No está claro cuán grande es el papel de los antibióticos https://antibioticos-wiki.es en las relaciones competitivas entre los microorganismos en condiciones naturales. Zelman Waxman creía que este papel era mínimo, los antibióticos no se forman sino en culturas limpias en entornos ricos. Posteriormente, sin embargo, se descubrió que en muchos productos, la actividad de síntesis de antibióticos aumenta en presencia de otros tipos o productos específicos de su metabolismo.

Final review fall 2008 no answers

SLG MOCK FINAL– FOR PRACTICE ONLY
Fall 2008 – PSYC 1200

FORMAT:

100 MULTIPLE CHOICE SAMPLE QUESTIONS

IMPORTANT:

It is most beneficial to you to write this mock final UNDER EXAM
CONDITIONS. This means:
• Keep your notes and textbook closed. After the 2 hour time limit, go back over your work with a different colour pen or pencil and try to do the questions you are unsure of. Record your ideas in the margins to remind yourself of what you were thinking when we discuss the practice questions as a group next week. The purpose of this mock final is to give you practice answering questions in
a timed setting and to help you to gauge which aspects of the course content
you know well and which are in need of further development and review.
Use this mock final as a learning tool in preparing for the actual final.
Please keep in mind that an answer key will not be provided.
GOOD LUCK!

Disclaimer
: Please note that this ‘mock final’ was prepared by students. There may be
errors that are not evident unless you attend SLG sessions. This is designed to help you
study for the final, but it is NOT A REPLACEMENT for study.

1. A woman is kidnapped and held hostage for days. She is left starved, naked, and humiliated. After being released, she has no memory for the days she was held hostage. She is most likely suffering from: a. Post-traumatic Stress disorder b. Psychogenic amnesia c. Psychogenic fugue d. Dissociative identity disorder 2. A student returns to his dormitory room and finds his roommate immobile, starting into his closet. He maintains this pose for several hours. The roommate may be diagnosed with all but which of the following: a. Having negative symptoms b. Type II schizophrenia c. Catatonic schizophrenia d. None of the above 3. Keri was abused as a child. As her father hit her, she imagined that the abuse was happening to someone else. What disorder might Kerry be more likely to develop when she is older? a. Paranoid schizophrenia b. Psychogenetic amnesia c. Bipolar disorder d. Dissociative identity disorder 4. James believes he can do anything, and starts up a bunch of projects, buys a car and is feeling on top of the world. The next week, James attempts suicide. What might James be suffering from? a. Major depression b. Bipolar disorder c. Dissociative disorder d. Disorganized schizophrenia 5. Having a physical illness, such as cirrhoses of the liver due to alcohol abuse, would a. Axis I b. Axis II c. Axis III d. Axis IV e. Axis V 6. Ann is constantly worried, even through she knows that some of her fears are irrational. According to the biological perspective, what might be causing Ann’s behaviour? a. Genetic predisposition b. GABA abnormalities c. Abnormal serotonin levels d. Two of the above e. All of the above 7. Mr. James believes that people are constantly laughing at him and that FBI agents are trying to steal his life savings. Mr. Scott has a best friend called Sam, who doesn’t actually exist. Mr. James is most clearly suffering from (1) and Mr Scott is clearly suffering from (2) : a. Hallucinations, delusions b. Delusions, hallucinations c. Hallucinations, hallucinations d. Delusions, delusions 8. What is (are) a symptom(s) of PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) a. Emotional numbing b. Re-experiencing the event c. Increase in the parasympathetic system d. Two of the above e. All of the above 9. Without success, Maxine spends hours each day thinking about the dirt and germs she gets when she touches things. As a result, she washes her hands many times. Her experience is most symptomatic of: a. Panic disorder b. Obsessive-Compulsive disorder c. Generalized anxiety disorder d. Dissociative disorder e. Histrionic personality disorder 10. Jill was feeling lethargic and having difficulty getting out of bed in the mornings. She didn’t feel like doing anything. When she went to see a psychologist, the psychologist said that her state has probably due to her ruminating about every problem. From what perspective is the psychologist from? a. Psychoanalytic b. Social-cognitive c. Humanistic d. Cognitive 11. The neurotransmitter thought to be involved with schizophrenia is: a. Dopamine b. Seratonin c. Norepinephrine d. A and B e. B and C 12. Kyle