At an early age, students learn to form their own ideas and OpInIOns. Questions
1. From the title we understand that this text is about (5 points). The visiting teacher came from an oriental country. TRUE/FALSE 3. In paragraph 1, line 8, the word "one" refers to
4. Which of the three pictures below a, b or c shows the correct order
in which the teacher drew the cat on the board? Circle the correct option. 5. In paragraph 2 the visiting teacher was surprised because. a) there were sixty children in the class. b) the educational methods were so similar. c) the cats were all absolutely identical. d) the students were so well-disciplined. 6. How is the word "culture" defined in paragraph 27 7. Translate: "Each educational system is a mirror that reflects the culture of the society. (Paragraph 2, lines.7-8). 8. Paragraph 3. Circle: TRUE or FALSE. Justify from the text.
"Individualism" is a problem in countries such as Canada and USA. TRUE/FALSE
9. Paragraph 3. Classroom discussion encourages. b) learners to present their views to others. (5 points)
14. Paragraph 5.
What is the negative aspect of the Asian system?
(6 points)

15. Paragraph 6.

Intermediate II (Psychometric 85-99)
Article: Outstanding Teachers*

This article is about four exceptional teachers who manage to motivate their students and
foster the love of learning. All of them spent time and effort developing teaching programs
that would appeal to different types of students. Their efforts lead to better student
relationships and cooperation in class as well as higher academic achievement.

Peace Education
1. Diane Shatles takes a holistic approach to reading and writing. "In my
classroom, books – not workbooks or worksheets- are most important," she
says. Her teaching is child-centered. "I don't want to stand in front of the
room and do all the talking," says Diane. "I want to encourage students to
communicate with each other, and to cooperate."
2. Diane's philosophy of teaching comes together in a program she calls
'Conflict Resolution through Children's Literature'. She uses literature to
teach concepts of peace education: acceptance of others, communication,
cooperation, and conflict resolution. Her methods include such techniques as
semantic mapping, role playing and creative writing.
3. Diane chose to focus on peace education because she had noticed that
although her students' reading and writing were improving, the kids had a
great deal of trouble getting along with each other. "I teach in a multi-racial
school," she says. "I want the kids to respect differences, and I want them all
to know that their ideas are important."
4. Students involved in the program start by discussing their experiences with
different kinds of conflicts. Then they begin reading a story that contains a
conflict situation, such as a fight. They stop reading just before the conflict is
resolved and brainstorm for their own solutions. Once they have a good list
of possibilities, the students evaluate each one and vote for the best. Then
they finish the story and compare their solutions with those of the author's.
As a follow-up, Diane guides her students through role-playing activities to
reinforce alternative methods of solving conflicts.
5. Does it work? Diane says that after teaching this way for a year she notices
a marked increase in social understanding and far better student relationships.
"By reading and writing stories about conflicts and suggesting different
solutions," she says, "students learn to solve their differences creatively
without resorting to violence."
6. A teacher for 23 years, Diane is also a veteran curriculum developer.
Besides the conflict resolution curriculum, she has developed a bibliography
of children's books dealing with conflict resolution themes.

Brain-Friendly Science
1. Kathleen Carroll believes that all her students are potential geniuses. If
they don't show it, the reason is that she hasn't found the right way to reach
them yet. Kathleen teaches science and coordinates her school's special
program for gifted and talented children. She gets her students to read, talk,
visualize, move, dance, sing, and act their way to understanding.
2. Kathleen maintains that in order to achieve long-term memory one needs to
get students emotionally involved. She bases this approach on one school of
brain research that has shown that the limbic system – the emotional center of
the brain – is involved in long-term memory.
3. Kathleen, a teacher with 17 years experience, has successfully applied this
theory to almost every aspect of her science curriculum. For example, she
used her brain-friendly techniques in simulation games and hands-on
activities to help her students understand pressing conservation issues, such as
tropical rain forest destruction and energy use.
4. As part of a multi-faceted study unit, her students designed and constructed
models of tropical rain forests, gave demonstrations and explanations on how
they work. They also role-played people involved in deciding how to develop
a part of the tropical rain forest. The project culminated in a musical play and
slide show on tropical rain forests that Kathleen's students created and
presented to the whole school.
5. For their study of energy use, students created songs, dances, and short
plays. Then they produced a rock music video tape on energy consumption –
a video made possible by a grant from the Washington Energy Office. Last
year, Kathleen, who also lectures on accelerated learning at Trinity College,
was selected as the outstanding teacher of gifted students for the Washington,
D.C. public schools.
Math Carnival
1. As the math specialist at an inner-city middle school, Charla Couch spends
a lot of time convincing her students that they can do the work. By the time
these students come to her class, they've all failed in math for nearly seven
years. They see themselves as losers – and so do their peers.
2. To help reverse this negative cycle, Charla devised a project that would boost her students' self-esteem and improve their image among their peers, as well as building their math skills. The project – a schoolwide math carnival – involved the children in her class in addition to some special education students. 3. Charla designed a detailed plan for the carnival with 23 separate booths for demonstrating different mathematical skills through games. The day of the carnival, the students whom Charla had trained took charge. Because they had practiced the math games for weeks, they knew exactly what to do once the carnival got underway. Her students explained to the visiting students how the games worked and handled any problems that arose during the carnival. 4. Her kids worked hard and were proud of what they did. Charla believes that because they had to teach something to others, they learned it better themselves. Her students’ test scores verify that belief; they improved far beyond all expectations. “But more important,” she says, “students who felt like losers became winners.” Literary Expression 1.Tommy Delaney operates by a simple philosophy: a teacher isn’t judged by how he shines in the classroom, but by how he makes his students shine. 2. Tommy, a 20-year veteran, has a rather unusual job: he teaches at the Atlanta Youth Development Center, a center for delinquent boys ages 11 to 16. There he gets his students to shine by writing and publishing a literary magazine and a bi-monthly newsletter. By doing this, they learn to believe in their own potential and self-worth. “When these adolescents learn to express themselves in writing,” he says, “they’re less likely to have to fight society.” 3. The idea for the literary magazine and newsletter began with Tommy’s conviction that his middle-grade students would work harder and learn more if they could see tangible evidence of success. “Seeing their writing in print was the answer,” he says. “It gave them a purpose for learning the basic spelling, grammar, and writing techniques I emphasize during pre-publication work.” 4. Tommy does a lot of one-on-one coaching. Many of his students are deprived culturally, socially, economically, and educationally. He knows he can’t really teach them, unless he reaches their hearts. “Once I’ve broken down the barriers,” he says, “the magazine and the newletter give the kids a sense of identity.” 5. Now six years old, the magazine – appropriately titled Reaching Out – is circulated statewide, with a growing number of subscriptions from libraries, schools, public officials, and private citizens. The bi-monthly newsletter, The Informer, is a vital communication link among the Youth Development Center staff. Furthermore, Tommy has inspired his students to write and produce plays, arrange talent shows, and participate in local speech contests. 6. Says Tommy, “I tell my students that they alone hold the key to their ultimate success. Their physical body can be incarcerated, but their imagination, creativity, and potential for success can never be shackled.” *Abridged from Learning, September, 1989. Questions

