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The official text of the Prohibited List
shall be maintained by WADA
and shall be
published in English and French. In the event of any conflict between the English and French versions, the English version shall prevail.
This List shall come into effect on 1 January 2009
THE 2009 PROHIBITED LIST
WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE
Valid 1 January 2009
The use of any drug should be limited to medically justified
All Prohibited Substances
shall be considered as “Specified Substances” except Substances in classes S1, S2, S.4.4 and S6.a, and Prohibited Methods
M1, M2 and M3.
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES
(IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION)
S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS
Anabolic agents are prohibited. 1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)
a. Exogenous* AAS, including:
(5α-androst-1-ene-3β,17β-diol ); 1-androstendione
17β-ol); drostanolone; ethylestrenol
fluoxymesterone; formebolone; furazabol
androstano[2,3-c]-furazan); gestrinone; 4-hydroxytestosterone
dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one); mestanolone; mesterolone; metenolone;
methyltestosterone; mibolerone; nandrolone; 19-norandrostenedione
(estr-4-ene-3,17-dione); norboletone; norclostebol; norethandrolone;
oxabolone; oxandrolone; oxymesterone; oxymetholone; prostanozol
hydroxy-5α-androstano[3,2-c] pyrazole); quinbolone; stanozolol; stenbolone;
and other substances
with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
b. Endogenous** AAS when administered exogenously:
(dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA); testosterone
and the following metabolites and isomers: 5α-androstane-3α,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol; 5α-androstane-
3β,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3α,17α-diol;
androst-4-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3β,17α-diol; androst-5-ene-
3α,17α-diol; androst-5-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-5-ene-3β,17α-diol;
ene-3,17-dione); epi-dihydrotestosterone; epitestosterone; 3α-hydroxy-5α-
androstan-17-one; 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one; 19-
[Comment to class S1.1b:
Where an anabolic androgenic steroid is capable of being produced endogenously, a Sample will be deemed to
contain such Prohibited Substance and an Adverse Analytical Finding will be reported where the concentration of
such Prohibited Substance or its metabolites or markers and/or any other relevant ratio(s) in the Athlete’s
Sample so deviates from the range of values normally found in humans that it is unlikely to be consistent with
normal endogenous production. A Sample shall not be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance in any such
case where an Athlete proves that the concentration of the Prohibited Substance or its metabolites or markers
and/or the relevant ratio(s) in the Athlete’s Sample is attributable to a physiological or pathological condition.
In all cases, and at any concentration, the Athlete’s Sample will be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance
and the laboratory will report an Adverse Analytical Finding if, based on any reliable analytical method (e.g.
IRMS), the laboratory can show that the Prohibited Substance is of exogenous origin. In such case, no further
investigation is necessary.
When a value does not so deviate from the range of values normally found in humans and any reliable analytical
method (e.g. IRMS) has not determined the exogenous origin of the substance, but if there are indications, such
as a comparison to endogenous reference steroid profiles, of a possible Use of a Prohibited Substance, or when a
laboratory has reported a T/E ratio greater than four (4) to one (1) and any reliable analytical method (e.g.
IRMS) has not determined the exogenous origin of the substance, further investigation shall be conducted by the
relevant Anti-Doping Organization by reviewing the results of any previous test(s) or by conducting subsequent
When such further investigation is required the result shall be reported by the laboratory as atypical and not as
adverse. If a laboratory reports, using an additional reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS), that the Prohibited
Substance is of exogenous origin, no further investigation is necessary, and the Sample will be deemed to
contain such Prohibited Substance. When an additional reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS) has not been
applied, and the minimum of three previous test results are not available, a longitudinal profile of the Athlete
shall be established by performing three no-advance notice tests in a period of three months by the relevant
Anti-Doping Organization. The result that triggered this longitudinal study shall be reported as atypical. If the
longitudinal profile of the Athlete established by the subsequent tests is not physiologically normal, the result
shall then be reported as an Adverse Analytical Finding.
In extremely rare individual cases, boldenone of endogenous origin can be consistently found at very low
nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) levels in urine. When such a very low concentration of boldenone is reported
by a laboratory and the application of any reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS) has not determined the
exogenous origin of the substance, further investigation may be conducted by subsequent test(s).
For 19-norandrosterone, an Adverse Analytical Finding reported by a laboratory is considered to be scientific and
valid proof of exogenous origin of the Prohibited Substance. In such case, no further investigation is necessary.
Should an Athlete fail to cooperate in the investigations, the Athlete’s Sample shall be deemed to contain a
2. Other Anabolic Agents, including but not limited to:
Clenbuterol, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), tibolone,
For purposes of this section:
* “exogenous” refers to a substance which is not ordinarily capable of being produced by the body naturally.
** “endogenous” refers to a substance which is capable of being produced by the
S2. HORMONES AND RELATED SUBSTANCES
The following substances and their releasing factors, are prohibited:
1. Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (
e.g. erythropoietin (EPO),
darbepoietin (dEPO), hematide);
2. Growth Hormone (GH), Insulin-like Growth Factors (
Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs);
3. Chorionic Gonadotrophin (CG) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological
[Comment to class S2:
Unless the Athlete can demonstrate that the concentration was due to a physiological or pathological condition, a
Sample will be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance (as listed above) where the concentration of the
Prohibited Substance or its metabolites and/or relevant ratios or markers in the Athlete’s Sample satisfies
positivity criteria established by WADA or otherwise so exceeds the range of values normally found in humans
that it is unlikely to be consistent with normal endogenous production.