wants to play with the toy that Sally is playing with. To be able to play with the toy, Kyle walks up to Sally, and pushes her down, then grabs the toy. Based on this behaviour, what might Kyle be diagnosed with? a. Conduct disorder b. Oppositional defiant disorder c. ADHD d. Antisocial personality disorder 13. The idea that mental disorders are caused by both a biological predisposition and an event a. Medical Model b. Nature and Nurture c. Biological perspective d. Vulnerability-stress model 14. A Stone Age caveman claims he hears voices in his head, continually rants and raves, and makes bizarre movements with his hands. The tribe’s medicine man treats him by using sharp rocks to cut holes in his head and release the evil spirits that are causing his behaviour. This treatment is called: a. Trephining b. Aversion therapy c. Prefrontal lobotomy d. The devil’s demise 15. A person visits a therapist and complains that she is depressed because people criticize her. The therapist tries to convince her that her depression is caused by her unrealistic belief that she must be liked by everyone. The therapist’s tactics is a component of: a. Systematic desensitization b. Moral therapy c. Counter conditioning d. Rational-emotive behavioural therapy 16. Joey has an intense fear of heights. As part of her therapy, her therapist blindfolds Joey and takes her to the top of the CN tower, then removes the blindfold. What technique is the therapist using? a. Systematic desensitization b. Aversion therapy c. Flooding d. Counterconditioning 17. In order to help Janet overcome her nearly irresistible craving for chocolate, a therapist provides her with a supply of chocolate candies that contain solidified droplets of a harmless but very bitter-tasting substance. This approach to treatment best illustrates: a. Systematic desensitization b. Flooding c. Aversive conditioning d. Exposure 18. Bill believes that anxiety disorders are a result of anxiety being a learned response. From what perspective would Bill be from? a. Psychodynamic b. Cognitive c. Socio-cultural d. Behavioural 19. Summer has been having trouble sleeping, and is feeling lethargic. Every time something bad happens, Summer isn’t surprised and think there is nothing that can be done to prevent them. Summer’s pattern of thought represents: a. The depressive cognitive triad b. Learned helplessness theory c. Depressive attributional pattern d. Lewinsohn’s behavioural model 20. While getting ready for work, Sandy all of a sudden can’t see anything. When going to see the doctor through the insistence of his wife, there appears to be no biological basis for his lost of sight. Sandy is most likely suffering from: a. Hypochondriasis b. Pain disorder c. Conversion disorder d. Dissociative disorder 21. Sandy is worried that he will get an infection, and thinks that anything he touches will get him sick. As a result, he constantly washes his hands. If a psychologist were to prescribe Sandy drugs, what drugs would be prescribed? a. Tricyclics b. Paxil or Zoloft c. Parnate or Prozac d. Valium or Xanax 22. Kirsten has suffered from hallucinations and delusions. She is put on drug treatments. After taking the drugs, she experiences uncontrollable movements of the face and tongue. Kirsten in probably experiencing: a. A positive symptom of schizophrenia b. Tardive dyskinesia c. Electroconvulsive therapy 23. Which of the following coping strategies has a more negative outcome? a. Problem-focused b. Emotion-focused c. Seeking social support d. None of the above 24. According to the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, the life event that requires the most a. A change in the health of a family member b. The death of a spouse c. A divorce d. Sex difficulties 25. Sally has been looking forward to her vacation to the mountains since the beginning of the term. For two weeks prior to leaving, she “burned the candle at both ends”, going to class, taking final exams, working long hours, and socializing with friends when she could. Her vacation finally arrives, and she spends it in bed with the flu. According to Selye, what is Sally experiencing? a. Exhaustion b. Resistance c. Alarm d. Illness 26. Jeremy’s teacher criticized his project, on which he spent hours working. Instead of reasoning with the teacher about his project, he just leaves not saying anything and holding his anger in. If this representative if what Jeremy usually does when he is angry or upset, what is Jeremy at risk for later? a. Adopting a Type A personality b. Developing cancer c. Experiencing a psychogenetic fugue d. Having an early heart attack 27. In a group project, only one member participates in finishing the work, the other members were failing to pull their weight. This