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Effects of a Caffeinated Taurine Drink on Mental Performance and Dagmar Deixelberger-Fritz & K. Wolfgang Kallus INTRODUCTION
Figure 1:
Caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone, sugar and vitamins are the basic
Analysis of Variance
ingredients of some of the leading energy drinks. Clear cut performance
enhancement in fatigue inducing conditions have repeatedly been reported
[1,2,3,4]. The relative contribution to performance enhancement of each of the
substances is still in the dark. Caffeine increases alertness and reduces fatigue.
It improves performance on vigilance tasks and simple tasks that require
sustained response [1,3,5]. Taurine has a variety of modulatory effects on the

central nervous system [6,7]. It was also proved that there was a positive effect
of glucose on complex performance tasks [8].

Sugar might play a functional role for the effects of energy drinks in fatigue
As demonstrated in Figure 1 subjects performed
inducing experimental settings [9,10].
significantly better on the Continuous Performance
The aim of the present study was to show that 250 ml of a caffeinated taurine
Task in the verum condition compared to the
drink (verum drink containing 80 mg caffeine, 1000 mg taurine, 600 mg
placebo condition.
glucuronolactone, 0 g sucrose and 0 g glucose) have a performance enhancing
The other performance measures support the result
effect and positive effects on mood of professional pilots in a 6 hour fatigue
in a less pronounced way.
inducing paradigm, in comparison to a placebo (verum-drink without caffeine,
taurine and glucuronolactone).
The positive performance effect of the verum was
The paradigm (Graz fatigue paradigm) has already been used to demonstrate
well reflected in the subjective state of the subjects
V _PL … first day verum, second day placebo performance enhancing effects of caffeinated drinks in breaks [10].
( figure 2).
PL_ V … first day placebo, second day verum CONCLUSIONS
Figure 2: Means of positive
23 male, non-smoking pilots (with valid flight
Test substance
A sugar free caffeinated taurine drink has a
licence) with moderate coffee consumption (1-3
significant effect towards an increase of
cups per day) participated in a randomized
250 ml of a
250 ml placebo
performance in a fatigue inducing
placebo-controlled, double blind crossover study
on the effect of 250 ml of a commercial
caffeinated taurine
caffeinated taurine drink on performance and
This effect comes along with improved
80 mg caffeine
mood state.
awakeness and mood.
Subjects received a standard meal at the
1000 mg taurine
Important practical applications of the
beginning of the experiment to prevent
results are evident as we could show a
hypoglycemic states.
positive effect in a fatigue inducing evening
Crossover design
shift in the laboratory for pilots after a
0 g sucrose
regular day shift work.
0 g glucose
Day A: Verum Drink
Day A: Placebo
Day B: Placebo
Day B: Verum Drink
V _PL … first day verum, second day placebo PL_ V … first day placebo, second day verum Testing procedure
Dependent variables
[1] Horne, J.A. & Reyner, L.A. (1996). Counteracting driver sleepness: Effects of napping, caffeine and placebo.
[2] Deixelberger-Fdritz, D. (2004). Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Wirkung von Energy Drinks auf Leistung unter In sum three performance measures were selected for hypothesis testing.
[3] Warburton, D.M. (1995). Effects of caffeine on cognition and mood without caffeine abstinence. Psychopharmacology, [4] Warburton, D.M. (2001). An evaluation of a caffeinated taurine drink on mood, memory and information processing in • d2 Letter Cancellation Test (Total Errors T-E)
healthy volunteers without caffeine abstinence. Psychopharmacology, 158(3), 322-328.
[5] Smith, A.P. (2002). Effects of caffeine on human behavior. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 40, 1243-1255.
[6] Birdsall, T.C. (1998). Therapeutic applications of taurine. Alternative Medicine Review, 3 (2), 128-136.
sustained match to sample test Cognitrone
[7] Horne, J.A. & Reyner, L.A. (2001). Beneficial effects of an “energy drink” given to sleepy drivers. Amino Acids, 20, 83- (mean reaction time of correct responses)
[8] Benton, D. (2002). Carbohydrate ingestion, blood glucose and mood. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 26, • Continuous Performance Task (Total Errors T-E)
[9] Lorist, M.M. et. al. (1994). Influence of caffeine in information processing stages in well rested and fatigued subjects.
Psychopharmacology, 113(3-4), 411-421.
[10] Deixelberger-Fritz, D. et. al. (2003). Changes in performance, and mood state and work load due to energy drinks in pilots. International Journal of Applied Aviation Studies, 3(2), 195-205.
Dep. of Psychology
A set of supplementary performance tests was used to simulate tiring and
Karl-Franzens-University of Graz
monotonous working conditions.



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