Peace Education
1.Diane’s teaching is child centered because she
a. believes in a holistic approach to teaching.
b. uses books rather than worksheets.
c. encourages active student participation.
d. prefers groups to frontal teaching.

2. What was the main problem in Diane’s class?
3. What were her two main aims?
4. Paragraph 4, translate into Arabic or Hebrew.
“Once they have a good list of possibilities, the students evaluate each one
and vote for the best.”
5. Diane’s methods have fostered not only
_______________________ and
but also
Brain-Friendly Science
6. Paragraphs 1 and 2. Complete the sentence.
Since Kathleen believes that in order to achieve
____________________ students must be_________________________________
7. The model of a tropical rain forest is an example of
a) using role-play to encourage memory. b) how to clarify the functions of the brain. c) getting the students emotionally involved. d) using hands-on activities to teach science.
8. Mark TRUE or FALSE. Justify from the text.
Kathleen’s science project got financial support from the government.
Math Carnival
9. What were the three main aims of the math carnival?
10. Mark TRUE or FALSE. Justify from the text.
During the project, Charla helped her students cope with difficult situations.
11. Paragraph 4. Complete the sentences.
Charla’s students learned from

Their grades

Their self-image changed and they felt they were
rather than

Literary Expression
12. Explain the expression “A teacher isn’t judged by how he shines in the
classroom, but by how he makes his students shine.”
13. Tommy believes that if his delinquent boys learn to express themselves in
writing, this will
a) prevent them from reacting violently against their peers.
b) teach them how to cope with social demands.
c) enable them to become future writers.
d) teach them the skills of publishing.