is an example of ______. a. Conforming b. Social loafing c. Low-balling d. Primacy effect 28. Luke is cutting up carrots for dinner. His knife slips and he cuts himself on his finger. To reduce the pain, Luke rubs the area around his cut. According to the gate-control theory, this reduces the pain because: a. Endorphins are released b. Thin fibres are stimulated c. Thick fibres are stimulated d. The pain isn’t reduced 29. Tim is sitting in class doodling, when the professor announces that a paper will be due next class. Tim has no information about the subjected that he has to write about. He remembers a few similar instances that have occurred before, and which he did fairly well in. Tom’s thought process represents that he has undergone: a. Primary appraisal b. Secondary appraisal c. Physiological reactivity 30. When the body is increasing activity in the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal glands, a person is in what stage of the general adaptation syndrome? a. Resistance b. Alarm c. Exhaustion d. All of the above 31. Once Harry was told he had to participate in the Triwizard tournament, he decided to go through with it, face the challenges, and work hard to be able to do well in them. Harry’s decision reflects that may score high is what? a. Hardiness b. Coping self-efficacy c. Optimism d. Emotion focused coping 32. Which of the following does not have an influence on pain? a. Cultural factors b. Meanings and beliefs c. Personality factors d. None of the above 33. While Ryan is at the skating rink, he cuts himself on his skates. He has to go to the clinic to get stitches. While Ryan is getting his stitches out, his doctor is asking Ryan to describe his latest soccer game. How is the doctor helping Ryan control his pain? a. Having him believe that getting stitches has a greater meaning b. Using the associative technique c. Using the dissociative technique d. By stimulating the release of endorphins 34. You know that all blond men are intelligent, friendly, sensitive, and cuddly. You are a. a discrimination b. a stereotype c. a prejudice d. a fact 35. Studies of conformity have found that the presence of a dissenter reduces conformity a. Only if the dissenter gives a correct response b. Only in very small groups (fewer than 5 individuals) c. Whether the dissenter is correct or incorrect d. Only in large groups (more than 10 individuals) 36. Which of the following factors increases the likelihood of social facilitation? a. if the task is easy b. if the task is difficult or new c. if the person is being evaluated on a hard task d. if the person is being evaluated on an easy task a. decreases b. increases c. does not change d. any of the above are equally likely 38. An evaluation, containing cognitive, emotional, and behavioural components, of an idea, 39. Credibility, expertise, attractiveness, trustworthiness are all factors associated with a. source b. audience c. message d. all of the above 40. Groupthink is promoted by which of the following? a. charismatic leader b. isolation from outside influence c. desire to maintain group harmony d. all of the above 41. Tanya swims much faster when she is racing against her friend Jenn compared to when her Mom times her with a stopwatch. Tanya is demonstrating: a. social loafing b. social influence c. social facilitation d. conformity 42. She divided her subjects into blue-eyed and brown-eyed group to study prejudice. a. Clark b. Elliott c. Janis d. Triplett a. the tendency for a person to treat someone else differently based on group b. the tendency for us to make first impressions based on previous information c. the tendency for one person’s expectations to make another person behave in d. the tendency to believe you can achieve certain goals through action 44. The ability to apply previously learned knowledge to current problems that heavily involves verbal reasoning and factual knowledge is called intelligence. a. crystallized b. fluid c. psychometric d. deductive 45. A basketball coach believes that one player is better than another player- even though they are equal in ability. The coach proceeds to treat the players differently, and the first player ends up playing better than the second player. This example demonstrates: a. social loafing b. deindividuation c. self-serving bias d. self-fulfilling prophecy 46. What social attraction factor is the “mere exposure effect” most closely associated with a. proximity b. similarity c. familiarity d. liking 47. A person believes that he is not prejudiced, but finds himself laughing at racist and ethnic jokes. This contradiction b/w his attitudes and his behaviour makes him feel anxious, a feeling best explained by: a. self-perception theory b. social facilitation