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17th Annual Millikin Undergraduate Research
Poster Symposium Table of Contents
April 23, 2010
2SIU School of Medicine. Sponsor: Dr. David Horn, Department of Biology.
Disruption of normal sleep patterns causes a change in circadian rhythm. We hypothesize that altering this rhythm changes expression of circadian clock genes and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress genes. In this study, mice (Mus muscularis, strain c57bl6) were subjected to sleep fragmentation (SF) for either six or twelve hours. Controls were left in their home cage. After SF, mice were euthanized and tissue samples of liver and lung were col ected. RNA was extracted from the tissues, cDNA was synthesized, and quantitative PCR was performed to compare mRNA expression levels. The clock genes Per1 and Bmal demonstrated a circadian rhythm and an increase in mRNA expression after SF. Relative change from the control could be a result of a shift in the peak of expression or an altering of the rhythm altogether. 2. USING NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT TO TEST SPATIAL LEARNING AND MEMORY IN THE ORGANGE BABOON TARANTULA, PTERINOCHILUS MURINUS (ARANEAE: THERAPHOSIDAE). SOPHI M. JESEK, DR.
Sponsor: Dr. Marianne Robertson, Department of Biology. We used negative reinforcement to test the spatial learning and memory of the orange baboon tarantula, Pterinochilus murinus. We subjected 50 tarantulas to 20 learning trials and 17 memory trials each. During the learning trials, control tarantulas (n = 25) went through a T-maze with both arms at room temperature. For experimental tarantulas (n = 25), we heated a copper plate on the floor of one of the arms of the T-maze (the incorrect side). During memory trials, we maintained both arms of the maze at room temperature. We conducted memory trials at regular intervals until 80 minutes after the final learning trial. We hypothesized that the control group would exhibit random selection of the arms, while experimental tarantulas would learn through negative reinforcement to select the unheated arm. We found that the choices of the control group were statistical y consistent with random behavior, whereas experimental tarantulas showed statistical y significant learning and were able to remember what they learned for up to 50 minutes after the final learning trial. 3. EFFECT OF THE ANTI - DEPRESSANT, PROZAC, ON AVOIDANCE LEARNING ABILITIES OF GOLDFISH, CARASSIUS AURATUS. MORGAN
University. Sponsor: Dr. Marianne Robertson, Department of Biology. Prozac is a commonly used pharmaceutical drug that increases serotonin in the brain. The increase in serotonin can slow the rate at which the brain processes information and the rate at which learning takes place. Prozac is found in many bodies of water throughout the United States as a result of human disposal. The inhabitants of these waters may be negatively affected by the drug. Our research tested the effect of Prozac on the ability of goldfish, Carassius auratus, to associate a conditioned stimulus (light) with an unconditioned stimulus (electrical shock). We recorded shock avoidance behaviors in 60 goldfish, 30 control and 30 immersed in Prozac-treated water. Our results supported our hypothesis that Prozac would negatively impact the abilities of goldfish to learn to associate a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. The goldfish in Prozac- treated water displayed avoidance behaviors to the light significantly less often RESISTANCE TO OXIDATIVE STRESS IN 14-3-3 MUTANT DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. ALEXANDRA LOLIS & DR. SAMUEL GALEWSKY,
Mil ikin University. Sponsor : Dr. Samuel Galewsky, Department of Biology. Disease often occurs because of a disconnection in normal bodily functions, which ends up producing deleterious results. One common disease that is brought about by this disconnection is Alzheimer’s disease, a brain disorder that results in a gradual decline in the mental state of the individual. The disconnect that occurs within the brain has been linked to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress influences many other diseases including type II diabetes and cancer. In contrast, control of oxidative stress is also linked to increased life span. Therefore, there must be a balance between growth promoting and stress signaling in cel s in order to influence longevity and physiological balance. A number of cel signaling pathways have been implicated in the oxidative stress sensing system. These include the insulin growth factor receptor, the Ras/Raf pathway, and the mutagen activated protein (MAP) kinase. One critical integrating component in these cel -signaling pathways is the 14-3-3 protein. 14- 3-3 proteins are a highly conserved class of cytoplasmic signaling molecules in eukaryotes. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has served as an excel ent model system for studying the effects of oxidative stress because it has two 14-3- 3 genes, leonardo (leo) and epsilon. We have examined the effects of genetical y reducing the amount of these proteins in mutant flies, and exposing them to oxidative stress (the herbicide paraquat). We have demonstrated that by genetical y manipulating the levels of both 14-3-3 proteins, leonardo and epsilon, we can alter the fruit flies’ response to stress, and that lower levels of 14-3-3 protein apparently confer an increase in oxidative stress resistance. 5. THE EFFECTS OF FOOD DEPRIVATION ON AGONISTIC BEHAVIORS AND FOOD ACQUISTION IN THE FIDDLER CRAB, UCA PUGNAX (DECAPODA: OCYPODIDAE). SAMUEL FRON, DR. MARIANNE
ROBERTSON, & DR. CASEY WATSON, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr.