14. Tommy maintains that unless
he will not be able to

Article: The Test Must Go On
1. Most Western nations, including the U.S., envy Japan the benefits of its educational system. More than 90% of Japanese students graduate from 12th grade (in contrast to 76% in the U.S.) despite a demanding academic curriculum. By the end of 3rd grade, children must master 881 of 2,000 essential Japanese ideograms; by 6th grade they should know 1,000 more. During high school, the Japanese must learn more math and science than their American counterparts. By the time they take their college entrance exams, students are prepared to handle questions in English grammar, as well as Japanese, and in subject matter not generally approached until college in the U.S. 2. The system has served Japan well. Since World War II, it has produced a highly literate and mathematically capable population. It also prepares students for smooth entry into an overcrowded and competitive society that sets a high value on the virtues of discipline and cooperation. In a carefully ordered culture like Japan's, high educational achievement is virtually the only guarantee of a successful career. The Japanese industrial and occupational structure requires the Japanese education and selection systems. Furthermore, students, who go onto a technical course instead of higher education, are aware that everyone will know that they have not succeeded educationally. 3. Serious schooling begins early. From the time children first set foot in school, at age six, they are faced with seven hours of classes a day, 240 days a year - and 12 years of unremitting pressure. Twice a year they must take exams to get into one of the very prestigious public universities. Students devote almost all their waking hours to studies. In addition to regular classes and half-days on Saturdays, they often spend up to five additional hours at special private schools to improve exam grades. These special schools are not just for high school students. A recent survey of Tokyo area youths found that 75% of 4th, 5th, and 6th graders were enrolled in some sort of course to has trouble with a concept. "It's more fun to study there, I understand the material better." overcome early exam difficulties and get a head start on becoming one of the 96,000 students accepted each year by public universities. The last years are the hardest, says Jin Watanabe, a 10th grader. "On the first day of 10th grade the teachers will tell you how many days you have left till the final university exams begin." 4. Japanese students have a name for the annual examination rite: "examination hell". Each year some 700,000 students (32% of Japanese high school graduates) go on to college, but a candidate may apply to only one top university. Because government ministries and top firms all take their employees from a handful of universities, having to settle for a low-ranking institution is an almost irreversible disaster. The thousands of students who do not get accepted at the one university of their choice spend a year, sometimes even two, in cram schools preparing to try again. The ultimate measure of success: acceptance by the 14,000-student Tokyo University. Since all the national universities have a single standard exam, academic security is taken very seriously. When an exam proctor asked University administrators what to do in case of a bomb threat, they said, "Use your head, the exam must go on." 5. Preoccupation with exams leads the Japanese to emphasize memorization rather than analytical thinking. The pedagogy is simple: the teacher talks, the students listen. A teacher in Tokyo says: "The school system doesn't let teachers teach well, and students lose their individuality". A 12th grader adds, "For tests you only memorize, which you forget as soon as the exams are over". 6. Some students are beginning to take an uncharacteristically disrespectful course: open rebellion. Youth crime has jumped 12.4% in the past year, with youths accounting for almost half of all criminal offenders in Japan. Violence in schools has increased 42% since 1980, and most of the crimes are committed against teachers. 1. Most students agree that surviving years of "exam hell" provides one with a common experience, which lasts through life. But there are those who do not survive. The pressure to do well can become so intense that some students commit suicide, even before attempting college entrance exams. The teenage suicide rate in Japan is 17.6 per 100,000 and almost all of it is thought to be related to academic stress. Indeed the universities do not offer much consolation. One sent this message to a rejected candidate: "You cannot go on living unless you are tough." Questions
1. Why is Japan's educational system held up as an example? 2. Complete the sentence with information given in paragraph one. a) the positive aspects of the educational system. b) some negative aspects of the Japanese industrial structure. c) positive as well as negative aspects of the educational system. d) the importance of academic success in order to get a job. 4. The main idea in paragraph 3 deals with the Japanese students" a) test schedules for acceptance into universities. b) efforts to achieve grades high enough to get into universities. c) devotion to studies from a very early age. d) the opportunity to study at special private schools. 5. Paragraph 4 has a cause and its effect. What are they? 6. List THREE aspects of the Japanese system of education: 7. What does the word "one" in paragraph 7, line 1, refer to? 8. Mark TRUE or FALSE. Quote from the text to support a) The writer blames the educational system for the increase in crime among Quote: b) Academic institutions in Japan are worried about the negative aspects of Article: Individual Differences: Changing Conceptions in Research
and Practice*
Abridged from the original article by Thomas J. Shuell in the American
Journal of Education, May 1986.
1. Research on individual differences has undergone substantial changes in recent years. In most cases, these changes reflect new conceptions of the nature of individual differences that have their roots in social-philosophy. For example, early work on individual differences that began with Galton, Binet, and others, conceived of individual differences in a manner that could be characterized as a form of elitism - that is, some people have it and some people do not. Psychometric work on intelligence followed. Although there was some concern for a theoretical conception of intelligence (Spearman, 1923; Thurstone, 1924), this concern never became a major aspect of traditional psychometric research on individual differences. 2. Experimental psychologists were interested in discovering the fundamental principles of learning. This topic is at the very heart of education. Following World War II, the general social philosophy and psychological conceptions of human behavior that influence educational research, began to acknowledge that learning is an active, constructive process. Although cognitive psychological research was primarily interested in identifying various cognitive processes, other changes occurred. There was a growing feeling that individual differences in performance were largely the result of
differences in the learning experiences that individuals have had (Hunt
1962) and not the result of talent, ability, and other factors emphasized
by traditional, elitist ideas of individual differences.
3. These changing conceptions have interacted in interesting ways to influence current research on individual differences. Expert/novice
differences in.
knowledge and performance are explored in this article. Although
research in this area is heavily influenced by cognitive psychology (Chi,
Glazer and Rees, 1982), it also reflects the change toward more
egalitarian thinking. At one time, individual differences in expertise
typically would have been explained in terms of general ability or talent -
for example, experts knew more because they learned things more quickly
or had the "ability" to rrocess new information more effectively.
4. Now, the point is that experts have had more experience and have more knowledge than novices, and identifying how this affects the knowledge
of experts and novices is significant. Note how the term novice implies a
potential for becoming an expert, unlike the terms that have been used
previously to refer to individuals lacking expertise, terms such as poor
learners, low ability,
and so forth. A good example for this orientation is
evident in this quote from two early researchers in the field: "Although
there must be a set of specific aptitudes that comprise a talent for chess,
individual differences in such aptitudes are largely overshadowed by
immense individual differences in chess experience. Hence, the over-
riding factor in chess skill is practice." (Chase and Simon, 1973).
5. However, differences in amount of knowledge or superior reasoning and memory ability are not sufficient to explain differences in the way experts and novices perform. Contrary to what might be expected, for example, chess masters do not think further ahead than novices. Both use the same strategies and consider about the same number of alternatives before making a move - if anything, masters consider fewer alternatives than novices. In addition, masters and novice-players are able to remember the same number of piece locations when chess pieces are arranged randomly on the board, indicating that they have comparable short-term memory. Similarly, Chi (1978) found that 10 year old children, who play tournament chess recall more chess positions than adults who have little knowledge of chess, a reversal of the normal development differences in which adults recall more than children. 6. Masters excel over novices only when they are able to take advantage of the superior organization and structure in chess knowledge that they possess. Their superior performance is not due to superior memory ability, reasoning power, or amount of knowledge, but rather in the way that their knowledge is structured. 7. Expert/novice differences have been studied most extensively in the context of solving physics problems. These problems are well-defined in that there is a particular solution that everyone would agree is the correct one. In nearly all these studies the experts were faculty members or graduate students in physics, and the novices were under-graduates who had just completed a relevant course such as first year physics. It is worthwhile to note that the novices had all received some instruction relevant to doing the problems. They were not total novices but lacked the additional formal instruction or extensive practice in solving physics problems that were characteristic of the physics experts 8. The typical procedure was to present physics problems to both the experts and the novices and ask them to think aloud, while solving the proble~
(after receiving special instructions on how to do this task). The purpose of
the investigation was not to evaluate the correctness of the solution
between experts and novices. Rather, the investigators were concerned
with qualitative not quantitative differences between the two groups -
that is, what techniques are used by experts and novices in problem-
9. A number of interesting qualitative differences in the performance of experts and novices emerge from this study:
a. Experts tend to perform a qualitative analysis of the physics problems
before deciding which equations to use, whereas novices tend to focus on syntactic translation of the problem. b. Novices tend to focus on literal objects and/or key terms, whereas experts tend to identify characteristics and conditions of the physical situation described in the problem (Chi et al. 1982). These and other results seem to prove that the experts centered their thinking around the principles of physics, whereas the novices centered around objects and required specific goals in solving the problems. 10. Many problems are ill-defined, especially those encountered in the social sciences, meaning that there is no commonly agreed on answer, and solutions can be a matter of opinion. Research in this area of problem-solving is just beginning. Voss, et al. suggest that at least for political science problems, solutions to ill-defined problems can be evaluated by determining whether a particular solution is: a. Possible in relatian to the limitations created by the problem itself b. By determining whether a solution is logical in the light of the history of the problem. There is also a difficulty in determining what constitutes a solution to an ill-defined problem since solutions are not immediately testable. 11. The problem was presented to: four political science faculty members and experts in the Soviet Union; six under-graduate students who had completed a course in Soviet domestic problems - the novices; and four political science faculty members - non-experts in the Soviet Union and four chemistry faculty members. All of these individuals were asked to think aloud while solving the following problem: "Assume you are the head of the Soviet Ministry of Agriculture and assume crop productivity has been low over the past several years. You now have the responsibility of increasing crop production. How would you go about doing this?" 12. The experts (political scientists with Soviet Union expertise) spent a great deal of time developing a problem representation, similar to the behavior of physics experts solving the well-defined problem. They categorized their reasoning according to political, economic, social factors and then kept returning to their original problem representation. In this way they experimented with new ways to eliminate the cause that had been originally identified. The novices, on the other hand, suggested a relatively large number of simple solutions without developing any of them to any extent. 13. If we examine the problem-solving techniques of the others involved in the project, we discover that the political scientists whose expertise was
not specifically in the U.S.S.R., behaved more like experts than novices.
They developed a problem representation and then developed a solution.
They differed from those who were specialists in that they offered fewer
implications and supported their arguments with less specific factual
information. The chemists resembled the novices because they did not
develop a problem representation. Since they lack both experience in
political analysis and knowledge of the Soviet Union, this seems to
indicate that experts must have both specific and general knowledge for
problem solving.
14. Although there are similarities in terms of the behaviors of experts in both physics and political science in problem representation, there were differences in problem-solving of well-defined and ill-defined problems. Individuals clearly differ with regard to competence or expert/novice differences. Although these differences are related to how much an individual knows, they are not conceptualized in terms of talent and/or ability, as h~s been the case with so much of the earlier research on individual differences. Rather, they are thought of as differences that exist in individuals having differing amounts of knowledge in a particular area. 15. As an individual acquires knowledge about a particular topic, his or her knowledge structure gradually changes qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Consequently, the way in which an individual goes about solving a problem or learning some new material, is influenced by what he has already learned. As an individual learns more, he will gradually acquire the higher-level performance characteristic of experts. 16. One important implication of this research for teaching is the realization that apparent differences in learning ability among students may merely reflect
knowledge deficits that can be remedied through additional instruction, rather than ability differences that are unlikely to be changed through educational
intervention. Thus, this research offers the likelihood that additional instruction and effort in helping novices to learn will not be wasted on students who are not
capable of learning. Once differences between experts and novices have been identified, we can turn our attention toward finding appropriate ways of helping a 17. It seems extremely unlikely, however, that effective teaching will merely consist of providing the learner with more and more knowledge. For example, it has been found that experts develop a way of looking at a problem which novices do not. Does this mean that we should provide students with the problem representations used by experts, as an integral part of instruction? Or should they be encouraged to form their own presentations while learning? Other individual differences exist; for example novices may ar may not be slow learners. Abridged from the original article by Thomas J. Shuell in the American
Journal of Education, May 1986.
1. Vocabulary. The following terms appear in the article. Locate, define the terms. Write a paragraph summarizing the ideas expressed in the article which include these terms. 2. List the researchers and their contributions. (paragraphs 1-5) 3. What is the hypothesis of this article? a) compare the way experts and novices perform. b) show that both novices and experts had similar short-memory. c) show experts take advantage of better organization and structure. d) 4. The problem-solving project on the U.S.S.R. was introduced to a) show that Soviet specialists and novices behaved similarly. b) show that novices and chemists behaved similarly. c) show that all experts behaved similarly. d) show that all experts behaved differently.
Article: Sexually Active Teenagers Are More Likely to Be Depressed and to
Attempt Suicide