theory c. cognitive dissonance theory d. impression management theory 48. According to Sternberg’s triarchic theory, the types of intelligence that can be demanded a. mathematical, linguistic, and visual spatial b. musical, bodily-kinesthetic, and personal c. crystallized and fluid d. analytical, practical and creative 49. A basketball player is a notoriously poor “practice player” but performs well during actual games. This would most likely be attributable to: a. social loafing b. social facilitation c. cognitive dissonance d. self-fulfilling prophecy 50. Behaving in accordance with group expectations with little or no overt pressure to do so a. obedience b. compliance c. conformity d. groupthink 51. Pertaining to the cause of aggression, revised social learning theory states that: a. frustration does not directly provoke aggression b. aggression always provokes anger c. frustration always leads to aggression d. aggression is caused by frustration 52. Jeff has the tendency to always make dispositional attributions for his successes and situational attributions for his failures. Social psychologists would call this a: a. self-fulfilling prophecy b. actor-observer bias c. fundamental attribution error d. self-serving bias 53. Love characterized by feelings of affection and commitment to the relationship is called: a. passionate love b. "spring fever" c. companionate love d. romantic love 54. A process in which group members are influenced by the group and a dynamic leader to ignore external realities as they make decisions. a. groupthink b. group polarization c. the risky shift d. group perception 55. Social psychologists differentiate altruism from prosocial behaviour. The difference is that altruistic behaviour refers to how one behaves _________ whereas in prosocial behaviour one behaves ___________. a. to help others without expectation for reward; simply to help another b. to help another in need to reduce that person's distress: to remove danger from c. to help another in need; to help another to relieve one's own distress d. to help another to relive one's own distress; to solve another's problem 56. Highly debated research by Philippe Rushton examined racial differences on over 60 measures including intelligence and a host of physical and social variables. He suggested that there was a consistent pattern with individuals of decent scoring the highest, those of decent the lowest and fell in the middle. a. East Asian; African; Caucasian b. Caucasian; East Asian; African c. African; Caucasian; East Asian d. Caucasian; African; East Asian 57. Pertaining to the cause of aggression, revised social learning theory states that: a. frustration does not directly provoke aggression b. aggression always provokes anger c. frustration always leads to aggression d. aggression is caused by frustration 58. If in a group, you felt that you could behave without regard to social norms, you are a. cognitive dissonance b. deindividualization c. obedience d. conformity 59. George knows that drinking and driving is very dangerous. Yet he drives away form the party while intoxicated. He tells himself that it is okay to do this because he has only a short distance to drive. What would Leon Festinger say about George’s behaviour? a. He is trying to reduce his negative state b. He is attempting to reduce his cognitive dissonance c. He is taking the peripheral route d. He is using cognitive justification for his reasons 60. The fact that IQ differences between black and white students has in recent years is generally taken as evidence that this difference may largely be due to factors. a. decreased; unchangeable genetic b. increased; unchangeable genetic c. remained the same; changeable environmental d. decreased; changeable environmental 61. Salovey & Mayer argue that “emotional intelligence” includes . a. being able to recognize the emotions of others b. a lack of self-control c. not examining your feelings when making decisions d. a need for power 62. The fact that you are more likely to help someone in need to make you feel better than because you are empathetic is supportive of the: a. empathy-altruism hypothesis b. bystander intervention theory c. negative state relief theory d. frustration-aggression hypothesis 63. The statistical study of psychological tests is called . c. the establishment of norms d. the “g” factor 64. Realistic conflict theory argues that _____. a. we use the outgroup homogeneity bias to classify outgroups b. prejudice is due to illusory correlations c. prejudice and discrimination exist because groups of people are competing for d. prejudice and discrimination are due to repressed frustrations that people have 65. Through the use of _____, a persuader gets us to