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M.sc. biotech proposed syllabus for jecrc university

JECRC UNIVERSITY
SEMESTER-I PAPER CODE: BT – 101
BIOCHEMISTRY-I
Total Hours Allotted: 60 Hours
CREDIT-I
Chemical foundation of biology – pH, acids, bases, chemical bonding, properties of water, Gibbs free energy, High energy compounds, ATP Cycle Carbohydrates – Classification and properties of carbohydrates, mono (glucose, galactose and fructose) di (lactose, maltose, sucrose), poly (starch, glycogen, Classification, Structure and biological functions of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, steroids. Physico-chemical properties and analysis of fats and oils. Structure and functions of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes. (15 Hours)
CREDIT-II
Amino acids – Classification. Structure and physicochemical properties. Peptides Peptide bonds, Proteins – Classification. Isolation and purification of protein. Primary structure of proteins and its sequence determination. (15 Hours)
CREDIT-III
Secondary (Ramachandran plot), tertiary and quaternary structural features of proteins, Primary structure Forces responsible for protein stability. Structural o r g a n i z a t i o n o f globular (myoglobin, hemoglobin), fibrous proteins (collagen, keratins, silk fibroin). Denaturation and renaturation of proteins, Structure and functions of glycoproteins and lipoproteins. (15 Hours)
CREDIT-IV
Nucleic Acids – Structure of purines, pyrimidine, nucleosides, and nucleotides. Structure, properties and functions of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), Different forms of DNA and RNA. Three dimensional structure of tRNA. Isolation of nucleic acids, Denaturation and re naturation of nucleic acids, cot curves. C value paradox. (15 Hours)

REFERENCE/TEXT BOOKS:
1. Textbook of Biochemistry. 1968 byWest and Todd (MacMillan).
2. Principles of Biochemistry. 1993 by A.L. Lehninger, Nelson and Cox. (C.B.S.,
3. Principles of Biochemistry General Aspects. 1983 by Smith et al., (McGraw Hill). 4. Biochemistry (2nd edition) by Donald Voet and Judith Voet. 5. Biochemistry (4th edition) by L. Stryer (Free man). 6. Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlation (4th edition) by Thomas M. Devlin. 7. Biochemistry by Zubay. 8. Nucleic acid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology by Main Waring et al., 9. Biochemistry, 2nd edition by Albert L. Lehninger. 1978. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. 10. Biochemical calculations, Irwin H.Segel, John Wiley and sons Inc 11. Organic Chemistry, DJ Cram and GS Hammond PAPER CODE: BT – 102
MICROBIOLOGY
Total Hours Allotted: 60 Hours
CREDIT-I
Introduction to Microbiology: Historical background & scope, structure of peptidoglycan, Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell structures, Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, Microscopy - light, electron and laser optic Classification of microorganism - Classification of Bacteria: Basic principle and techniques used in bacterial classification. Phylogenetic polyphasic taxonomy and numerical taxonomy; Kingdom - protista, prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, the five-kingdom concept of classification, archaeobacteria, eubacteria and eukaryotes; New approaches to bacterial taxonomy / classification including genetic methods, ribotyping and ribosomal RNA sequencing characteristic of primary domains;. Morphology and fine structure of bacteria, General structure and features, Brief account of all group of bacteria and cyanobacteria, Rickettsia, Chlamydia and Mycoplasma, Archaea - archebacterial cell wall; fungal cell wall, Cyanobacteria : General account and their economic importance, extremophilic microbes – their biotechnological potentials. Methods in Microbiology: Sterilization techniques - Physical and chemical methods; Preparation of culture media, Different types of media - simple, complex and defined, Pure culture techniques - isolation, cultivation, enumeration and preservation of microbes; microbial staining techniques - simple and differential staining, enrichment culture techniques for isolation of nutritional categories of conjugation, Plasmids and Transposons, regulation of gene expression. (15 Hours)
CREDIT-II
