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A.N.U. B.PHARMACY SYLLABUS (WITH EFFECT FROM 2008 - 09 ACADEMIC YEAR) (BIOPHARMACEUTICS, PHARMACOKINETICS & NEW DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS) Unit : 01Biopharmaceutics :Introduction , Definitions, Fate of drug after administration , Blood level curves,Routes of drug administration, Drug absorption and disposition . Significancein product, formulation and development. Drug absorption –Structure of biologicalmembrane, drug transport mechanisms, factors and kinetics involved –Physico- chemical and biological factors involved in drug absorption.
Formulation and dosage form considerations in drug absorption .
Drug Dissolution : Mechanisms , factors and kinetics of dissolution dissolutionrate significance and evaluation – Official methodsUnit : 02Bioavailability : Concept and definitions, Factors involved on Assessment andsignificance of Drug Distribution. Plasma protein binding and itsimplications- Enterohepatic cycling.
Drug Elimination : Drug metabolism, path ways of drug metabolismExcretion- Excretion through urine, faeces, lungs and skin –Mechanism ofrenal excretion- renal clearance.
Unit : 03Pharmacokinetics : Introduction – Compartment models –study of the methodsof estimation, significance of the following parameters, biological half- life,apparent volume of distribution, renal clearance, total body Clearance,absorption rate, AUC - Mathematical expressions describing the variationin blood concentrations following I.V. and oral routes . Introduction to dosageregimen.
Unit : 04Non-linear Pharmacokinetics : Non-linear Pharmacokinetics with specialreference to one compartment model after IV drug administration, Michaeles-Menten equation. Detection of non linearity ( Saturation Mechanism )Unit : 05Sustained release dosage forms : Principles and concepts involved, dosagecalculations, methods adopted in release controlling, Design, manufactureand evaluation of various types of sustained release products.
parenteral long acting products, implants.
Microencapsulation : Purpose and applications – Techniques ofmicroencapsulationUnit : 06Novel Drug Delivery Systems : Introduction to Novel Drug Deliverysystems – concept of controlled drug delivery, oral and Transdermaldelivery systems - Liposomes, Concept on niosomes and resealederythrocytes A.N.U. B.PHARMACY SYLLABUS (WITH EFFECT FROM 2008 - 09 ACADEMIC YEAR) PHARMACOKINETICS & NEW DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS) 01*. Dissolution rate testing and analysis of data02*. Effect of surfactant on the solubility and dissolution rate of salicylic 03*. Effect of diluents on dissolution rate of salicylic acid04*. Effect of concentration of magnesium stearate on dissolution rate of Evaluation of drug release from semi solid dosage form 06. Relation ship between pH, solubility, partition coefficient and percent ionization of salicylic acid .
07*. Enhancement of dissolution rate by solid dispersion technique08*.
Evaluation of diltiazem hydrochloride conventional and sustainedrelease marketed tablets.
09*. Evaluation of nifedipine conventional tablet & capsule10.
Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution rate of commercial tablets Determination of bioavailability of four brands of given drug Determination of absorption rate constant by Wagner-Nelson method Determination of K & biological half life from plasma Determination of absorption rate constant by method of residuals Calculation of pharmacokinetic parameter as per one compartmentmodel Estimation of renal clearance of creatinine and glomerular filtration rate 19. Determination of construction of standard graph for the estimation of sulphamethoxazole in blood.
20.
Determination of biological half-life of rifampicin by urinary excretiondata Biopharmaceuticals and Pharmacokinetics by R.E.Notari.
05. Applied Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, Leon Shargel06.
Clinical Pharmacokinetics; Concepts and applications by T.Rowlandand Tozer Bioavailability and bioequivalence by Ganesan & Pal.
Dissolution , bioavailability and bioequivalence by Hamed M.Abdou.
A.N.U. B.PHARMACY SYLLABUS (WITH EFFECT FROM 2008 - 09 ACADEMIC YEAR) (BIOPHARMACEUTICS, PHARMACOKINETICS AND NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY Define Drug absorption ? Enumerate salient features of variousdrug transport mechanisms ? Explain about fick’s first law of diffusion.
