Referencing (Vancouver Style)
The identification of references within the text
of assignment are identified by Arabic numerals in brackets [ ] can be used as long as it is consistent.
A number is assigned to each reference as it is cited. A number must be used even if an author was named in the sentence, eg. Smith  argued that.
Use double quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation and use single quotation marks for quotations within quotations.
The original number assigned
to a reference is re-used every time the reference is cited in text, regardless of the previous position in text.
as one author has put it "the darkest days were still ahead" : which is well
documented in the literature. [2-3] This proves that "the darkest days were still
When multiple references
are cited at a given place in a text, use a hyphen
to join the first and last numbers that are inclusive, eg. [6-8]. Use commas
(no spaces) to separate non-inclusive
numbers eg. [2,3,4,5,7,9] is abbreviated to [2-5,7,9]
Reference numbers should be placed outside full stops and commas, inside colons and semi-colons.
Butler and Hardy maintain "that people's intrinsic motivation could be weakened by the
application of external controls".
The commonly cited types of references are shown here, for other types of references such as newspaper
Reference list should appear at the end of assignment/report with the entries listed numerically and in the same order that they were cited in the text.
1. Baker PN, editor. Obstetrics by ten teachers. 18th ed. London: Hodder Arnold;
2. Delbridge ML, Harry JL, Toder R. A human candidate spermatogenesis gene,
RBM1, is conserved and amplified on the marsupial Y chromosome. Nat Genet. 1997; 15: 131-136.
Book and journal titles are not italicised or placed in quotation marks.
Only first words of the article title and words that normally begin with a capital letter are capitalised.
A list of abbreviations for the titles is available online at
Examples of bibliographic references
Main Elements of a book citation:
Author/Editor/Compiler's surname initials. Title of the book. # ed. (if not the 1st) Place of publication: Publisher's name; Year of publication.
Carlson BM. Human embryology and developmental biology. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2004.
2 - 6 authors
Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.
More than 6 authors
Give the first six names in full and add "et al". The authors are listed in the order in which they appear on the title page.
Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Kasper DL, et al, editors. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 14th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 1998.
Editor(s) or compiler(s) as author
Follow the same methods used with authors but use the word "editor" or "editors" in full after the name/s. The word editor or editors must be in lower case. (Do NOT confuse with "ed." used for "edition")
Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
Organisation as an author
Royal Adelaide Hospital; University of Adelaide, Department of Clinical Nursing. Compendium of nursing research and practice development, 1999-2000. Adelaide (Australia): Adelaide University; 2001.
The first edition of a book is never mentioned. However from the 2nd edition onwards always give the specific edition of the book, eg 2nd ed.
Heffner LJ, Schust DJ. The reproductive system at a glance. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing; 2001.
Heffner LJ, Schust DJ. The reproductive system at a glance. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing; 2006.
Book in a series
Bennett GL, Horuk R. Iodination of chemokines for use in receptor binding analysis. In: Horuk R, editor. Chemokine receptors. New York (NY): Academic Press; 1997. p. 134-48. (Methods in enzymology; vol 288).
Chemokine receptors = name of the book
Methods in enzymology = title of the series
Chapter in a book (or part of a book to which a number of authors have contributed)
Elements of the citation:
Author's (of the chapter) surname initials. Title of chapter. In: Editor's surname initials, editor. Title of the book. # ed. [if not 1st] Place of publication: Publisher's name; Year of publication. p. #. [page numbers of chapter]
Abbreviate page numbers to p. eg p. 12-26.
Abbreviate numbers where appropriate eg. p. 122-8.
Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
Sponsored by institution, corporation or other organisation
Australian Pharmaceutical Advisory Council. Integrated best practice model for medication management in residential aged care facilities. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service; 1997.
Pamphlet (if available include additional information eg place of production, printer)
Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Medicines and driving [pamphlet]. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia; 1998. DR-7.
Package insert (leaflet supplied with medicine)
Lamaxil [package insert]. East Hanover (NJ): Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp; 1993.
Dictionary and similar references
Include the Definition looked up - in this case "Filamin"
Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 29th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2000. Filamin; p. 675.
Hanrahan C. Valerian. In: Krapp K, Longe JL, editors. The Gale encyclopedia of alternative medicine. Michigan: Gale Group; 2001. vol 4 p. 1768-70.