commit to some action and then, before we actually perform the behaviour, he or she increases the "cost" of the same behaviour. a. cognitive dissonance theory b. the door-in-the-face strategy c. lowballing d. the foot-in-the-door strategy 66. The education act in all provinces in Canada states that: a. disadvantaged students must be integrated into the regular classroom b. gifted students must be integrated into the regular classroom c. both disadvantaged and gifted students must be integrated into the regular d. disadvantaged students must be segregated from the regular classroom 67. According to the outgroup homogeneity bias, _____. a. people's erroneous expectations lead them to act toward other in such a way that brings about the expected behaviours, thereby confirming the original impression b. people form a negative attitude toward someone because of their membership in c. people view members of groups to which they do not belong as more similar to one another than are members of groups to which they feel they do belong d. people underestimate the role of the situation and overestimate the role of personal factors in explaining others' behaviour 68. Which of the following is not one of Piaget’s stages of development? a. Concrete operations b. Sensorimotor c. Operational d. Formal operation a. the appreciation that certain properties of an object remain constant despite some b. the belief that the height of a column of liquid is the sole determinant of the c. the fact that the preoperational child is incapable of performing certain perceptual d. the fact that preoperational children preserve thoughts about other people 70. Baby monkeys reared to a surrogate mother made out of wire preferred a. the mother with fur and no food b. the mother with no fur and food c. neither d. both equally 71. If an X-bearing sperm fertilises an egg, a ________ results: a. female b. male c. neither female nor male d. not enough information to determine the gender 72. To eliminate alternative explanations, a good experiment must include a a. treatment b. hypothesis c. design d. control 73. The term used to describe an experimental control used in medicinal trials in which the test drug is replaced by an inactive substance is called a __________. a. placebo b. variable c. fraud d. sugar pill 74. In Kohlberg's theory, which of these reasons for moral behaviour is at the highest level? a. to avoid disapproval b. to promote society's welfare c. to gain acceptance d. to follow rules 75. Hubert has skipped class again. He gets the lecture notes from Margie, but can't quite read her handwriting, so he makes an error in copying information about Kohlberg's stage model of moral reasoning. Which of the following statements did Hubert copy incorrectly? a. an individual can be at more than one stage at a given time b. everyone goes through the stages in a fixed order c. each stage is more comprehensive and complex than the preceding one d. the same stages occur in every culture 76. In the Strange Situation Test, a securely attached child will ________ when the parent leaves the room, and ________ when the parent returns. a. become quite upset and anxious; show anger b. seem aloof; actively avoid and ignore the parent c. show some distress; seek proximity, comfort, and contact d. act pleased; act dazed and confused 77. When Clint was in pre-school, he was part of a large study on temperament. The same researchers would again observe Clint's behaviour in the fifth grade, the tenth grade, and when he turned 30 years old. Clint was likely a subject in which type of study? a. Case study research b. Longitudinal research c. Cross-sectional research d. Correlational Research 78. John has Fetal Alcohol Syndrome because his mother consumed alcohol, one of a variety of ____________ which cause birth defects, while she was pregnant. a. transformers b. carcinogens c. alterations d. teratogens 79. Teens raised by ____________ parents are less mature, responsible, more susceptible to peer pressure, and less capable of adopting leadership positions. a. authoritarian b. authoritative c. indulgent d. indifferent 80. A widely accepted belief is that there is a _________ period in human development which makes learning languages after the age of six very difficult. a. sensitive b. critical c. carefree d. difficult 81. The strongest of the following correlations is: a. – 0.79 b. + 0.67 c. – 1.23 d. + 0.08 82. Rachel predicts that children who are brought up to try a variety of different types of foods will be more likely to buy red cars when they are adults. This is an example of a. the false consensus effect b. the hindsight bias c. random sampling d. an hypothesis 83. Professor Jones observes and records the behaviour of