Define Bioavailability and Bioequivalence ? Explain aboutexperimental protocol in determination of bioavailability ? Elucidate any one method to calculate absorption rate constant for anextra vascular administration following one compartment model.
Mention merits and demerits and derive expressions for C Explain about Michaelis - Menten’s equation ? How do you estimate Km after i.v. bolus administration of drug following non-linear Explain the Principle and factors involved in design of sustained releaseformulations ? How will you calculate the loading and maintenancedoses for SR products.
Define liposomes ? Enumerate various methods to produce liposomes ?Add a note on applications.
Explain pH partition theory and mention its limitation ? Explain significance and application of A.U.C., volume of distribution(Vd) and clearance.
Define dosage regimen ? Explain the significance of two parameters indesigning dosage regimen ? Define Non linearity and causes for non-linearity Write about michael-Menten’s equation ? Explain about coaceration - phase separation mechanism Write short notes on transdermal drug delivery system ? (BIOPHARMACEUTICS, PHARMACOKINETICS AND NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY A.N.U. B.PHARMACY SYLLABUS (WITH EFFECT FROM 2008 - 09 ACADEMIC YEAR) IV/IV B.PHARMACY (7th Semester)
Pharmacology of drugs acting on cardiovascular system : Cardiac glycosides, antihypertensive drugs, coronary dilators, antihyper-lipidemic drugs, antiarrhythmic drugs. Drugs acting on the blood and blood forming agents, coagulants, anticoagulants, haematinics : Iron, Vitamin-B12and folic acid.
Pharmacology of drugs acting on Respiratory system : Bronchodilators, Autocoids: Histamine–antihistaminics, serotonin, serotoninantagonists, Chemotherapy : General principles – Sulphonamides, antibiotics, antiprotozoal drugs, antimalarials, antiamoebic, antifungal and antiviral drugs, chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy and cancer.
Pharmacology of drugs acting on endocrine system : Thyroid, anti-thyroid drugs, insulin and oral hypoglycemics, glucagon, adrenocortical steroids, pituitary hormones, sex hormones and oral contraceptives.
Bioassays : General principles of bioassays, Estimation of errors in bioassays.
Study of the official biological assay methods of adrenaline, posterior pituitary hormones, insulin, gonadotrophic hormones, test for pyrogens.
Principles of Toxicology : Poisons, general treatment of poison, systemic antidotes, treatment of insecticide poisoning, heavy metal poisoning, narcotic drug, barbiturate and organophosphorous poisoning. Drug dependence, drug abuse, addictive drugs and their treatment.
A.N.U. B.PHARMACY SYLLABUS (WITH EFFECT FROM 2008 - 09 ACADEMIC YEAR) IV/IV B.PHARMACY (7th Semester)
704 PHARMACOLOGY-II (Practicals) (75 hrs.) Introduction to basic equipment used in experimental pharmacology Study of mydriatic & miotic effects on rabbit eye Evaluation of local anaesthetic activity by surface anaesthesia method Concentration response curve of acetylcholine Bioassay of acetylcholine by interpolation method 06*. Effect of neostigmine on dose response curve of acetylcholine 07*. Effect of pancuronium on dose response curve of acetylcholine 09*. Effect of adrenaline and acetylcholine on isolated frog’s heart 10*. Effect of calcium chloride and potassium chloride on isolated frog’s heart 11*. Effect of adrenaline in presence of a β-blocker on isolated frog’s heart12*. Effect of acetylcholine in presence of atropine on isolated frog’s heart Goodman and Gilman- “The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics” Textbook of Phramacology by Rang and Dale.
Quientessence of Medical Pharmacology by C.Chowdary.
Lippincott’s illustrated reviews : Pharmacology by Richard,D.Howland and MeryJ.Mylek.
Basic and clinical pharmacology by Bertran G.Katzung.
Review of medical pharmacology by F.H.Meyers, E.Jawetz andA.Goldfien.
Essentials of Medical Pharmacology by K.D.Tripathi.