Veterans Hearing Loss Compensation Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-9, 115 Stat. 11 (May 24,
Healthy Children Learn Act, S. 1012, 107th Cong., 1st Sess. (2001).
Code of Federal
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Intra-cardiac Suction Control, 21 C.F.R. Sect. 870.4430 (2002).
Arsenic in Drinking Water: An Update on the Science, Benefits and Cost: Hearing Before the
Subcomm. on Environment, Technology and Standards of the House Comm. on Science, 107th
Cong., 1st Sess. (Oct. 4, 2001).
Main Elements of a journal citation:
Author's surname Initials, Author's surname Initials. Title of article. Title of Journal. [abbreviated] Year of publication Month date; Volume number (issue number): page numbers.
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.
More than 6 authors
Give the first six names in full and add "et al". The authors are listed in the order in which they appear.
Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.
Organization as author
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.
21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7357):184.
Supplement and/or parts
Volume with supplement
Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.
Issue with supplement
Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12.
Volume with part
Abend SM, Kulish N. The psychoanalytic method from an epistemological viewpoint. Int J Psychoanal. 2002;83(Pt 2):491-5.
Issue with part
Curioni C, André C. Rimonabant for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD006162. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006162.pub2.
OTHER PUBLICATIO S A D I TER ET:
Elements of citation for Conference proceedings:
Editor's surname Initials, editor. Title of the Conference; Date of conference; City where conference took place. Place of publication: Publisher's name; Year of Publication.
Elements of citation for Conference paper:
Author's surname Initials. Title of paper. In: Editor's surname Initials, editor. Title of the Conference; Date of conference; City where conference took place. Place of publication: Publisher's name; Year of Publication. p. page numbers.
Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.
Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.
Thesis / Dissertation
Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.
Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).
Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. In press 2002.
CDRom / DVD
Anderson SC, Poulsen KB. Anderson's electronic atlas of hematology [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002.
Conochie LB. Phsical examination of the musculoskeletal system. Program 6. Cervical spine and neurological examination of the upper extremities. [video recording]. Montreal: McGill University; 1987.
I TER ET and OTHER ELECTRO IC SOURCES
Journal article on Internet
Elements of the Citation:
Author's surname Initials, Author's surname Initials. Title of article. Abbreviated Title of Journal [serial on the Internet]. Year of publication Month day [cited Year Month Day]; Volume number (Issue number): [about number of pages or screens]. Available from: URL
Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htm
Monograph/Book on the Internet
Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer [monograph on the Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://0-www.nap.edu.innopac.up.ac.za:80/books/0309074029/html.
Elements of a citation:
Author/Editor/Organisation's name. Title of the page [homepage on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher's name; [updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available from: URL
Cancer-Pain.org [homepage on the Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/.
Part of a homepage/Web site
Elements of a citation:
Author/Editor/Organisation's name. Title of the page [homepage on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher's name; [updated year month day; cited year month day]. Title of page being cited. [number of screens]. Available from: URL
American Medical Association [homepage on the Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug 23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens].
Database on the Internet
Who's Certified [database on the Internet]. Evanston (IL): The American Board of Medical
Specialists. c2000 - [cited 2001 Mar 8]. Available from: http://www.abms.org/newsearch.asp
Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congential Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes
[database on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). c1999 [updated
Part of a database on the Internet
MeSH Browser [database on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2002 - [cited 2003 Jun 10]. Meta-analysis; unique ID: D015201; [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://0-www.nlm.nih.gov.innopac.up.ac.za:80/mesh/MBrowser.html Files updated weekly.
PRESS RELEASE 26TH August, 2012 IRELAND IN TOP THREE MEDALS TABLE AT EUROPEAN TRANSPLANT GAMES WITH SPECIAL AWARD FOR BEST FEMALE ATHLETE An air of celebration and pride swept through Dublin Airport’s arrivals hall on Saturday night when Transplant Team Ireland arrived home with 50 medals. The brave athletes breezed through Terminal 2 adorned with their impressive haul from the 7
I augusti i år upptäcktes MRSA för första gången på en gris i Sverige. Antibiotikaresistens – ett växande världsproblem Allt oftare talas det i media om antibiotikaresistens och uttryck som till exempel MRSA, EHEC, VTEC och VRE. Det kanske inte är helt lätt att förstå och varför antibiotikaresistens är så oroande. Med den här artikeln vill Christina Arosenius, veterinär,