Marianne Robertson, Department of Biology. Crustaceans undergo short term food deprivation due to molting and changes in their environment. Male fiddler crabs are wel known for their large claws and aggressive interactions during the mating season and during confrontations over burrows. We examined how starvation affects the agonistic behaviors of fiddler crabs, Uca pugnax. We hypothesized that food-deprived males would act more aggressively towards satiated males in the presence of food and that food deprived males would locate a food source sooner than satiated males. We also hypothesized that the number of aggressive responses would be higher between crabs of approximately equal mass. We conducted three experiments to test the effects of food deprivation on agonistic behaviors and food acquisition. In the first experiment, we paired crabs of equal mass. In the second experiment, we randomly paired crabs, and in the third experiment, we paired the lightest versus the heaviest, the second lightest versus the second heaviest and so on. For the control groups, both crabs in each pair were satiated, while for the experimental groups, the subordinate male was food-deprived for five days. For each experiment, we found no statistical y significant differences between the aggressive behaviors of the crabs. Two possible reasons for this are that fiddler crabs can survive for long periods without food, and fiddler crabs have been observed fighting over burrows more often than food. 6. RESPONSE OF LEAF - CUTTER ANTS (ATTA SPP. HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) TO PATH DISRUPTION IN A LOWLAND TROPICAL RAIN FOREST PRESERVE IN COSTA RICA. BRADLEY DAY, Mil ikin University.
Sponsor: Dr. Judith Parrish, Department of Biology. Leaf-cutter ants (Atta spp.) inhabit lowland tropical rainforests throughout Central America, as wel as many subtropical regions in South America and southern North America. Workers farm mats of fungus for food in their giant social colonies using various mulched plant leaves and their own feces. To acquire these leaves, they go out in usual y single file to find plants from which to cut smal bits of leaf, finding their way back using pheromone trails laid on the way out. I sought to test what effect physical y disrupting this path would have. At Rara Avis Private Rainforest Preserve, a line of ants was found progressing across some fal en logs in the access "road". Using a smal block of wood, I disrupted their path for five minutes, and then observed for seven observation periods of five minutes each. However, they predominantly went under the block between two logs. After I slightly adjusted their path by blocking this crevice, and thereby setting a new control, trail disruption resulted in predominant travel around the block's edges as opposed to ants going over it or stopping and even turning around. It is possible the ants stil detect the pheromones even when the direct path on which they lie is covered or blocked. 7. EVALUATING OPERANT CONDITIONING USING POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT IN THE MILLIPEDE ORTHOPORUS TEXICOLENS (DIPLOPODA: SPIROSTREPTIDA). BRITTANY N. RIGDON, DR. MARIANNE
ROBERTSON, & DR. CASEY WATSON, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr.
Marianne Robertson, Department of Biology. Operant conditioning is a form of associative learning in which a stimulus is used to modify a behavior. Because operant conditioning via positive reinforcement has never been studied in mil ipedes, we examined the capacity for this type of learning in the mil ipede Orthoporus texicolens. We evenly distributed 60 mil ipedes into control and experimental groups. We presented the control mil ipedes with an empty tube. We presented the experimental mil ipedes with a tube fil ed with dark, moist substrate as a positive reinforcement. We subjected each mil ipede to 15, five minute trials, during which we recorded when and how often they entered and exited the tube. Although our data revealed no significant difference between the entry and exit times of the control and experimental mil ipedes, we did find that experimental mil ipedes entered the tube significantly more often than control mil ipedes (260 times versus 190 times, respectively, out of 450 trials per group). The latter results indicate that mil ipedes are capable of learning through operant conditioning with an appetitive stimulus, a process that is critical for reproductive success and has been demonstrated in 8. EFFECTS OF AN ANTI - DEPRESSANT, LEXAPRO, ON THE AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OF SIAMESE FIGHTING FISH, BETTA SPLENDENS (PERCIFORMES: OSPHRONEMIDAE). KODY SMITH, DR.
Sponsor: Dr. Marianne Robertson, Department of Biology. Aggressive displays are important to the survival of adult male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, because they play a prominent role in territorial defense. Many types of drugs, including the antidepressant Lexapro, are found in U.S. surface waters even post-treatment. We examined the effects of Lexapro on the aggressive behaviors of B. splendens. Lexapro is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which increases serotonin levels in the body, thereby inhibiting aggression. Thus, we hypothesized that exposure to Lexapro would decrease the aggressive displays of B. splendens. We maintained 30 B. splendens in untreated water (control) and 30 B. splendens in Lexapro-treated water (experimental). We performed three tests which included control versus control fish, experimental versus experimental, and control versus experimental. We paired the B. splendens by weight and placed the pairs in the same tank after treatments to compare their levels of aggression. We recorded the occurrence of frontal displays, lateral displays, gil displays, and physical attacks. Our results supported our hypothesis; those fish treated with the antidepressant were significantly less aggressive than those that were not. THE STUDY OF FEEDING HABITS OF ORANGE NECTAR BATS (LONCHOPHYLLA ROBUSTA) ON DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF NECTAR. SKYLAR M. SPARKS & DR. JUDITH PARRISH, Mil ikin
University. Sponsor: Dr. Judith Parrish, Department of Biology. Bats are widely known for their ability to use echolocation to find prey. However, some bats use their sense of smel more than echolocation. Not many studies have been conducted on orange nectar bats due to the fact that they are only found in rainforest habitats. This study examined the ability to locate the richest nectar, highest concentration of sugar water, with sense of smel . To determine how strong the sense of smel , there were not only different concentrations of nectar, but also change in location of the nectar feeders. The location of the nectar feeders was a variable because two of the nectar feeders were out in open space, whereas the other two feeders were next to the forest edge. Each feeder had a different concentration of nectar; so it was predicted that no matter the location, if the bat used sense of smel to locate food, then the highest nectar feeder would be fed off of the most. The observations neither supported nor 10. OBSERVING TERRITORY SELECTION OF CRAYFISH PROCAMBARUS ACUTUS (DECOPODA: CAMBARIDAE) WITHIN A STRUCTURED HIERARCHY. KENNETH MENTZER, DR. MARIANNE ROBERTSON, & DR.