If a laboratory reports, using a reliable analytical method, that the Prohibited Substance is of exogenous origin,
the Sample will be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance and shall be reported as an Adverse Analytical
S3. BETA-2 AGONISTS
All beta-2 agonists including their D- and L-isomers are prohibited. Therefore, formoterol, salbutamol, salmeterol and terbutaline when administered by inhalation also require a Therapeutic Use Exemption in accordance with the relevant section of the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions. Despite the granting of a Therapeutic Use Exemption, the presence of salbutamol in urine in excess of 1000 ng/mL will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding
unless the Athlete
proves, through a controlled pharmacokinetic study, that the abnormal result was the consequence of the use of a therapeutic dose of inhaled salbutamol.
S4. HORMONE ANTAGONISTS AND MODULATORS
The following classes are prohibited:
1. Aromatase inhibitors
including, but not limited to: anastrozole,
letrozole, aminoglutethimide, exemestane, formestane, testolactone.
2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)
including, but not
limited to: raloxifene, tamoxifen, toremifene.
3. Other anti-estrogenic substances
including, but not limited to:
clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant.
4. Agents modifying myostatin function(s)
including but not limited to:
S5. DIURETICS AND OTHER MASKING AGENTS
Masking agents are prohibited. They include: Diuretics, probenecid, plasma expanders (
e.g. intravenous administration of
albumin, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch
and other substances
with similar biological effect(s).
Diuretics include: Acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, canrenone, chlorthalidone,
etacrynic acid, furosemide, indapamide, metolazone, spironolactone,
e.g. bendroflumethiazide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide),
, and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar
biological effect(s) (except drosperinone and topical dorzolamide and
brinzolamide, which are not prohibited).
[Comment to class S5:
A Therapeutic Use Exemption is not valid if an Athlete
’s urine contains a diuretic in association with threshold or
sub-threshold levels of an exogenous Prohibited Substance
M1. ENHANCEMENT OF OXYGEN TRANSFER
The following are prohibited:
1. Blood doping, including the use of autologous, homologous or heterologous
blood or red blood cell products of any origin.
Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including but not limited to perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products).
M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION
or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and
validity of Samples
collected during Doping Controls
is prohibited. These include but are not limited to catheterisation, urine substitution and/or alteration.
2. Intravenous infusions are prohibited except in the management of surgical
procedures, medical emergencies or clinical investigations.
M3. GENE DOPING
The transfer of cells or genetic elements or the use of cells, genetic elements or pharmacological agents to modulating expression of endogenous genes having the
capacity to enhance athletic performance, is prohibited. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor δ (PPARδ) agonists (e.g. GW 1516) and PPARδ-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) axis agonists (e.g. AICAR) are prohibited.
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS
In addition to the categories S1 to S5 and M1 to M3 defined above,
the following categories are prohibited in competition:
All stimulants (including both their D- & L- optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited, except imidazole derivatives for topical use and those stimulants included in the 2009 Monitoring Program*.
Stimulants include: a: Non Specified Stimulants: Adrafinil; amfepramone; amiphenazole; amphetamine; amphetaminil; benzphetamine; benzylpiperazine; bromantan; clobenzorex; cocaine; cropropamide; crotetamide; dimethylamphetamine; etilamphetamine;
famprofazone; fencamine; fenetylline; fenfluramine; fenproporex; furfenorex; mefenorex; mephentermine; mesocarb; methamphetamine(D-);
methylenedioxyamphetamine; methylenedioxymethamphetamine; p-methylamphetamine; modafinil; norfenfluramine; phendimetrazine;
phenmetrazine; phentermine; 4-phenylpiracetam (carphedon); prolintane. A stimulant not expressly listed in this section is a Specified Substance. b: Specified Stimulants (examples): Adrenaline**; cathine***; ephedrine****; etamivan; etilefrine; fenbutrazate; fencamfamin; heptaminol; isometheptene; levmetamphetamine; meclofenoxate; methylephedrine****; methylphenidate; nikethamide; norfenefrine; octopamine; oxilofrine; parahydroxyamphetamine; pemoline; pentetrazol; phenpromethamine;
propylhexedrine; selegiline; sibutramine; strychnine; tuaminoheptane and other
substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
* The following substances included in the 2009 Monitoring Program (bupropion,
caffeine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pipradol, pseudoephedrine,
synephrine) are not considered as Prohibited Substances
associated with local anaesthetic agents or by local administration
(e.g. nasal, ophthalmologic) is not prohibited.
is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5
micrograms per milliliter.
**** Each of ephedrine
is prohibited when its
concentration in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.
The following narcotics are prohibited:
Buprenorphine, dextromoramide, diamorphine (heroin), fentanyl and its
derivatives, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone,
oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine.
Cannabinoids (e.g. hashish, marijuana) are prohibited.
All glucocorticosteroids are prohibited when administered by oral, intravenous,
intramuscular or rectal routes.
In accordance with the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, a
declaration of use must be completed by the Athlete
administered by intraarticular, periarticular, peritendinous, epidural, intradermal and inhalation routes, except as noted below. Topical preparations when used for auricular, buccal, dermatological (including iontophoresis/phonophoresis), gingival, nasal, ophthalmic and perianal disorders are not prohibited and neither require a Therapeutic Use Exemption nor a
SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR
Alcohol (ethanol) is prohibited In-Competition
only, in the following sports. Detection will be conducted by analysis of breath and/or blood. The doping violation threshold (haematological values) is 0.10 g/L. • Aeronautic (FAI)
Unless otherwise specified, beta-blockers are prohibited In-Competition
only, in the following sports. • Aeronautic (FAI)
Beta-blockers include, but are not limited to, the following:
Acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carteolol,
carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, levobunolol, metipranolol,
metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol.
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