by Robert E. Rector, Kirk A. Johnson, Ph.D., and Lauren R. Noyes Center for Data Analysis Report #03-04 Teenage sexual activity is an issue of widespread national concern. Although teen sexual activity has declined in recent years, the overall rate is still high. In 1997, approximately 48 percent of American teenagers of high-school age were or had been sexually active. The problems associated with teen sexual activity are well-known. Every day, 8,000 teen-agers in the United States become infected by a sexually transmitted disease.[1] This year, nearly 3 million teens will become infected. Overall, roughly one-quarter of the nation’s sexually active teens have been infected by a sexually transmitted disease (STD).[2] The problems of pregnancy and childbearing among unmarried young women are also severe. In 2000, some 240,000 children were born to girls aged 18 or younger.[3] Nearly all these teenage mothers were unmarried. These mothers and their children have an extremely high probability of long-term poverty and welfare dependence. Less widely known are the psychological and emotional problems associated with teenage sexual activity. The present study examines the linkage between teenage sexual activity and emotional health. The findings show that: When compared to teens who are not sexually active, teenage boys and girls who are sexually active are significantly less likely to be happy and more likely to feel depressed. When compared to teens who are not sexually active, teenage boys and girls who are sexually active are significantly more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, in addition to its role in promoting teen pregnancy and the current epidemic of
STDs, early sexual activity is a substantial factor in undermining the emotional well-
being of American teenagers.