CASEY WATSON, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. Marianne Robertson,
Chemical signals are widely used in aquatic animals. Cray fish communicate through chemical cues, but it has not been established whether chemical cues alone affect shelter preference. Using a tri-sectioned aquarium, we examined how crayfish (Procambarus acutus) responded to olfactory cues from their dominant or subordinate conspecifics. We checked the fairness of our experimental set-up by recording the left and right decisions of 15 control crayfish over 10 trials each in dechlorinated water. We then divided the remaining 45 crayfish into 15 groups of 3 (A, B, and C). By recording aggressive behaviors during interactions between each of the pairs (A vs. B, A vs. C, and B vs. C), we determined the dominant, middle-ranked, and subordinate member of each triplet. For the experimental trials, we created a subordinate and dominant side of the aquarium by pouring the water from the subordinate’s individual container into one side and the water from the dominant’s individual container into the other side. We then placed each of the 15 middle-ranked crayfish into the central chamber of the aquarium and documented its choices of the subordinate or dominant side over 10 trials. We hypothesized that control crayfish would exhibit random selection of the sides, while experimental crayfish would select the subordinate side significantly more often than the dominant side. However, the choices of both the control and experimental crayfish were consistent with random behavior, indicating that the experimental crayfish were not significantly influenced by chemical cues from their dominant or subordinate con-specifics. 11. THE EFFECTS OF HOODIA GORDONII EXTRACT ON THE FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF THE ADULT MEALWORM BEETLE: TENEBRIO MOLITOR (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE). JUSTIN BROHARD, DR. MARIANNE
ROBERTSON, & DR. CASEY WATSON, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr.
Marianne Robertson, Department of Biology. Hoodia gordoni is a plant that has been used for generations by the San people of South Africa and the Namib Desert to suppress appetite and the need for water in order to increase the length of hunting and gathering expeditions. If Hoodia ingestion does cause a decrease in food and water intake, we would expect to see native beetle species avoid ingestion of this plant due to the associated risk of lowered energy intake. Our research focuses on testing the effects of this plant compound on a species of beetle, Tenebrio molitor, which is closely related to beetles indigenous to the natural habitat of H. gordoni . We supplied a control group (n = 50 adult mealworm beetles) with distil ed water throughout the experiment. We prepared a solution of Hoodia extract using 0.02 g of Hoodia per liter of distil ed water, and administered it to an experimental group (n = 50 adult mealworm beetles) over a 19 day trial. We analyzed body weight, mass of consumed food, and mass of consumed water and determined that ingestion of Hoodia did not cause a significant change in feeding behavior or water consumption of adult T. molitor beetles, at least through the period of time that these beetles were observed. Additional y there was no significant difference in the change in body mass between control beetles and those 12. LEVELS OF AGGRESSION OF A SYMBIOTIC ACACIA - ANT SPECIES BASED ON OLFACTORY CUES AT PALO VERDE NATIONAL PARK, COSTA RICA: PSEUDOMYRMEX NIGROCINCTA. (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE). JUSTIN BROHARD, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. Judith
The bul -horned acacia tree is a tropical native that has a very interesting relationship with the surrounding flora and fauna, specifical y with a variety of ant symbionts. Acacia col insi is one species of acacia tree that is commonly found in the dry regions of Costa Rica. This tree, along with other species of acacia, possesses extra-floral nectaries which are the basis for their symbiotic relationship with several species of ant. Pseudomyrmex nigrocincta, a smal red ant symbiont very common to the Costa Rican dry forests, is one of the many species of ant that reside within the hol ow thorns of the acacia trees. These ants protect the tree by removing foreign objects, such as vines, in order to promote optimum growth of the tree, while being rewarded with sugary nectar from the nectaries. I conducted research on the relationship between P. nigrocincta and A. col insi to determine the levels of aggressive response of these ants towards a variety of scents both natural and foreign. I determined that there was no significant difference in response levels between a variety of scents including human sweat, Bauhinia leaf, and deodorant. 13. COMPARISON OF CONTROL OF TWO SPOTTED SPIDER MITES, TETRANYCHUS URTICAE KOCH (ARACHNIDA: ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE), IN GREENHOUSE GROWN GLYCINE MAX (SOYBEANS) USING NEEM OIL AND PREDATORY MITES, PHYTOSEIULUS PERSIMILIS. GERALD A.