Nutritional requirements and nutritional classification of microorganisms: principle of microbial nutrition, Different carbon and nitrogen sources, different modes of bacteria - Sulfate reduction, Nitrogen metabolism – nitrate reduction, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria, Nitrogen fixation and Microbes used as biofertilizer, transport of nutrition across the bacterial membrane; Metabolic diversity among microorganisms: Photosynthesis; Chemolithotrophy; Hydrocarbon transformation, Hydrogen-iron nitrite- oxidizing bacteria; Nitrate and sulfate reduction; Methanogenesis and acetogenesis; Fermentations-diversity; Microbial Diversity: Bacteria: Purple and green bacteria, cyanobacteria, acetic acid bacteria, Pseudomonads, lactic and propionic acid bacteria, endospore forming rods and Hyperthermophilic archaea; Thermoplasma. Eukarya: Algae, Fungi, Slime molds and Microbial Growth: The definition of growth, mathematical expression of growth, growth curve, bacterial generation time, specific growth rate and measurement of growth and growth yields, Axenic culture, Monoauxic, Diauxic and Synchronous growth curve, Continuous culture; Growth as affected by environmental factors like temperature, acidity, alkalinity, water availability and oxygen, Different effects of physical and chemical factors on microbial growth. Culture collection and maintenance of cultures, Sporulation in bacteria Chemotherapeutic agents: Antimicrobial agents; Sulfa drugs; Antibiotics - Penicillin and Cephalosporin; Classification of Antibiotics, Broad and narrow spectrum antibiotics; Antibiotics from prokaryotes; Antifungal and antiviral antibiotics, mode of action of antibiotics; Resistance to antibiotics, origin of drug resistance, mechanism of drug resistance, antimicrobial susceptibility test. (15 hours)
CREDIT-III
Microbes in natural habitats - air, water & soil; Industrial application of microbes - Wine, Beer, Cheese, Yogurt; Primary and secondary metabolites and their Viruses: Discovery, General characteristics, Morphology, Classification and structure of plant, animal and bacterial viruses, Types, Isolation, cultivation and identification of viruses, virons, viroids and prions, viral replication. Structure and morphology of bacteriophages - φX 174, lytic and lysogenic cycle; cyanophages and retroviruses. DNA viruses - Life cycle and replication of SV 40, RNA viruses – Life cycle and Plant viruses: TMV, Gemini, CMV, Human Viruses: Influenza (SARS), Herpes Simples (15 Hours)
CREDIT-IV
Host-Parasite Relationships: Normal microflora of skin, oral cavity, Gastrointestinal tract; Entry of pathogens into the host; colonization and factors predisposing to infections; types of toxins and their structure; Mode of Microbial Pathogenicity - toxins, mode of action; Oxygen toxicity: Study of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, mechanism of oxygen toxicity. Bacterial pathogens - Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Escherichia, Salmonella & Mycobacterium. Viral pathogens - Influenza, Rabies, Enterovirus, Retrovirus, Oncogenic viruses. Control of microorganisms - physical and chemical methods - antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents - anti microbial susceptibility test. Microbial Diseases: Disease reservoirs; Infectious disease transmission; Respiratory infections caused by bacteria and viruses; Tuberculosis; Sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS; Diseases transmitted by animals, insects and ticks, food and water borne diseases; Pathogenic fungi; Emerging and resurgent infectious diseases. Infection and disease, types of infection, Mechanism of pathogenesis of bacterial and viral disease; Mycoplasma and diseases caused by Staphylococccal and Clostridial food Poisoning, Bacterial Diseases: Salmonellosis and Shigellosis. Fungal Diseases: Histoplasmosis, Aspergillosis and Candidiasis. Viral diseases: Chicken Pox, Hepatitis B and Poliomyelitis. (15 Hours)

REFERENCE/TEXT BOOKS:
1. Alcamo’s Fundamental of Microbiology, (2004); Pommerville et al.
2. Microbiology (2004); Tortora,F.
3. Foundation in Microbiology (1996);Talaro & Talora.
4. Food Microbiology (2004); Adam, M.R.
5. Principles of Microbiology (1994); Atlas,R.M.
6. Pharmaceuticals Microbiology (2003); Purohit & Saluja.
7. Brock Biology of Microbiology, Martinko,M.T & Parker,J.
8. Microbiology, L.M. Prescott, J.P. Harley and D.A. Klein, 7/e, 2007. McGraw Hill, Boston. 9. Fundamental Principles of Bacteriology, A.J. Salle, 1999. Tata McGraw - Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi. 10. Medical Microbiology, D. Greenwood, R. Slack and J. Peutherer, 1997. ELST with Churchill Livingstone, Hong Kong. 11. Microbial Ecology. Fundamentals and Applications, R. M. Atlas and R. Bartha, 2000. 12. Microbiology, M.J. Pelzer Jr., E.C.S. Chan and N.R. Kreig, 1993. McGraw Hill Inc., New York. 13. Microbial Functional Genomics, J.Zhou, D.K. Thomson. Y.Xu. J.M. Tiedje. J.Wiley, 2004. 14. General microbiology, R.Y. Ingraham, J.L. Wheelis, M.L. and Painter, P.R. The MacMillian Press Ltd. 15. Brock Biology of microorganism, M.T. Martinko, J.M. and Parker, J. Prentice- Hall. 16. Microbial Genetics, Maloy, S.R., Cronan, J.E. Jr and Freifelder, D.Jones, Bartlett Publishers 17. Microbiology-A Laboratory Manual, cappuccino, J.G. Sherman, N. Addison Wesley. 18. Microbiological Applications (A Laboratory Manual in General microbiology) 19. General Microbiology, Stainer, RY, Ingraham, JL, Wheelis, ML., and Painter, PR. The Macmillan Press Ltd., (2000). 20. Microbiology, Davis BD et al., Harper and Row, (1990). 21. Microbiology-Principles and exploration, Black JG, Prentice Hall, (1999). 22. Microbial Biotechnology, Glazer AN, Nikaido H, WH Freeman and Company, PAPER CODE: BT – 103