Essential of Pharmacotherepeutics by F.S.K.Barar.
A.N.U. B.PHARMACY SYLLABUS (WITH EFFECT FROM 2008 - 09 ACADEMIC YEAR) IV/IV B.PHARMACY (7th Semester)
Classify antihypertensives with examples and describe themechanism of action and clinical uses of any three differentgroups of antihypertensives.
Explain the pathogenesis of asthma. Classify antiasthmatic drugsand discuss the pharmacology of β-selective drugs.
Discuss in detail about various mechanisms of actions of differentantibiotics with suitable examples.
What is diabetes ? Classify antidiabetic drugs and discuss thepharmacology of Insulin.
Define bioassay. What are its advantages and disadvantages ? Howis posterior pituitary extract standardised for “oxytocic” activity.
Outline the principles of treatment of acute poisoning in general.
Discuss about the management of organophosphorous poisoning.
Describe the mechanism of action, therapeutic uses and unwantedeffects of digitalis.
Write notes on HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.
Write short notes on pharmacology of prostaglandins.
Write briefly on bacterial resistance.
Write short notes on antithyroid drugs.
Write short notes on errors in bioassays.
Write short notes on test for pyrogens.
Write short notes on heavy metal poisoning and its treatment.
IV/IV B.PHARMACY (7th Semester)
A.N.U. B.PHARMACY SYLLABUS (WITH EFFECT FROM 2008 - 09 ACADEMIC YEAR) IV. B.PHARMACY (7th Semester)
General treatment of the theory, instrumentation and applications of thefollowing analytical methods.
Unit : 01Spectrophotometry (UV, Visible, IR), Nephalometry and Turbidimetry,Fluorimetry and Flame Photometry Unit : 02Potentiometry and pH metry, conductometry and high frequencytitrations, polarography and amperometry.
Unit : 03Chromatography-introduction, paper chromatography , Thin layerchromatography, Column chromatography, Gas Chromatography andIon-exchange chromatography.
Unit : 04High performance liquid chromatography, High performance thin layerchromatography, Electrophoresis and counter current distribution.
Unit : 05Differential thermal Analysis, Basic Principles of Radio immuno assay andits applications in Pharmaceutical Analysis. Basic theory,instrumentation and applications of Nuclear magnetic resonancespectroscopy.
Unit : 06Basic Theory, instrumentation and applications of mass spectroscopy,Electron spin resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.
A.N.U. B.PHARMACY SYLLABUS (WITH EFFECT FROM 2008 - 09 ACADEMIC YEAR) IV/IV. B.PHARMACY (7th Semester)
706 PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS – II (Practicals) (75 hrs.) Determination of absorption maximum for potassium permanganate Estimation of dapsone in tablets by colorimetry 03*. Estimation of sulfamethoxazole in oral suspension by colorimetry04.
Estimation of riboflavine in tablets by colorimetry Estimation of terbutaline in Tablets by colorimetry 06*. Estimation of salbutamol sulphate in tablets by colorimetry07.
Estimation of isoxsuprine HCl in tablets.
08*. Estimation of salbutamol sulphate with Diazo Dapsone reagent09*. Estimation of terbutaline sulphate with Diazo Dapsone reagent10.
Estimation of isoxsuprine HCl in tablets by colorimetry Estimation of analgine in tablets by colorimetry Estimation of ampicillin in capsules by colorimetry Estimation of metoclopramide HCl in injections by colorimetry.
Estimation of paracetamol in tablets by U.V.method.
Estimation of ciproflaxacin HCl in tablets by U.V.method 16*. Estimation of sulphates by nephelometryIV.
17*. Titration of strong acid with a strong base18.
Determination of dissociation constant of weak acid Identification of aminoacids by paper chromatography VII. Karl Fisher Titration22*. Determination of moisture content by KFR Quantitative Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Jenkins A Text Book of Pharmaceutical Analysis by K.A.Connors.
Instrumental Methods of Analysis by H.H.Willard.
Modern methods of Pharmaceutical Analysis by R.E.Schirmer Instrumental methods of chemical analysis by B.K.Sharma Instrumental methods of chemical analysis by G.R.Chatwal.
Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Becket and Stenlake Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis by Ashuthosh Kar.
A.N.U. B.PHARMACY SYLLABUS (WITH EFFECT FROM 2008 - 09 ACADEMIC YEAR) IV/IV. B.PHARMACY (7th Semester)
Explain Beer-Lambert’s law and discuss about the deviations from Beer’s law Explain the principles of polarography ? Write the constructionand working of a instrument used in polarography.
Explain detectors used in gas chromatography with a neatdiagram.
Write the instrumentation of HPLC with a neat diagram.
What is differential thermal analysis ? Discuss the factorsaffecting DTA curve.
Explain the instrumentation of mass spectrometer with a neatdiagram.
Mention the different types of electronic transitions observed inorganic molecules.
Write the principle involved in fluorimetry Give the principle involved in potentiometry Mention the applications of conductometry Write the adsorbants and spray reagents used in TLC.
Write the methodology for paper chromatography.
Mention briefly process involved in electrophoresis.
List out the applications of radioimmuno assay in pharmaceuticalanalysis Write the theory involved in nuclear magnetic resonancespectroscopy Write the theory involved in XRD analysis IV/IV. B.PHARMACY (VIIth Semester)
A.N.U. B.PHARMACY SYLLABUS (WITH EFFECT FROM 2008 - 09 ACADEMIC YEAR) IV/IV. B.PHARMACY (7th Semester)
707 INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND PHARMACEUTICAL Unit : 01Elements of Organization and Management : Functions of managementUnit : 02Plant location and lay-out of an industry : various factors affectinglocational aspect, layout of building and equipment product lay-out v/sprocess layout, drug store location and selection of premises, drug storemanagement.
Unit : 03Production planning and Control : Scientific purchasing, quality control,problems of productivity, stores organization, location of stores,receiving, inspection of materials, issue from the store, control ofstores and stocks, Store Accounting and Records.
Personnel management : Selection, Appointment, training, transfer,Promotion, demotion policies, remuneration, job evaluation , human relations.
Unit : 04Sales organisation : Market, definition–Determent approaches to the studyof marketing, institutional approach, Market planning – Product planning,method of marketing, wholesale retailers, functional approach, costand efficiency in marketing commodity approach.
Distribution polices : pharmaceutical product marketing, sales promotionpolicies-Detailing to physician, professional persons, sampling, window andinterior display, product advertising , sales promotion, publicity.
Unit : 05Elementary Industrial Accountancy : Elements of Double entry book Keeping,Books of Accounts-Journal and ledger, cash book. Balance sheet, Profit andLoss Account, Principles of Costing and Estimating.
Unit : 06Regulatory affairs : Drug Development Stages - NDA and NADA filing Production Management by K.Aswathappa.
Pharmaceutical Production and Management byC.V.S.Subrahmanyam A.N.U. B.PHARMACY SYLLABUS (WITH EFFECT FROM 2008 - 09 ACADEMIC YEAR) IV/IV. B.PHARMACY (7th Semester)
Explain the elements of organization.
What are the factors that affect the plant layout ? Discuss various methods of selection. Explain the job evaluationmethods suitable for pharmaceutical industry.
Write the importance and method of preparation of Balance sheet.
Discuss about ICH guidelines in detail.
Explain about any two functions of management Draw layout for parenterals manufacturing.
Write a note on drug store management.
How materials are issued from the store ? How the records are maintained in the store ? Write a short notes on method of marketing .
Write the differences between wholesale marketing and retailmarketing What is cash book and what are the diffrerent forms of it ? How the NDA filling was carried for a drug ?

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Doi:10.1016/j.tim.2004.07.004

Human intestinal bacteria as reservoirsfor antibiotic resistance genesAbigail A. Salyers, Anamika Gupta and Yanping WangDepartment of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USAHuman intestinal bacteria have many roles in humanthrough the human colon on a regular basis are pathogenshealth, most of which are beneficial or neutral for thesuch as Streptococcus pneumoniae and

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