PANTOJA & DR. JUDITH PARRISH, Mil ikin University.
Sponsor: Dr. Judith Parrish, Department of Biology. Herbivory can be devastating to plants, imposing a multitude of harmful effects such as reduced leaf area, yield, and plant function. Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arachnida: Acari: Tetranychidae), two spotted spider mites, are one of many prominent herbivores infesting gardens, greenhouses, and other botanical settings. However, chemical treatments such as Neem oil have been shown to reduce these herbivore populations. Additional y, the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis may also be effective in minimizing threat of T. urticae to plants. The purpose of our experiment was to compare the effectiveness between chemical control of Neem and biological control of predatory mites in minimizing spider mite populations in Glycine max. We compared incidence of T. urticae populations including numbers of adults and eggs, leaf area, final yield, and final shoot growth over a period of three months in three treatment groups of G. max, no control, control with P. persimilis, and control with Neem herbicide at recommended concentrations. Our hypothesis was that chemical control methods would be more effective in reducing effects of mite populations over time. Our results show that control of T. urticae varies considerably in effectiveness, depending upon greenhouse temperature. Predatory mites were very effective once established, but failed to establish if greenhouse temperatures exceeded 40°C. Neem, however, caused damage to the G. max at those temperatures, so Neem treated soybeans were not significantly more 14. THE EFFECTS OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON AVIAN MORTALITY AT THREE TELEVISION TOWERS IN CENTRAL ILLINOIS. LISA A.
HORN, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. David Horn, Department of Biology.
Avian mortalities have been documented at television towers and other man- made lighted structures for over 150 years, and it is estimated that a minimum of 4-5 mil ion birds are kil ed annual y due to the impacts of lighted structures. We examined the effects of weather conditions on mortality rates at three television towers in central Il inois. Forty-three searches were conducted between August and November 2006-2009, with a total of 415 birds from 16 families found. Most birds found were of Family Parulidae (59%), Family Emberizidae (9%), and Family Turididae (9%). We found that more birds were kil ed fol owing nights with correct wind (wind from the north) and correct cloud cover (greater than 50%). This tends to show that increased cloud cover may play a larger role in tower col isions than wind direction. Most studies of tower col isions have focused on lighting conditions rather than weather conditions; however, it is the combination of tower lighting and weather that plays the greatest role in avian mortality. 15. USING OPERANT CONDITIONING TO TEST OLFACTORY LEARNING AND MEMORY IN THE NORTH AMERICAN CARPENTER ANT CAMPONOTUS PENNSYLVANICUS (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE). RACHEL N. DAMOS, DR. MARIANNE ROBERTSON, & DR. CASEY
WATSON, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. Marianne Robertson, Department of
We examined learning behavior in the North American carpenter ant, Camponotus pennsylvanicus, using a Y-maze and gustatory reinforcements. We first determined that the ants had an innate preference for limonene over octanal. We then examined whether ants could be trained to change their preference to octanal. We subjected control ants (n = 15) to the Y-maze with no odors or gustatory reinforcements present. We exposed experimental ants (n = 15) to a Y- maze in which one arm of the Y-maze contained the preferred odor of limonene paired with quinine (negative reinforcement), and the other arm of the Y-maze contained octanal paired with sucrose (positive reinforcement). We hypothesized that the control group would exhibit random selection of the arms in the Y-maze, while the experimental ants would learn to choose the arm that contained octanal rather than the arm that contained their initial preference of limonene. The choices of the control group were statistical y consistent with random behavior, which indicated a fair experimental design. There was no statistical y significant difference between the arm choices of the experimental ants; thus our hypothesis 16. DATA ANALYSIS OF NEW HALL 2 SOLAR PANELS: ELECTRICITY PRODUCED, CO2 REDUCED, MONEY SAVED, AND FEASIBILITY OF FUTURE SOLAR ENERGY INVESTMENTS AT MILLIKIN UNIVERSITY. CARRIE JURKIEWICZ & DR. JUDITH PARRISH, Mil ikin University.