The data used in this analysis are taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adoles-
cent Health, Wave II, 1996. This Adolescent Health (Ad-Health) survey is a nationwide
survey designed to examine the health-related behaviors of adolescents in middle school
and high school. Its public-use database contains responses from approximately 6,500
adolescents, representative of teenagers across the nation. The survey is funded by the
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). This analysis
focuses on the link between sexual activity and emotional well-being among teens in high
school years (ages 14 through 17). The Ad-Health survey asks students whether they
have “ever had sexual intercourse.”[4] For purposes of analysis, teens who answered yes
to this question are labeled as “sexually active” and those who answered no are labeled as
“not sexually active.”
The survey also records the emotional health of teens. Students are asked how often, in
the past week, they “felt depressed.” They are provided with four possible answers to the question: They felt depressed (a) Never or rarely, (b) Sometimes, (c) A lot of the time, or (d) Most of the time or all of the time. For purposes of analysis, the classification of depressed is given tothose teens who
answered yes to options “c” or “d”—that is, they said they felt depressed a lot, most, or
all of the time. Thus, throughout the paper, the terms “depressed” or “depression” refer to
this general state of continuing unhappiness rather than to a more specific sense of
clinical depression.


The Ad-Health data reveal substantial differences in emotional health between those
teens who are sexually active and those who are not.
A full quarter (25.3 percent) of teenage girls who are sexually active report that they are depressed all, most, or a lot of the time. By contrast, only 7.7 percent of teenage girls who are not sexually active report that they are depressed all, most, or a lot of the time. Thus, sexually active girls are more than three times more likely to be depressed than are girls who are not sexually active. Some 8.3 percent of teenage boys who are sexually active report that they are depressed all, most, or a lot of the time. By contrast, only 3.4 percent of teenage boys who are not sexually active are depressed all, most, or a lot of the time. Thus, boys who are sexually active are more than twice as likely to be depressed as are those who are not sexually active. Fully 60.2 percent of sexually inactive girls report that they “rarely or never” feel
depressed. For sexually active teen girls, the number is far lower: only 36.8 percent.
Overall, for either gender, teens who are not sexually active are markedly happier than
those who are sexually active.
The link between teen sexual activity and depression is supported by clinical experience.
Doctor of adolescent medicine Meg Meeker writes, “Teenage sexual activity routinely
leads to emotional turmoil and psychological distress…. [Sexual permissiveness leads] to
empty relationships, to feelings of self-contempt and worthlessness. All, of course, are
precursors to depression.”[5]


The Ad-Health survey also asks students whether they have attempted suicide during the
past year. As the data show, the link between sexual activity and attempted suicide is
A full 14.3 percent of girls who are sexually active report having attempted suicide. By
contrast, only 5.1 percent of sexually inactive girls have attempted suicide. Thus, sexually
active girls are nearly three times more likely to attempt suicide than are girls who are not
sexually active.
Among boys, 6.0 percent of those who are sexually active have attempted suicide. By
contrast, only 0.7 percent of boys who are not sexually active have attempted suicide.
Thus, sexually active teenage boys are eight times more likely to attempt suicide than are
boys who are not sexually active.


The differences in emotional health between sexually active and inactive teens are clear.
However, it is possible that the differences in emotional well-being might be driven by
social background factors rather than sexual activity itself. For example, if students of
lower socioeconomic status are more likely to be sexually active, the greater frequency of
depression among those teens might be caused by socioeconomic status rather than
sexual activity.
To account for that possibility, additional analysis was performed in which each teen
was compared to other teens who were identical in gender, age, race, and income.
The introduction of these background variables had no effect on the correlations between
sexual activity and depression and suicide. In simple terms, when teens were compared to
other teens who were identical in gender, race, age and family income, those who were
sexually active were significantly more likely to be depressed and to attempt suicide than
were those who were not sexually active.


The significantly lower levels of happiness and higher levels of depression among
sexually active teens suggest that sexual activity leads to a decrease in happiness and
well-being among many, if not most, teenagers. This conclusion is corroborated by the
fact that the majority of sexually active teens express reservations and concerns about
their personal sexual activity.
For example, a recent poll by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy asked
the question, “If you have had sexual intercourse, do you wish you had waited longer?”[6]
Among those teens who reported that they had engaged in intercourse, nearly two-thirds
stated that they wished they had waited longer before becoming sexually active. By
contrast, only one-third of sexually active teens asserted that their commencement of
sexual activity was appropriate and that they did not wish they had waited until they were
older. Thus, among sexually active teens, those who regretted early sexual activity
outnumbered those without such concerns by nearly two to one.
Concerns and regrets about sexual activity are strongest among teenage girls. Almost
three-quarters of sexually active teen girls admit they wish they had delayed sexual
activity until they were older. Among sexually active teenage girls, those with regrets
concerning their initial sexual activity outnumbered those without regrets by nearly three
to one.
The dissatisfaction and regrets expressed by teenagers concerning their own sexual
activity is striking. Overall, a majority of sexually active boys and nearly three-quarters
of sexually active girls regard their own initial sexual experience unfavorably—as an
event they wish they had avoided.


While the association between teen sexual activity and depression is clear, that
association may be subject to different theoretical interpretations. For example, it might
be that depressed teenagers turn to sexual activity in an effort to escape their depression.
In this interpretation, the link between sexual activity and depression might be caused by
a higher level of sexual activity among those who are already depressed before
commencing sexual activity. Thus, depression might lead to greater sexual activity rather
than sexual activity’s leading to depression.
In limited cases, this explanation may be correct; some depressed teens may experiment
with sexual activity in an effort to escape their depression. However, as a general
interpretation of the linkage between depression and teen sexual activity, this reasoning
seems inadequate for two reasons. First, the differences in happiness and depression
between sexually active and inactive teens are widespread and are not the result of a
small number of depressed individuals. This is especially true for girls. Second, the fact
that a majority of teens express regrets concerning their own initial sexual activity
strongly suggests that such activity leads to distress and emotional turmoil among many,
if not most, teens.
Hence, the most likely explanation of the overall link between teen sexual activity and
depression is that early sexual activity leads to emotional stress and reduces teen
Moreover, theoretical questions about whether teen sexual activity leads to depression or,
conversely, whether depression leads to teen sexual activity should not distract attention
from the clear message that adult society should be sending to teens. Teens should be told
that sexual activity in teen years is clearly linked to reduced personal happiness. Teens
who are depressed should be informed that sexual activity is likely to exacerbate, rather
than alleviate, their depression. Teens who are not depressed should be told that sexual
activity in teen years is likely to substantially reduce their happiness and personal well-