IMMUNOLOGY
Total Hours Allotted: 60 Hours
CREDIT - I
Introduction: Scope of immunology, Types: Innate and acquired immunity. Features of immune response: Memory, Specificity and recognition of self and non-self, Clonal nature of immune response, Humoral and Cell mediated immune responses. Cells of the immune system: Hematopoiesis and differentiation, B lymphocytes, T- lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and lymphocyte activated killer cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells & denditic cells, lymphocyte trafficking. Organs of the immune system: Primary and secondary lymphoid organs: Thymus, Bone marrow, lymphatic system, lymph nodes, spleen, Mucosal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT), Cutaneous-Associated Lymphoid Tissues. Antigen: Immunogenicity v/s antigenicity, factors affecting immunogenicity, nature of immunogen, biological system, epitopes, haptens and antigenicity, pattern Immunoglobulins: Structure of antibody, function and synthesis, antibody mediated effector functions, antibody classes and biological activities, antigenic determinants on immunoglobulins, immunoglobulins superfamilies. Production and applications of monoclonal antibodies (by hybridoma technology). (15 hour)
CREDIT - II
Antigen-Antibody interactions: Strength of interaction, cross reactivity, precipitate, reaction, agglutination reaction, radioimmunoassay, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, chemiluminescence, ELISPOT assay, western blot, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and flourescence. Major histocompatibility complex: General organization, MHC molecules: structure & genes, their mode of antigen presentation and interaction, cellular distribution of MHC, regulation of MHC expression and disease susceptibility. Antigen Processing and Presentation: role of antigen presenting cells, endogenous antigens: cytosolic pathway; exogenous antigens: endocytic pathway. T-Cell receptor complex, T- Cell accessory membrane molecules, activation of T –cells, organization and arrangement of T-receptor genes B-cell receptor complex, activation and proliferation of B-cells, regulation of B-cell development (15 hours)
CREDIT-III
Cytokines: Structure and functions, cytokine receptors, signal transductions mediated by cytokine receptors, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cytokine related diseases and therapeutic applications of cytokines. Complement system: Function, components, activation, regulation and deficiencies of complement. Cytotoxic T-cell and their mechanism of action, NK cell and mechanism of target cell destruction. Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity. Inflammation: its mediator and the process, cell-adhesion molecules and their role in inflammation, lymphocyte homing, tissue injury and immune response leading to an inflammatory reaction, role of anaphylatoxins, granulocyte in inflammatory process. Hypersensitivity reaction: Definition, IgE mediated hypersensitivity, mechanism of mast cell degranulation, mediators of type I reactions and consequences. Type II reactions, immune complex mediated hypersensitivity and (15 hours)
CREDIT-IV
Immune response to infectious diseases: Bacteria, viruses and intracellular parasites. Vaccines: Active and Passive Immunization Types of Vaccines – Inactivate Attenuated, Purified macromolecules and Recombinant-vector, DNA, Synthetic peptide, Multivalent subunit Vaccines. Immunodeficiency Secondary Immunodeficiency and their diagnosis and therapeutic approaches. Autoimmunity: Organ specific diseases, systemic disease, mechanism of autoimmunity, treatment of autoimmune diseases. Transplantation immunology: immunologic basis of graft rejection, immune suppression and immune tolerance. Tumor immunology: cancer definition, malignant transformation of cells, oncogenes and cancer induction, tumor antigens, tumor evasion of the immune system, cancer immunotherapy. (15 hours)

REFERENCE/TEXT BOOKS:
1. Molecular biology of the Cell, Alberts B., Bray D., Lewis J., Ralf M., Roberts K. and