Sponsor: Dr. Judith Parrish, Department of Biology. Solar energy is the most abundant energy source, but the United States continues to rely on fossil fuels for electricity generation. To decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and combat climate change, renewable energy sources must be integrated into electricity supply chains. A 1.14 kW photovoltaic system and data logger were instal ed on the roof of New Hal 2 in March 2009 to assess the feasibility of solar energy at Mil ikin University. Daily electricity generation was recorded from April 2009 to January 2010 and daily averages were used to estimate monthly and yearly electricity generation, CO2 reductions, cost yield, and payback period. New Hal 2 consumed significantly less total electricity than comparable neighboring dorms without solar panels, roughly equivalent to saving 95.4 gal ons of gasoline. The photovoltaic modules have an extended payback period, but they serve as a valuable educational tool, reduce electricity consumption from the grid, and lessen Mil ikin’s carbon footprint. 17. ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES IN MCF-7 BREAST CANCER AND U-2 OS OSTEOCARCINOMA CELLS DUE TO EXPOSURE WITH VARIED CONCENTRATIONS OF ACETOCHLOR AND CHLORPYRIFOS. JESSICA D. RICH & DR. JENNIFER R. SCHULTZ-
NORTON, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. Jennifer R. Schultz-Norton,
Acetochlor, a highly toxic herbicide most commonly used for weed prevention in field crops, is primarily a protein inhibitor in plants, but has also shown adverse effects towards mammalian systems. Chlorpyrifos, a moderately toxic insecticide also used on field crops, has also been thought to have negative effects on such systems. Transient transfections were preformed with each of the two chemicals in order to determine their effects on both the MCF-7 breast cancer and U-2 OS osteocarcinoma cel lines. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as the negative control and 10-8M estradiol as the positive control. Acetochlor and chlorpyrifos were tested for estrogenicity in concentrations ranging from 10-8M to 10-5M. The most significant differences in relative luciferase units from the control were noted in the 10-8M amount of acetochlor of the MCF-7 line, contrary to many literature and consumer label warnings denoting that the higher concentration of the chemical is most detrimental. Results for chlorpyrifos were inconclusive in MCF-7 cel s due to inconsistent data over the five trials. U-2 OS cel s are also being utilized to study differences in transactivation with ER and ER after acetochlor and chlorpyrifos treatment. Preliminary data in acetochlor with ER indicate the 10-8M amount to have a significant increase in the relative luciferase units in comparison to the 10-7M, 10-6M and 10-5M concentrations. Preliminary data using ER with both acetochlor and chlorpyrifos indicate the 10-7M and 10-6M concentrations to have the highest relative luciferase in comparison with the three other concentrations, respectively. Take together these studies wil help to elucidate the transcriptional effects of these toxic compounds in cancer cel s. 18. ONE PERSON’S SORROW IS ANOTHER ONE’S JOY: AN ANALYSIS OF SECONDARY CHEMISTRY IN DIPSACUS LACINIATUS. CLAYTON G.
PARKS, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. Judith Parrish, Department of Biology.
Dipsacus laciniatus (cutleaf teasel) is an exotic plant species introduced to the United States for use in textile production, but the substantial viability of teasel and its appreciable success as a colonizer have contributed to its reputation as an invasive plant species whose threat warrants biological control. Much of the competitive advantage of D. laciniatus is owed to the plant's secondary chemicals, which were thought to function only in defense against predation by insects until recent evidence suggested a potential role for the chemicals in chemotherapy. In this study, we extracted material from the leaves, stems, and roots of D. laciniatus, isolated the iridoid compounds via thin layer chromatography, and characterized the iridoids using 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Data analysis revealed the presence of different iridoids in each of the three plant parts, with the roots containing the greatest quantity of iridoids and the dried stalks containing the least. 19. SYNTHESIS OF 1,1-DIMETHOXYBUTAN-2-ONE AS A PRECURSOR TO FLAVOPEREIRINE. CLAYTON G. PARKS, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr.
George Bennett, Department of Chemistry. Flavopereirine is a molecule with known DNA-intercalating ability that has recently proven effective in helping to treat certain types of cancer. Both 5,6- dihydroflavopereirine and flavopereirine have been isolated from herbal extracts in studies performed on the African Strychnos usambarensis and South American Geissospermum leave, but as of yet, no attempts have proven very promising in the development of an effective route to the synthesis of these indoles in the laboratory. One method that efficiently forms quaternized bridgehead nitrogens in polycyclic heteroaromatic systems is the Westphal condensation. Retrosynthetic analysis of flavopereirine revealed 1,1- dimethoxybutan-2-one to be a suitable synthon for use in the Westphal method. In the laboratory, we have endeavored to devise a facile and green synthetic route to flavopereirine involving the preparation of 1,1-dimethoxybutan-2-one via Grignard reaction. Dimethoxyacetaldehyde dissolved in a 60 wt.% solution of water was extracted with ether and dried over magnesium sulfate before being introduced into the Grignard reaction with ethylmagnesium bromide. Al successful Grignard reactions produced rather low yields, but the product was analyzed by IR and 1H NMR to confirm its identity as 1,1-dimethoxybutan-2-ol. Later, oxidation of 1,1-dimethoxybutan-2-ol produced the desired 20. EFFECTIVENESS OF SOLVENTLESS CONDENSATION AND DIELS- ALDER METHODS IN THE SYNTHESIS OF PROSPECTIVE CYP112 INHIBITORS AND FOUR BICYCLO [4.3.0] NON-3-ENE-7,9-DIONES. LAUREN R. BRINGMAN & DR. GEORGE D. BENNETT, Mil ikin University.