Sexual activity among teenagers is the major driving factor behind the well-publicized
problems of the high incidence of teenage STDs and teen pregnancy. The analysis
presented in this paper also shows that sexual activity is directly connected to substantial
problems among teens regarding emotional health.
Teenagers of both genders who are sexually active are substantially less likely to be
happy and more likely to be depressed than are teenagers who are not sexually active.
Teenagers of both genders who are sexually active are substantially more likely to
attempt suicide than are teenagers who are not sexually active.
Until recently, society provided teenagers with classroom instruction in “safe sex” and
“comprehensive sex education.”[7] In general, these programs fail to provide a strong
message to delay sexual activity, fail to deal adequately with the long-term emotional and
moral aspects of sexuality, and fail to provide students with the skills needed to develop
intimate loving marital relationships as adults.
Over the past five years, there has been a growth in “abstinence education” programs that
stand in sharp contrast to “safe sex” programs. The best abstinence education programs
The primary importance of delaying sexual activity, That human sexual relationships are predominantly emotional and moral rather than physical in character, and That teen abstinence is an important step leading toward a loving marital relationship as an adult. Such abstinence education programs are uniquely suited to meeting both the emotional and the physical needs of America’s youth. Questions
1.Which problems associated with teenage sexuality does this research focus on? a. Sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers b. Teenage pregnancy and the resulting health problems c. Increased rates of depression and suicide among sexually active d. Unmarried girls becoming parents and the probability of long- 2. Describe the subjects in this study. Number of subjects ________________________ Age ____________________________________ 3a. How was depression defined?__________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 4. What was the relationship between sexual activity and depression? Complete the table below with statistics from the text. Sexual Activity 5. According to the data in the table in question 4, what is the relationship between teenage sexual activity and happiness? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 6a. Who is more likely to attempt suicide, a sexually active boy or a sexually active girl? 6b. What data supports your answer?_________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 7. What is the attitude of sexually active teenagers about the fact that they are sexually active? _________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 8. Why do the authors present the results of a second survey, the survey by the National
________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 9. According to the authors, does sexual activity lead to depression or does depression cause teenagers to become sexually active? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 10a. The authors comment on three kinds of sexuality education. List them. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 10b. Why does the author support the use of abstinence programs with youth?
Advanced II (Psychometric 120-133)

Article: Reading Aloud in Classrooms: From the Modal Toward a "Model"
by James Hoffman, Nancy L. Roser & Jennifer Battle * Reading Teacher (1993) Vol. 46 (6): pp. 496-507 1. Reading to children is to literacy education as two aspirins and a little bed rest were to the family doctor in years gone by. Students have an impoverished vocabulary? Read to them. Students struggling with comprehension? Read to them. Students beset with negative attitudes or lacking in motivation? Read to them. Students have second language acquisition problems? Read to them. Reading to children has also been prescribed as a preventive measure: Want to ensure children's success in school? Want your children to read early? Read to them. Becoming a Nation of Readers (Anderson, Hieber, Scott, & Wilkinson, 1985), the tendered blueprint for a literate society, drew the bold conclusion that reading to children is "the single most important activity for building the knowledge required for eventual success" in learning to read (p. 23). 2. Indeed, there is both research evidence and testimony to the value of reading to young children (Chomsky, 1972; Cochran-Smith, 1984; McCormick, 1977; Teale, 1984). Researchers have worked to describe the language interactions of storybook reading events toward the goal of further understanding children's meaning-making strategies, their personal responses, and the aspects of collaboration that are part of vital story discussions (e.g., Cochran-Smith, 1984; Cullinan, Harwood, & GaIda, 1983; Green & Harker, 1982; Roser, Hoffman, & Farest, 1990; Teale, Martinez, & Glass, 1989). 3. But how knowledgeable are we about the pervasiveness of such a seemingly valuable practice? Is one form of story time as good as any other? If not, why not? What makes for a quality read-aloud time that contributes to children's language and literacy growth as well as to their literary understanding? In order to explore these issues, we examined reading aloud in the classroom from two perspectives - the first, a broadly sampled survey of current read-aloud practices, and the second, a distillation of story-time research literature to extract the crucial elements of read-aloud events. Specifically, this article is a report of the exploration of two questions: What are the current practices in story time across the U.S., and, based on research evidence, what are promising read-aloud practices within the classroom? Surveying read-aloud practices

4. Austin and Morrison's (1963) mammoth survey of reading instruction reported that primary- grade teachers tended to plan a read-aloud time for their classrooms but did not consider this story time part of "reading instruction." Intermediate-grade teachers, by contrast, did not feel they had enough time during the school day for reading aloud. Neither frequency data nor 5. Other investigations yielded similar findings. In 1971, Hall reported the extent and types of literature experiences provided by classroom teachers. These data were collected through questionnaires completed by 84 student teachers in the Washington-Baltimore area who reported on their cooperating teachers' classrooms. Hall found that fewer than half of the teachers read to children on a daily basis and 76% of the teachers did not seem to plan their literature program. Hall's frequency findings are similar to studies of other researchers in 1990. 6. Even young children may not be involved in daily story time. Morrow's (1982) investigation of literature activities in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten classrooms revealed that teachers, on average, read only 12 stories in a 4-week period and engaged the students in discussions an average of 6.5 times. 7. While informative, these studies do not present a very broad or current description of read-aloud practices. In an effort to further assess the characteristics of the read-aloud experience in the classroom, we developed a questionnaire that focused on several aspects of the story-time experience. We were interested in particular, in areas related · the frequency or regularity of the read-aloud experience; · the choice and organization of the literature being shared; · the distribution of time (e.g., reading aloud versus discussion); · the response opportunities and options offered to children. 8. The l7-item questionnaire was directed to preservice teachers who were assigned to classroom field experiences. The respondents were asked to report their observations
related to their most recent visit to an elementary classroom. They were also asked to
characterize the school setting in terms of factors such as the students served (e.g.,
ethnicity, class size, socioeconomic levels) and the availability of library resources.
Finally, in an attempt to establish the representativeness of the observations,
respondents were asked about the number of hours they observed in the classroom, the
regularity of their visits to these classrooms, and whether the read-alotid experience
they observed (if any) was typical.
9. Packets of questionnaires were sent to 54 major institutions with teacher education programs across the U.S. Professional colleagues were asked to distribute these questionnaires to students enrolled in preservice field experience courses in teacher education ptograms. A total of 537 classroom questionnaires were returned with responses from a cross-section of teaching institutions. The 537 classrooms were mixed in income level and diverse in student ethnicity. The respondents reported spending, on average, 6 hours in the classroom on the day they completed the survey. The findings from the survey are reported based on the four major foci of the questionnaire. The frequency of the read-aloud experience