Watson J.D., Garland Publishing Inc. (2001). 2. Kuby Immunology, Goldsby R.A., Kindt Thomas J., Osbarne B.A., WH Freeman & Company, (2000). 3. Immunology-Understanding the Immune System Elgert K.D, Wiley Liss, (1996). 4. Roitt’s essential Immunology, Roitt I.M. and Delves P.J., Blackwell Science Ltd., 5. Immunology 6th Edition, Roitt I., Brostoff J. and Male D., Mosby Harcourt Publishers, (2001). 6. Immuno-biology, Janeway CA and Paul Travers 1994. 7. Immunological techniques, D.M. Weir, 1992. 8. Current Protocols in Immunology 3 Volumes, Wiley Publications 1994. 9. Monoclonal Antibodies: Principles and Practice, J. W. Goding, 1983. Academic Press 10. Hybridoma Technology in the Biosciences and medicine, T.A. Springer, 1985. Plenum Press NY. 11. Vaccines, New Approaches to immunization, F.Brown, R.M.Chanock, KA 12. Topley and Wilson principles of bacteriology, Virology and immunology, G. Wilson, A.Miles, M.T.Paker, 1984. Arnold, Heineman. 13. Basic and Clinical Immunology, D.P. Stities and J.D. Stobo. 14. Immunology- A short Course, Eli Benamini, Richard Coico, Geoffrey Sunshine. 15. Immunology by Tizzard 16. Fundamentals of Immunology, William Paul. 17. Immunology by Abbas. Practical
1. λmax of Protein 2. λmax of DNA 3. Separation of Amino acids using paper chromatography 4. Qualitative analysis of carbohydrates 5. Qualitative analysis of Fats and Oil 6. Qualitative analysis of Protein 7. Preparation of Buffers 8. Verification of Lambert and Beer law 9. Calibration of Spectrometer 10. Sterilization and preparation of media, Enumeration of bacteria and fungi from 11. Environmental samples - soil, water and air. Techniques for pure culture - streaking, 12. Isolation and maintenance of organisms by plating, streaking and serial dilution method, slant and stab cultures, storage of microorganisms. 13. Preparation of Liquid and Solid media for growth of microorganisms. 14. Stains and staining techniques, simple staining, negative staining, acid fast, spore, endospore staining, capsule staining & differential staining Tchniques. 15. Bacterial growth - Growth curve, factors affecting bacterial growth - pH, Temperature, Carbon and Nitrogen source and Salinity. 16. Measurement of bacteria population by turbidometry and serial dilution methods. 17. Biochemical tests for identification of bacteria. 18. Antimicrobial assay, phenol coefficient, agar plate sensitive method. 19. Cultivation and morphology of molds and yeast 20. Assay of antibiotics and demonstration of antibiotic resistance 21. Bacterial transformation. 22. One Step growth curve of coli phage. 23. Antimicrobial activity of certain plant extracts. 24. Effect of UV radiation on bacteria. 25. Cell counting and cell viability. 26. Blood cell analysis 27. Lymphocyte subset identification and enumeration 28. Separation of serum components by electrophoresis 29. Immunodiffussion 30. Radial immunodiffusion test 31. Immuno electrophoresis 32. ELISA 33. Differential WBC count. 34. The effect of hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic environment on human RBC 35. Ouchterlony technique SEMESTER-II PAPER CODE: BT – 201
BIOCHEMISTRY-II
Total Hours Allotted: 60 Hours
CREDIT-I
Carbohydrates: Glycolysis, citric acid cycle, Glycogenolysis, HMP shunt and their regulation. Pasture effect, biosynthesis of energy rich bonds, Gluconeogenesis, interconversion of sugars. Biosynthesis of oligosaccharides (15 Hours)
CREDIT-II
Lipids: Fatty a c i d biosynthesis, Acetyl CoA carboxylase, Fatty acid syntheses, desaturase and elongase. Fatty acid oxidation ( alpha, omega and Beta) , oxidation of odd chain and unsaturated fatty acids. Biosynthesis of Prostaglandins, cholesterol and other steroids (15 Hours)
CREDIT-III
Amino acids: Biosynthesis and degradation of amino acid. Regulation of amino acids Metabolism, Urea cycle and its regulation. Nucleic acid: Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines (de novo and Salvage pathway) Regulation of purines and pyrimidines biosynthesis. (15 Hours)
CREDIT-IV
IUB nomenclature and classification of enzymes. Nature of enzymes, Active site, coenzymes, assay of enzyme, units of enzyme activity. Kinetics of enzyme catalysed reaction - Michaelis- Menten equation, Determination of Vmax, Km, Kcat, and their significance. Effect of pH, temperature, concentration of substrate and enzyme concentration, organic solvents on enzyme catalysis and structural consequences. Activators and inhibitors. Enzyme inhibition – reversible and irreversible. Competitive, non-competitive and feed-back enzyme inhibition, enzyme Isoenzymes (LDH), Multienzyme, complexes, Multifunctional enzymes, Modern concepts of evolution of catalysis – ribozymes, Abzymes (15 Hours)

REFERENCE/TEXT BOOKS:
1. Textbook of Biochemistry. 1968 byWest and Todd (MacMillan).
2. Principles of Biochemistry. 1993 by A.L. Lehninger, Nelson and Cox. (C.B.S.,
3. Principles of Biochemistry General Aspects. 1983 by Smith et al., (McGraw Hill). 4. Biochemistry (2nd edition) by Donald Voet and Judith Voet. 5. Biochemistry (4th edition) by L. Stryer (Free man). 6. Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlation (4th edition) by Thomas M. Devlin. 7. Biochemistry by Zubay. 8. Nucleic acid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology by Main Waring et al., 9. Biochemistry, 2nd edition by Albert L. Lehninger. 1978. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. 10. Biochemical calculations, Irwin H.Segel, John Wiley and sons Inc 11. Organic Chemistry, DJ Cram and GS Hammond PAPER CODE: BT – 202
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY and BIOTECHNIQUES
Total Hours Allotted: 60 Hours
CREDIT-I
Nuclear organization: Chromosomal DNA and particles, nucleosomes. Modern Concept of gene organization. Chromosomal replication, synthesis and processing (DNA replication, Enzymology of DNA replication), DNA repair. Gene mutation: Types of mutations, Molecular mechanism of mutations Chromosomal mutations: changes in the structure of chromosome and changes in (15 Hours)
CREDIT-II
Transcription and Transcriptional control: Structure of bacterial RNA polymerase, Transcription events, and sigma factor cycle, Eukaryotic RNA polymerase, Promoter sequences, TATA box, Hogness Box, CAAT box, Enhancers, upstream activating sequences, Initiation and termination of transcription factor, RNA processing in Prokaryotes Vs Eukaryotes, Spliceosome. Translation: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic translation, th Structure of DNA and its physico- chemical properties. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication- DNA polymerases and proteins involved in DNA synthesis and their specific roles. Structure and properties of RNA polymerases in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. General and specific transcription factors, Mechanism of transcription and post transcriptional modifications of RNAs, RNA editing. Features of genetic code, amino-acyl synthases and charging of t-RNA, prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation, regulation of translation. Synthesis of secretary and membrane proteins, import into nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplast and peroxisomes. (15 Hours)
CREDIT-III
Regulation of gene expression: prokaryotic gene expression with reference to inducible and repressible operons. Concept of eukaryotic gene regulation. Genetic basis of pattern formation in Drosophila, homeotic loci. DNA and RNA tumour viruse; oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and their mechanism of action. Antisense RNA and RNA interference. Applications of antisense and ribozyme technologies Importance of genome projects, human genome project, Sequence component of eukaryotic genome, satellite, microsatellite and minisatellite DNA; physical mapping by building clone contigs, genomic libraries, YAC, BAC libraries. General organization of human genome. An overview of gene expression in human cells, genetic markers, principles and strategies in identifying disease genes, application of sequence information for identification of effective genes. (15 Hours)
CREDIT-IV
Basic knowledge of the principles and applications of Microscopy: Light, Phase contrast, fluorescence, Electron microscopy (SEM, TEM), Chromatography Electrophoresis- General principle, application and types, Centrifugation: Basic principles, common centrifuges used in laboratory (clinical, high speed & ultra centrifuges) Spectroscopic methods: Principle and applications of UV-visible, IR, (15 Hours)
REFERENCE/TEXT BOOKS:
1. Sharma V.K: techniques in Microscopy and Cell biology Tata McGraw Hill, 1991
2. Alberts et al: Molecular biology of the cell,
3. Garland, 1989: Biochemical Technique: Theory & Practical, Waveland press
4. Wilson & Walker: Practical Biochemistry, Cambridge university press
5. Jayraman: Laboratory Manual in Biochemistry
6. Demain & Davies: Manual of Industrial Microbiology & Biotech 2nd edt.


Practicals
1. Estimation of carbohydrate by Anthrone reagent 2. Estimation of Glycogen 3. Estimation of Protein by Lowry’s, Barford and Biurate method 4. Saponification value of oil 5. Acid umber of oil and fats 6. Iodine number 7. Estimation of DNA by DPA Method 8. Estimation of RNA by Orcinol Method 9. Restriction digestion 10. Ligation 11. Isolation of Bacterial DNA 12. Quantification of bacterial DNA using spectrophotometer 13. Isolation of RNA and quantification by a spectrophotometric method 14. Separation of plant protein by SDS PAGE and visualization 15. Demonstration of PCR technique PAPER CODE: BT – 203
GENETIC ENGINEERING
Total Hours Allotted: 60 Hours
CREDIT-I
Concept and emergence of r-DNA technology, preparation and purification of total cell DNA, plasmid DNA and bacteriophage DNA; Basic techniques involved in rDNA technology; Enzymes involved in RDt( Klenow fragment, Taq DNA, Ribonucleases, Alkaline phosphatase, Nuclease, T4 DNA ligase) Restriction enzymes, Preparation of Desired Gene from genome, reverse transcription and gene machine. Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries; Methods of Ligation (15 Hours)
CREDIT-II