children in the school library. Which type of research is Professor Jones employing? a. survey research b. case study c. experimentation d. naturalistic observation 84. In an experimental study of the extent to which mental alertness is inhibited by sleep a. control condition b. independent variable c. experimental condition d. dependent variable 85. A negative correlation between people's physical health and their marital happiness a. poor physical health has a negative impact on marital happiness b. marital unhappiness promotes poor health c. higher levels of marital happiness are associated with lower levels of physical d. marital happiness has no causal influence on physical health 86. Every twenty-fifth person who ordered a subscription to a weekly news magazine was contacted by market researchers to complete a survey of opinions regarding the magazine's contents. The researchers were most clearly employing a technique known as: a. naturalistic observation. b. the double-blind procedure c. random sampling d. the case study e. replication 87. If a farmer did an experiment to determine whether synthetic hormones cause chickens to lay bigger eggs, the dependent variable in his study would be: a. the breed of chickens used in the study b. the weight of the eggs laid by the experimental and control chickens c. the procedure used to assign the chickens to the two groups d. the administration of the hormone only to chickens in the experimental group 88. When a researcher says that the result of her study was statistically significant, it means a. the results are highly important b. the results are not due to chance c. the results are due to chance d. that p > 0.05 89. According to the theoretical perspective known as "Behaviourism", the most important a. the mind b. observable behaviour c. brain waves d. cultural differences 90. Lucy is a doctor in an experiment in which neither she nor her subjects know who is receiving the active substance and who is receiving the placebo. This technique is known as the _________, and is used to ________________. a. placebo effect, eliminate personal bias b. double-blind technique, eliminate personal bias c. elimination of bias technique, prevent the researcher from skewing results in d. doctor-placebo relationship, regulate substance use in experiments 91. Dolly is reviewing her psychological experiment for depression to see if it has content a. the extent to which her experiment represents all facets of depression b. whether her experiment measures depression c. the degree to which her test scores correlate with the scores of another test by a d. the degree to which her experiment consistently measures depression 92. A cognitive structure that guides people’s perception and information processing that incorporates the characteristics of particular persons, objects, events, procedures, or situations is referred to as a: 93. As a young Viennese medical student in the 1880's, Freud began to focus on the disorder called ____, in which physical disorders such as blindness develop without any organic cause. a. repression b. hysteria c. psychodynamism d. monism a. has had no effect on contemporary psychological theory b. has had some influence on both basic and applied psychology c. continues to influence basic but not applied psychology d. continues to influence applied but not basic psychology 95. The study of both identical and fraternal twins in an attempt to understand behaviour is a. behaviour genetics b. evolutionary psychology c. sociobiology d. the cognitive perspective 96. The _____ argued that psychology should study why behaviour is performed, not the a. structuralists b. functionalists c. gestalt psychologists d. behaviourists 97. According to _____, our perceptions are organized and processed in such a way that they are greater than and different from the simple incoming sensory information. a. biological psychologists b. structuralism c. functionalism d. gestalt psychology 98. If a study can be generalized to situations outside the laboratory it is considered to have: a. external validity b. internal validity c. high experimenter bias d. low reliability 99. The notion that perception involves imposing order on an overwhelming panorama of details by seeing them as parts of larger wholes was held by: a. functionalists b. ethologists c. structuralists d. gestalt psychologists 100. Which of the following is NOT part of the six major stages in the Transtheoretical a. treatment b. action c. maintenance d. preparation

Source: http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/assistance/supported_learning_groups/components/documents/Final%20Review%20Fall%202008%20No%20Answers.pdf

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