10. Overall, 74% of the observers reported that teachers read aloud to their classes on the day they observed. Although the likelihood of a read-aloud experience was somewhat higher in the kindergarten and primary grades (76%) versus the intermediate grades (69%), the pattern is more positive than previous studies have suggested. No discernible patterns were found in the frequency of the read-aloud time as a function of school size, community characteristics (i.e., high, middle, or low income), or ethnicity of the student population.
The choice and organization of the literature read aloud

11. A total of 127 different authors and 217 titles were reported across the entire sample. The most frequently mentioned authors and titles were identified. They included Bill Martin, Jr., Maurice Sendak, Roald Dahl, with Judy Blume the most frequently read. Overall, the selection of literature seemed carefully chosen and of high quality, reflecting highly recommended books for children. 12. We also asked the observers to report whether or not the book shared was correlated with a unit of study, and if the answer was "yes," to explain how it was related. The dominant pattern was for the read-aloud selection to be independent of a unit framework. Only 34% of the time across all grade levels were the books related to a study unity. The only clear exception. to this pattern was at the kindergarten level, in which the majority of books read aloud were related to an on-going study. When the read-aloud book was drawn from a unit, those units were almost always based on a content area of investigation (e.g., a dinosaur book relating to a science study). Only in rare occurences was the book tied to literature study, such as the discovery of genre characteristics, character study, or the uncovering of literary elements. The distribution of time devoted to reading aloud and discussing
13. We examined the distribution of time devoted to story reading in two separate ways. First, we asked our observers to report the total amount of time teachers actually spent reading aloud. The most commonly reported pattern was for story time to take from 10 to 20 minutes. The next most common pattern was for story time to take between 5 and 10 minutes. Another way to think about these data is that reading took 20 minutes or less in 88% of the reported cases. 14. Second, we examined the amount of time the teacher spent with the class discussing the book both before and after reading. In all cases, the most frequently occurring response was that fewer than 5 minutes were devoted to discussion, either before or after the actual reading of the story. Only 3% of the teachers spent 20 minutes or more discussing the story after reading. Response opportunities and options offered to children

15. The survey respondents were also asked to describe the numbers and types of extension opportunities the teacher offered after the read-aloud time. These opportunities were classified as writing, drawing, dramatizing, or "other." Results indicated that response opportunities were provided in fewer than one-quarter of the observed read-alouds. When response opportunities were offered, the two most common forms of response were writing (36%) and drawing (36%). Dramatization (10%) and "other" (13%) response options (such as cooking and construction) were less frequently observed. 16. One way to summarize the data from this study is to look at the modal, or most frequently occurring, features of story-time. Based on these data, if a visitor entered an elementary classroom tomorrow, the visitor would likely characterize the read-aloud experience in the following way: The classroom teacher reads to students from a book for a period between 10 and 20 minutes. The chosen literature is not connected to a unit of study in the classroom. The amount of discussion related to the book takes fewer than 5 minutes, including talk before and after the reading. Finally, no literature response activities are offered. 17. As mentioned, these data seem to suggest a greater prevalence of story- time than has been reported in previous survey studies. However, the quality of the prevailing read-aloud experience is still open to question. The purposes and values of story time cannot be directly derived from the survey sample, yet it is clear that reading aloud is not an integral part of the instructional day and may not be realizing its full potential. 18. However, a caution should be noted in interpreting these data. Although over 95% of the respondents reported that they visited their classes regularly and that their survey responses were based on a fairly typical day, the classrooms themselves may be atypical because these classrooms were identified as placements for prospective teachers. It is reasonable to assume, then, that they offer the best of what is available and current in terms of exemplary teaching practices. Therefore, these data are more likely representative of the best, as opposed to typical, teaching models. Part 2: Toward a "model" of what read-aloud practices could be
19. The second phase of this project focused on an examination of research
literature for notions that could contribute to the identification of model story
time features. We use the term model here to refer to a set of hypothesized characteristics supported by evidence, rather than "model" in the sense of an ideal. What might a "model" read-aloud program look like? What features has research tended to associate with a quality read-aloud experience? Although there are no definitive answers, there is at least an accruing set of characteristics suggested by researchers. A "model" read-aloud experience, then, may include such factors as the following: Designating a legitimate time and place in the daily curriculum for
reading aloud

20. When a regular time is planned and set aside in the school day for
reading aloud to students, there is greater likelihood that the event will be expected. will occur, and will assume a place of importance in the school day. Research tends to support a daily 20-minute period (or longer) for reading aloud.
Selecting quality literature

21. When students are exposed to carefully selected pieces of quality text (e.g.
stories with enduring themes and meaty plots, poems that touch and enlighten), students are more likely to develop a long-term relationship with literature. In addition, the benefits gained by children in language growth, critical thinking, and depth of response have been reported by researchers. Sharing literature related to other literature