Vectors – Plasmids, cosmids, λ, phagemids, yeast artificial chromosomes. Introduction of DNA/RNA in bacteria, yeast, fungi and in other eukaryotic host systems; Selection and screening of recombinant clones: Direct and indirect methods. Probe preparation (radiolabelling and non-radiolabelling) Methods based on Nucleic acid homology (Southern, northern, western, southern- western, subtractive, colony and plaque hybridization, in situ chromosomal hybridization, chromosomal walk, etc.) (15 Hours)
CREDIT-III
Characterization of cloned DNA: Restriction mapping. DNA sequencing: Polymerase Chain Reaction and its variations. DNA fingerprinting, Molecular Markers (RAPD, SSR, (15 Hours)
CREDIT-IV
Expression of cloned DNA: Expression vectors. Modification of cloned DNA (Site directed mutagenesis) Secretion of cloned product; Applications of recombinant DNA technology: Transgenic animals. Transgenic plants; Pharmaceutical products (15 Hours)

REFERENCE/TEXT BOOKS:
1. Recombinant DNA : Watson
2. Genetic engineering : Sandya Mitra
3. Principles of gene manipulation : Old & Primrose
4. Gene cloning : T. A. Brown
5. Molecular Biology Lab fax I & II : T. A. Brown
PAPER CODE: BT – 204
INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
Total Hours Allotted: 60 Hours
CREDIT-I
Historical background, Composition of food, Growth of microorganisms in food: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Characterization and Techniques of fermentation systems. Role of Fermentation; Biochemistry of Fermentation: Fermentation of Carbohydrates, Protein. Lipid Metabolism, Formation of flavour. Advanced continuous fermentation for anaerobic microorganisms, Fermentation for detoxification and decolorization, Fermentation process validation. Genetic manipulation of industrially important microorganisms: Methods of reproduction, recombination, strain modification, stabilization of transformants, autonomous replication. Production o f foreign protein, Commercial production of plant proteins in microorganisms. Economics of fermented products. Microorganisms involved in natural fermentation, Microbial succession. (15 Hours)
CREDIT-II
Composition and nutrition of fermented products Traditional fermented foods: Bread, cocoa, coffee, tea, sauerkraut, cheese, butter, yoghurt, meat, fish, etc. Alcoholic beverages: Beer, wine and whisky. Value addition products: High fructose syrup, invert sugars etc. Edible fungus: Mushrooms. Bioreactors in food fermentation; Packaging of fermented food products Biosensors; Biological monitoring of foods, waste management and food processing; HACCP and hurdle technology. Protein engineering in food technology: methods, targets and applications in foods. (15Hours)
CREDIT-III
Fermentation Technology - The component parts of a fermentation process range of fermentation processes, chronological development of fermentation industry. microorganisms. Fermentation media for industrial fermentation Design of Fermentor - Basic functions of a Fermentor for microbial culture, aseptic operation and containment, Aeration and Agitation, valves and steam traps; Types of fermentation, Types of fermentation vessels Fermentation Processes - Batch, fed-batch and continuous fermentations. Solid- state fermentations, Duel or multiple fermentations; Recovery and purification of fermentation products (down-stream processing) - Recovery of microbial cells, cell disruption. Chromatography, membrane processes, drying and crystallization. (15 Hours)
CREDIT-IV
Enzyme and cell immobilization and their industrial applications; Industrial Production of Antibiotics – Penicillin, Streptomycin, Tetracyclines Organic acids – Citric acid, Lactic acid, Acetic acid; Enzymes – Amylases, Proteases, lipases Amino acids – Lysine, Glutamic acid. Beverages – Wine, Beer, alcohol Microbial leaching - Organisms involved in leaching, Chemistry of microbial leaching and commercial process. Mushroom cultivation (15 Hours)

REFERENCE/TEXT BOOKS:
1. Microbial Biotechnology – Glazer and Nikaido 1995
2. Biotechnology – A Text Book of Industrial Microbiology – Crueger and Crueger
2000
3. Principles of Fermentation Technology – Stanbury, Whitaker and Hall 1997
4. Microbial Technology. Vol. I and II, - Peppler and Perlman (Eds).
5. Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology – Reed (Ed).
6. Concepts in Biotechnology – Balasubramanian, Bryce, Dharmalingam, Green and
Jayaraman
7. Industrial Microbiology – A.H.Patel
8. Industrial Microbiology – Casida
Practicals
1. Isolation of genomic DNA from plant and bacteria 2. Isolation of plasmid 3. Agarose gel electrophoresis 4. Restriction Digestion DNA/plasmid 5. Isolation of RNA 6. Southern Blotting 7. Ligation 8. Conjugation 9. Transformation 10. PCR 11. Microbial analysis of food samples, methylene blue reduction test for milk. 12. Microbial production of food and beverages by fermentation-wine and yogurt 13. Isolation of industrially important microbes from the environment 14. Microbial Production of citric acid and antibiotics 15. Comparative studies of Ethanol production using different substrates 16. Production and assay of Alkaline Protease 17. Isolation of casein from milk 18. Microbial Production of antibiotics 19. Microbial Production of vitamin B12 20. Isolation of Ascorbic acid producing bacteria 21. Determination of TDP and TDT of microorganisms for design of a sterilizer 22. Microbial production of citric acid using Aspergillus niger. 23. Isolation and study of fungus responsible for food spoilage 24. Quality testing of milk by resazurin test 25. Determination of phasphatase activity in butter, whey, milk powder 26. Microbiological analysis of food production 27. Analysis of myco toxin in fungal contaminated food materials SEMESTER-III