Sponsor: Dr. George Bennett, Department of Chemistry. Solventless chemistry techniques are beginning to be widely adapted in the chemical industry as a means to reduce harmful waste production as wel as to decrease the expense of product synthesis. Studies in this growing field are beneficial in countless scientific areas. Two of the scientific areas in which the study of solventless reactions is relevant are medicinal and structural chemistry. This study examined the effectiveness of solventless methods in the synthesis of compounds with potential y useful medicinal and structural properties. In the medicinal area, the syntheses of prospective inhibitors of aldosterone synthase were attempted through various condensation reactions, including aldol condensations and imine formation. An absence of solvent in this case did not prove to be particularly effective, so methods involving the use of low risk solvents were implemented in reactions between various imines and aldehyde compounds, as wel as reactions between various imine and aldol compounds. In the structural area, the solventless Diels-Alder cycloaddition method was employed to successful y yield four novel bicyclo[4.3.0]non-3-ene-7,9-diones in moderate to high yield with experimental atom economies ranging from 21 to 32%, and E-factors ranged from 2.7 to 3.7. 21. COMMON HERBS AND HOUSEHOLD ITEMS TESTED FOR ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES. JOEL V. OHRLUND & DR. ANNE
RAMMELSBERG, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. Anne Rammelsberg,
With new forms of resistant bacteria emerging, it is important to look for new antimicrobials. Drug prices can be very expensive, so it would be beneficial to look at antimicrobial activity of substances already in production for various uses. With these thoughts in mind, different household items were tested for antimicrobial activity. The items tested can be grouped into two different categories: oil solutions and water solutions. The oil solutions used were camphor oil, marjoram oil, nutmeg oil, a mix of the above oils, and Oreganol. The water solutions were CureChrome, Ipecac, brown mustard seed, anise seed, hawthorn berries, and Yunnan Palyao. Brown mustard seed and anise seed needed to be crushed in a mortar and pestle then mixed with water. The hawthorn berries and Yunnan Palyao came in capsules. These capsules were opened and the contents were mixed with water. CureChrome and Ipecac were already in a water based liquid state. Al test subjects were evaluated with Escherichia coli using the paper disc agar diffusion method. The diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured in mil imeters, and three trials were done for each substance. The results were compared to find the substance most effective at clearing the microbe. The results are listed from greatest average clearing to least average clearing of the microbe: Ipecac, 30.67 ± 3.0mm; CureChrome, 25.0 ± 2.0mm; Camphor oil, 15.9 ± 1.0mm; Oreganol, 12.5 ± 0.5mm; Oil mix, 10.3 ± 0.8mm; Marjoram oil, 5.83 ± 0.5mm; Nutmeg oil, 2.65 ± 1.0mm; Brown mustard seed, 2.1 ± 0.2mm; Anise seed, 1.8 ± 0.2mm; Hawthorn berries, 0mm. Yunnan Palyao was classified as indeterminate due to a microbe it contained that interrupted the growth of Escherichia coli in a sporadic manner. This information wil hopeful y spur more research into different household items and their 22. SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS INCORPORATING FORENSIC APPLICATIONS. NICK WRIGHT, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. Ed Acheson, Department of
Four laboratory experiments aimed at introducing forensics to chemistry students at Mil ikin University were developed by former Mil ikin student Kristy Topalovich. The aim of this research is to improve the experiments previously developed, as wel as to develop completely new labs that are more user friendly for sophomore level students. The new experiments developed in this project consisted of: analysis of burnt woodchips for suspected arson accelerants using GC-MS, analysis of paint samples using reflectance spectroscopy in a possible hit and run accident, and analysis of hair and fiber samples using polarized light microscopy. Modifications were made to the experiments previously carried out by Kristy Topalovich. The analysis of a fake blood sample was included in the suspected poisoning case and more water tests were added to the suspected drowning case. The instructor handbook that accompanies these experiments was also revised and improved. The overal aim of this project is to provide students with realistic scenarios and to develop their critical thinking skil s by presenting evidence in such a way that supports their conclusions. 23. COMPARISONS OF CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE BETWEEN SUCCULENT AND BROAD - LEAFED FYNBOS PLANTS IN SOUTH AFRICA. KATE EAGLER & HEATHER SCHOONOVER, Mil ikin University.
Sponsor: Dr. Judith Parrish, Department of Biology. During a study in the fynbos of South Africa, the temperature and fluorescence of succulent and broad-leafed plants were recorded to observe any differences in the fluorescence between two groups of plants: succulent and broad-leafed. Using an infrared laser beam and a Quibit FluoriPen 100, we measured the temperature and fluorescence of fifteen leaves from four plant species within the two groups: Osteospermum moniliferum (broad-leafed), Protea obtusifolia (broad-leafed), Euphorbia burmanni (succulent),and Carpobrotis edulis (succulent). The hypothesis was that succulents would have a higher fluorescence than the broad-leafed plants. Contrary to our hypothesis, our results showed that the succulents had a lower fluorescence, with the Euphorbia having the lowest fluorescence among al of the species. Thus, the data shows that the type of leaf affects fluorescence, with succulent plants having a lower 24. THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF CAPSAICIN IN VARIOUS BRANDS OF HOT SAUCE. CARRIE BRUNO & DR. ED ACHESON, Mil ikin
University. Sponsor: Dr. Ed Acheson, Department of Chemistry. The goal of this project is to develop an experiment based on a real world scenario using HPLC for an analytical chemistry lab. The problem selected for this project was determining which of a variety of hot sauces is the hottest. Capsaicin in hot sauce was extracted and quantitated using a modified version of a procedure original y developed by Batchelor and Jones. In this method, ethanol was used as the extraction solvent and the mobile phase consisted of acteonitrile, water, and phosphoric acid (0.1%). The preceding method was modified by replacing ethanol and acteonitrile with methanol, and adapted to fit the equipment available in our laboratory. The methanol extraction gave recoveries of capsaicin comparable to those of ethanol. A variety of hot sauces wil be tested for their capsaicin content. The capsaicin content wil be correlated to the Scovil e Organoleptic Scale for hotness. The product of this project wil be a guide for teachers and a scenario handout for students to be used in an 25. PROGRESS TOWARD THE DETERMINATION OF SULFAMETHOXAZOLE IN NATURAL AND TREATED WATER. KATHERINE NETHERTON & DR.