22. Drawing literature together that "leans on" other literature (Yolen, 1977)
whether connected by genre or theme or topic - allows readers and listeners to explore interrelationships among books, to discover patterns, to think more deeply, and to respond more fully to text. Literature organized into these units of study has been shown to greatly enrich the read-aloud experience and add to the potential for student interest, independent reading, and personal connection.
Discussing literature in lively, invitational, thoughtprovoking ways

23. Opportunities for discussions that encourage personal responses, as well as the exploration of connections between and among related pieces of literature, provide the setting for the development of appreciative, critical, literate thinking among students. Grouping children to maximize opportunities to respond

24. Attention to the appropriateness of group size helps to ensure that there is
maximal opportunity for children to say what they are thinking and feeling about books. Smaller groups and settings in which students are seated in conversational arrangements have been found to increase participation. Although teachers may have difficulty organizing a classroom for small group story reading, organizing small groups for discussion and for response activities seems quite plausible. Offering a variety of response and extension opportunities

25. Extensions of stories provide invitations to rethink and reflect. Galda, Cullinan, and Strickland (in press) have described response opportunities as a chance to linger a bit longer under the spell of a good story. Researchers report that opportunities to extend and deepen experiences with literature through writing, drama, and art involve students in expressing their insights and understandings of stories in new ways. Rereading selected pieces

26. Rereading selected pieces of literature changes the character and.quality of children's responses. Repeated readings encourage an increase in the quantity and complexity of children's comments and promotes a deeper understanding of the stories. Challenges
27. First, there is the challenge of setting aside time for story-time. The instructional day is already crowded. In every case in which we have worked to implement a read-aloud program, we found that after implementation of literature experiences, teachers indicated that they spent less time with spelling, handwriting, and what they labeled simply as "work sheets." A second challenge relates to resources. The implementation of quality story time experience requires that resources be made readily available to teachers. The most critical resource is easy access to carefully selected children's literature organized into a unit structure. Finally, the success of this program depends on an intensive staff development effort using new strategies and techniques which must be learned by both teachers and administrators. Certainly, reading aloud to children is no simple solution to the challenge of teaching literacy. It is not like the aspirin we take and - poof! - the headache disappears. Working toward a planned and seriously constructed read-aloud time requires considerable investment in time, skill, knowledge and resources. * Reading Teacher (1993) Vol. 46 (6): pp. 496-507 Questions
Multiple-Choice Questions - Circle the correct answer a) developing a successful reading program in which children read aloud. b) developing a successful reading program in which teachers read aloud. c) solving the basic literacy problems which face parents, teachers and d) reading aloud to children will automatically increase their motivation to read. a) reading is very significant to literacy in young children. b) reading stories and discussions help understand children's c) reading stories and discussions help understand children's feelings. a) researched classroom practices pertaining to read-aloud programs. b) helpful ideas about read-aloud practices suggested by administrators. c) suggestions made by teachers during in-service reading courses. c) theoretical research on reading conducted at American universities. 4. According to paragraphs 4, 5, 6: The read-aloud program a) is an unplanned experience followed by librarians. b) has been an experience, unplanned and unrelated to the curriculum. c) is a highly successful and productive program throughout the U.S. d) has not been studied recently and further research is needed. a) informative and filled in by teachers. b) a survey of observations filled in by administrators. c) an informative survey of student-teachers in elementary schools. d) a statistical survey of parents' impressions of teachers. 6. According to paragraph 10, the results of the study indicate that a) the statistics were identical to those of earlier b) the findings were more satisfactory than anticipated. c) the findings were less satisfactory than expected. d) neither students and nor teachers enjoy reading aloud. 7. The incidence of read aloud experiences a) was unaffected by school size, ethnic, and socioeconomic background. b) was influenced by school size, ethnic, and socioeconomic background. c) was so insignificant that it was not evaluated by the students. d) was similar to studies conducted in other western countries. 8. According to paragraphs 11 and 12, it is the opinion of the authors of this study that teachers choose read-aloud books a) without considering the intellectual level of the children. b) with little thought to critical evaluations of the books. c) in consideration of subject relevancy at all times. d) that integrate with ongoing topics in kindergarten classes. 9. When considering the amount of time devoted to reading aloud and discussion, the authors found a) from the perspective of the time devoted to it, the read-aloud program was a b) a significant amount of time was spent in discussion after the readings. c) c) the read-aloud program was totally insignificant in all classrooms studied. d) that read-aloud experiences 20 minutes or less in length were used in most 10. Which of these statements may be inferred from reading paragraph a) The use of varied follow-up activities by teachers after reading allowed for creative activities. b) The use of few follow-up activities by teachers after reading aloud, limited the scope for creativity. c) Dramatizations were used extensively by teachers after reading aloud. d) Most teachers used follow-up activities after all reading aloud e) Although teachers used few follow-up activities, these may 11. Give paragraphs 16, 17 and 18 your own sub-title 12. From paragraph 18, we may conclude that if this is the situation in so-called best classrooms. In other more typical situations, what might occur? 13. Translate the following sentences into Hebrew: Paragraph 10: Although the likelihood of a read-aloud experience was somewhat higher in the kindergarten and primary grades (76%) versus the intermediate grades (69%), the pattern is more positive than previous studies have suggested. Paragraph 22: Drawing literature together that "leans on" other
literature whether connected by genre or theme or topic - allows
readers and listeners to explore interrelationships among books, to
discover patterns, to thinmore deeply, and to respond more fully to


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Efficacy of Music Therapy in the Treatment of BehavioralAlfredo Raglio, MT,*w Giuseppe Bellelli, MD,z Daniela Traficante, PsyD, PhD,yMarta Gianotti, MT,* Maria Chiara Ubezio, MD,* Daniele Villani, MD,*phases.1 BPSD are usually treated with a pharmacologicBackground: Music therapy (MT) has been proposed as validapproach, including the use of neuroleptics, sedatives,approach for behavioral an

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