PAPER CODE: BT – 301
ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND
BIOSAFETY, BIOETHICS AND IPR
Total Hours Allotted: 60 Hours
CREDIT-I
Air pollution: Measurement of air pollution, Sources of air pollution, sampling, air pollution control through biotechnology.Biofuels and biological control of air pollution, plant derived fuels, biogas, landfill gas, bioethanol, biohydrogen; use of biological techniques in controlling air pollution; Removal of chlorinated Water pollution and its control: Water as a scarce natural resource, Need for water management, Measurement of water pollution, Sources of water pollution. Microbiology of waste water treatments: Aerobic process: Activated sludge, Oxidation ditches, Trickling filters, towers, rotating discs, rotating drums, oxidation ponds. Anaerobic processes: Anaerobic digestion, Anaerobic filters, Up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. Sewage and waste water treatment and solid waste management, chemical measure of water pollution, conventional biological treatment, role of microphyte and macrophytes in water treatment; recent approaches to biological waste water treatment. (15 Hours)
CREDIT-II
Biomedical waste and its management Degradation of Xenobiotic Compounds in Environment: Microbiology of degradation of Xenobiotics in environment: Ecological considerations, decay behaviour & degradative plasmids; Hydrocarbons, substituted hydrocarbons, oil pollution, surfactants, pesticides. Bioremediation: In-situ and ex-situ techniques, advantages and disadvantages of bioremediation, GEMs in environment, applications of genetically engineered microbes (GEM) in bioremediation; Slurry bioremediation; Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater, contaminated soils Phytoremediation: Types and its applications, phytoremediation of soil metals; Environmental monitoring: Bioindicators Integrated pest management- An ecological approach; Biopesticides, role of biopesticides in integrated pest management. CREDIT-III
Biosafety - definitions - biosafety levels - framework of biosafety regulation in India; Structure and functions of Committees; DBT guidelines on biosafety in conducting research in biology / biotechnology - Regulations of Genetically modified Organisms in India - Biosafety regulation for transgenic plants and animals - labeling (15 Hours)
CREDIT-IV
IPR - Definition- Different forms of IPR - Benefits of IPR system; WTO - Definition, GATT - Definition - Objectives - Structural format of WTO - Economic Impact of WTO - WTO Agreements - Benefits of WTO in relation to biotechnology. Bioethics - definition - Bioethics of IPR - ethical criteria in biotechnology- animal ethics; Guidelines for use of lab animals in medical Colleges - Licensing of animal house Human cloning - Ethical issues - Ethical clearance norms for conducting (15 Hours)

REFERENCE/TEXT BOOKS:
Carl, Branden and Tooze, John. Introduction to Protein Structure, Garland
Publishing (Taylor and Francis Group). New York.
Yada, R. Y.; Jackman, R. L.; Smith, J. L. Protein Structure-Function
Relationships Blakie Academic and Professional: London
Clark, R. J. H and Hester, R. E. Spectroscopy of Biological Systems, John Wiley and
Nakai, S. and Modler, H. W. Food Proteins: Properties and Characterization, VCH Waste water treatment for pollution control. 2nd edition. Arceivala. Environmental Microbiology. R. M. Maier, I. L. Pepper & G. P. Gerba Comprehensive Biotechnology Vol. – 4. Murray Moo Young. Biotechnology. Rehm and Reid. Wastewater Engineering – Treatment, Disposal and Reuse, Metcalf and Eddy. Inc. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi. 1991 Environmental Science (5th Edition) by WP Cunninghum & BW Saigo., Mc Graw Hill. 1999. Introduction to Biodeterioration , D Allsopp and K J Seal, ELBS/Edward Arnold. Cambridge Univ Press. 2004. Biotechnology for Wastewater Treatment. P Nicholas Cheremisinoff. Prentice Hall Of India. 2001 Biotechnological Methods of Pollution Control. SA Abbasi and E Ramaswami. Universities Press 1999 Environmental Biotechnology, Concepts and Applications. Hans-Joachin Jordening and Josef Winter. Winter-VCH. 2005 Biology of wastewater Treatment. N F Gray. Mc Graw Hill . 2004. Fundamentals of ecology (5th Edition) by EP Odum and GW Barrett, Thomson Books/Cole, 2005. An Introduction to Environmental Biotechnology by Milton Wain Wright. Kluwar Acad Publ. Group, Springer, 1999. PAPER CODE: BT – 302
PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY Total Hours Allotted: 60 Hours
CREDIT – I
Concepts & basic techniques in tissue culture; Conventional breeding v/s tissue culture. Tissue culture media (composition & preparation), sterilization techniques, tissue culture as a technique to produce novel plants & hybrids, Green home and Green house technology; Initiation and maintenance of callus and suspension cultures, single cell clones, nurse culture technique, differentiation, organogenesis & somatic embryogenesis, Production and application of artificial seeds (15 Hours)
CREDIT-II