ED ACHESON, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. Ed Acheson, Department of
Since 2003, there has been a growing awareness of the presence of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals in our water supply. Recent research showing mutations in aquatic life demonstrates the dangers of ingesting these products. Previous studies have shown that sulfamethoxazole is one of the more commonly detected antibiotics. The goal of this project is to check for the presence of sulfamethoxazole in a variety of water samples from the Decatur, IL area. Sulfamethoxazole in water samples wil be determined using HP/LC after concentration on SPE cartridges. Preliminary work with spiked distil ed water samples gave sulfamethoxazole recoveries around 50%. Work continues to improve the recovery of sulfamethoxazole before any water samples wil be 26. REPLACEMENT OF CADMIUM CARBONATE IN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY LAB. ERIC WOLFE & DR. CLARENCE JOSEFSON, Mil ikin University,
Sponsor: Dr. Clarence Josefson, Department of Chemistry. There is a compound cal ed cadmium carbonate that is used in the Analytical Chemistry lab. The problem with this compound is that cadmium is very toxic and can cause problems to scientist. The research conducted here shows twenty five compounds that were reacted with a sodium hydroxide solution in the titration tests. Each compound had HEDTA, CDTA or EDTA along with a known metal compound. The object of this experiment is to replace the cadmium carbonate lab with something safer and use the aspects of Green Chemistry. The lanthanum nitrate compound worked the greatest because it produced a high volume of crystal ized and titrated very wel . These experiments were only used to replace the cadmium carbonate compound. 27. MODELING ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKING. SHAE TRUMPY & DR.
ERIC MARTELL, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. Eric Martel , Department of
If a cylindrical magnet is dropped into a nonferrous conductive tube, it wil travel at a slower rate than if it was dropped into a tube of non-conducting material. This phenomenon is known as electromagnetic braking. Using a Vernier Instruments magnetic field probe and National Instruments LabVIEW software, we measure the magnetic field of the magnet. From this data we calculate the expected induced current, induced magnetic field, and dissipated power, and compare our experimental results with our computations for the energy lost to 28. IDENTIFYING BARRIERS TO CPAP USE IN PATIENTS WITH SLEEP APNEA. DAWN SARGINSON, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. Marilyn
Over 15 mil ion Americans are diagnosed with sleep disordered breathing and 82% of this population has heart failure.1 Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective form of treatment, many patients fail to adhere. By identifying perceived barriers to CPAP treatment nurses may facilitate early recognition and solutions. The purpose of this integrative review was to identify perceived barriers to CPAP treatment of sleep disorder breathing. A search of the EBSCO electronic database included Cumulative Index of Nursing and Al ied Health, Medline and PubMed using keywords sleep apnea syndromes, obstructive sleep apnea, barriers, and compliance. Snowbal technique was then applied to expand the search. The search strategy was limited to peer-reviewed published articles in English from 1994 to 2009. Dissertations, thesis and publications related to the pediatric population were excluded. Seventeen articles met the inclusion criteria. Each article was reviewed and coded for themes. Four themes emerged as barriers to CPAP adherence which included: physical, psychological, socioeconomic and equipment factors. Sleep disordered breathing is prevalent among heart failure patients and adherence to the recommended treatment remains problematic. Awareness of barriers to recommended CPAP treatment is necessary to ensure early recognition and facilitation of potential interventions. Nursing is in a key position to provide the necessary support and significantly impact patient outcomes. Further research is warranted regarding patients’ perceptions to barriers, education and the effect on patients’ self- 29. COMPARISON OF LEAF AND TENDRIL GROWTH IN SUGAR SNAP PEAS (PISUM SATIVUM VAR. MACROCARPON) AT TWO DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES. ALBANA GASHI, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. Judith
Sugar snap peas (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) are climbing plants that produce tendrils for extra plant support by twining around objects they contact. The objective of this study was to examine al ocation of plant resources to leaves versus tendrils. I wanted to determine whether leaflets or tendrils had higher photosynthetic rates and if tendril growth would be greater at high or low light intensities. A total of 210 seeds were individual y planted and split into two groups, 105 under the sodium vapor high intensity lights and the other 105 in a room with no artificial light for the low light intensity environment. A Li-Cor PAR meter was used to measure light intensity (LI) and an ADC Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA) was used to measure photosynthetic rates of the tendrils, leaves, and stems. I expected there would be greater tendril growth in the low light intensity environment and that tendrils would have higher photosynthetic rates per unit area than leaflets. There was no significant difference between number of tendrils produced in high LI and low LI environments. Leaves had a higher photosynthetic rate than tendrils in high LI with no significant difference in low LI. When I calculated the length (cm) of the stem that consisted of branches with one, two, three, four, and five tendrils there was no significant difference between environments indicating there is little change in this consistent growth pattern. Tendril growth for a pea variety is more likely genetical y determined and not altered plasticity by changes in environmental conditions. 30. ANALYSIS OF A SILENT VOICE. JOHN R. BLAKEMAN & KIMBERLY N.
MCEVOY, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. Sheryl Samuelson, School of Nursing.
In the Glore Psychiatric Museum, a poster-sized piece of embroidery hangs as a testament to the daily experience of a woman who never spoke and was diagnosed with schizophrenia. Her written words have been described as “psychotic” and as “crazy thinking”; however, this embroidery document has never been systematical y studied. The purpose of this qualitative document review was to use content analysis to reveal what occupied this woman’s thinking in her daily life, and to identify themes about her beliefs, experiences, values, concerns, and symptoms present in her message. The embroidery document was analyzed by three researchers who came to agreement on the themes expressed. Her lived experience with schizophrenia was connected to social events, political happenings, and the arts. Data were identified, coded, and categorized. Themes emerged as the experience of living with schizophrenia was explored. The analysis found that even though the patient was silent, she was very affected by the environment around her. Implications for nursing care include awareness of the importance of milieu to patients, that silence should not be inferred to be detachment, and that nurses should continue to develop new ways to engage patients who may prefer to communicate in nontraditional 31. HURRICANE KATRINA AND “CHRYSALID: MUSICIANS FOR HURRICANE RELIEF:” THE ROLE OF GEOGRAPHY AND THE MASS MEDIA TO CREATE IDENTITIES AND MEANINGS IN MUSIC. KATHERINE J.
SULLIVAN, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. Travis D. Stimeling, School of
“Chrysalid: Musicians for Hurricane Relief” was a smal -scale benefit cd created by the members of KVR Audio Online Forum for Hurricane Katrina relief that held international resonance because of a global mass media that transcended geographical limitations. The poster visual y explores the importance of the internet and mass media in creating forums for people around the world to interact with one another and make social and musical connections to cities like New Orleans, a city whose identity is connected to its musical culture. Sources used in research include interviews, websites, and published works on communication and sociological theory. By examining these sources, ideas about the importance of human connection rather than physical closeness are examined, as wel as the importance of the internet in al owing these 32. BEYOND LANGUAGE: A STUDY OF HEALTH CARE BELIEFS AND PERCEPTIONS OF STUDENTS IN KENYA. TIFFANY HALL, Mil ikin
University. Sponsor: Dr. Marilyn Prasun, School of Nursing. Nurses in the United States are providing care to a growing number of ethnic minorities. Understanding the influence of ethnic diversity and cultural beliefs on health and il ness is critical. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the cultural beliefs and perceptions of healthcare among students from Kenya. This was a qualitative study that utilized the phenomenological approach. Interviews were conducted with students from Kenya using five open ended questions to explore healthcare beliefs and perceptions. The students took photographs reflecting their perception of health, il ness, factors influencing health, and nursing. Data was coded for themes and content analysis was performed according Strauss and Corbin (1999). Photographs were reviewed and matched to the categories of health, il ness, factors that influence health, and the nursing role. The emerging themes for health were physical y and mental y fit, balanced in body and mind, and normal y functioning body parts; whereas, il ness was reported as a weakening of the body. Factors influencing healthcare were lack of knowledge, access, and environmental conditions. The role of a nurse was perceived to provide patient care, education and disease prevention. The emerging themes from this study are enlightening. Understanding the perceptions of health, il ness, factors that influence health, and the role of nurses from diverse populations is imperative to ensure cultural y competent care. Further research is warranted in the exploration of cultural beliefs to expand our 33. ANALYSIS OF PHOSPHORYLATION LEVELS IN WILD TYPE AND PEZ OVER - EXPRESSING DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. AUDREY SPELDE
& DR. SAMUEL GALEWSKY, Mil ikin University. Sponsor: Dr. Samuel
The Drosophila Pez gene codes a member of the FERM superfamily of proteins and contains a protein tyrosine phosphatase domain. From its amino acid sequence it was suspected that Pez might be a phosphatase in vivo and thus Pez over-expression might excessively dephosphorylate phospho-tyrosine (pTyr) residues. However, previous research made the unexpected observation using 1- dimensional gel electrophoresis that a general overexpression of Pez increases phosphorylation of proteins. We induced Pez using the Gal4/UAS driver system and examined pTyr distribution levels by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis protein gel blots visualized with anti-pTyr. Levels of pTyr increased in Pez- expressing cel s demonstrating that Pez in vivo activity is the opposite of its predicted enzymatic activity. Our results of 2-dimensional protein gel blots also suggest that Pez over-expression results in phosphorylation of additional sites within the original Pez substrates. This suggests that Pez is not a strong, general phosphatase, but is involved with a tyrosine kinase pathway. To explain this data most simply, we hypothesize that Pez interacts with a tyrosine kinase and removes an inhibitory phosphate, triggering the kinase it to become overactive


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