Shoot tip culture for rapid clonal propagation & production of virus-free plants, stages of micropropagation, propagation by direct and indirect organogenesis, micrografting, physiological nature/abnormalities of micropropagated plants. Transfer and establishment of whole plants in soil, in situ and ex situ rooting & difference; Changes during hardening of micropropagated plants (15 Hours)
CREDIT-III
Protoplast isolation, fusion & culture, somatic hybridization, selection of hybrid cells and regeneration of hybrid plants, symmetric and asymmetric hybrids, cybrids and role of protoplast culture and somatic hybridization in improvement of crop plants. Haploid production and its significance, anther, pollen culture, monoploid production through bulbosum method, Embryo culture/embryo rescue and ovary culture; Endosperm culture, production of triploids, Role of haploids, monoploids (15Hours)
CREDIT-IV
Basic concepts and genetic engineering for increasing crop productivity by manipulation of Photosynthesis, Nitrogen fixation, Nutrient uptake efficiency, biotic Insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses, weeds, Abiotic stress- drought, flooding, salt and temperature and for quality improvement- Protein, lipids, carbohydrates, Plants as bioreactor or Molecular farming- value added crops, edible vaccines, industrial enzymes, antibodies, medicines. Cell cultures for secondary metabolites (15 Hours)

REFERENCE/TEXT BOOKS:
1. J Hammond, P McGarvey and V Yusibov (Eds): Plant Biotechnology. Springer
Verlag, 2000
2. TJ Fu, G Singh and WR Curtis (Eds): Plant Cell and Tissue Culture for the
Production of
3. Food Ingredients. Kluwer Academic Press 1999
4. HS
Chawla: Biotechnology in Crop Improvement. International Book Distributing Company 1998 5. RJ Henry: Practical Application of Plant Molecular Biology. Chapman and Hall 1997 6. PK Gupta: Elements of Biotechnology. Rastogi and Co. Meerut 1999 Practicals
1. Water quality analysis - MPN method 2. Determination of dissolved oxygen concentration of water sample 3. Determination of biological oxygen demand (BOD) of sewage sample 4. Determination of Chemical oxygen demand (COD) of sewage sample 5. Isolation of xenobiotic degrading bacteria by selective enrichment technique 6. Test for the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons by bacteria 7. Detection of coliforms for determination of the purity of potable water 8. Estimation of nitrate in drinking water 9. Isolation of VAM from soil by wet sieving and decanting method 10. Isolation and cultivation of mushroom 11. Introduction to tissue culture laboratory 12. Preparation of M.S. media 13. Growth regulator concentration maintenance 14. Anther culture 15. Apical meristem culture 16. Leaf culture 17. Artificial seed preparation PAPER CODE: BT – 303
ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Total Hours Allotted: 60 Hours
CREDIT-I
History and development of animal tissue culture; Equipment and materials (culture vessels, CO2 incubator, inverted microscope, cell counters). Principles of sterile techniques; Sources of tissues, types of tissues - epithelial, muscle, connective, nerve and blood; Introduction to balanced salt solutions (15 Hours)
CREDIT-II
Cell culture media - components of the medium, physical, chemical and metabolic functions of media; Role of serum and supplements, serum-free media, features and specifications of MEM, DMEM, RPMI and Ham’s medium. Role of antibiotics in media; Primary culture – Mechanical and enzymatic mode of desegregation, establishment of primary culture; Subculture - passage number, split ratio, seeding efficiency, criteria for subculture; Cell lines - definite and continuous cell lines, characterization, authentication, maintenance and preservation of cell lines. (15 Hours)
CREDIT-III
Measurement of cell number - hemocytometer, coulter counter; Measurement of cell viability and cytotoxicity; Dye exclusion and inclusion tests, colonigenic assay, macromolecular estimation, MTT based assay. Measuring parameters of growth – growth curves, PDT, Plating efficiency and factors influencing growth; Gene therapy - ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy methods, applications; Application of animal cell culture - Vaccine production, specialized cell types. Concepts of tissue engineering - skin, liver, kidney, bladder and heart (15 Hours)
CREDIT-IV
Tansgenic animals - retroviral, microinjection, and engineered embryonic stem cell method of transgenesis; Application of transgenic animal’s biopharming, disease (15 Hours)

REFERENCE/TEXT BOOKS:
1. Culture of Animal Cells, (3rd Edn) R Ian Fredhney. Wiley-Liss
2. Animal Cell Culture – Practical Approach, Ed. John RW. Masters, Oxford
3. Cell Growth and Division: A Practical Approach Ed. R. Basega, IRL Press
4. Cell Culture Lab Fax. Eds. M Butler & M Dawson, Bios Scientific Publications
Ltd. Oxford
5. Animal Cell Culture Techniques Ed Martin Clynes, Springer
6. Methods in Cell Biology, Vol. 57, Animal Cell Culture Methods Ed. Jenni P
7. David Bames. Academic Press 8. Animal Cell Technology, Principles and practics, 1987, Butter, M Oxford press 9. Animal Cell Biotechnology, 1990- Spier, RE and Griffith, JB Academic Press, PAPER CODE: BT – 304
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY And BIOSTATISTICS
Total Hours Allotted: 60 Hours
CREDIT -I
Understanding Research: Introduction, definition and meaning of research, characteristics of research, objective of research, motivation in research, types of research, research approaches, significance of research, research methods versus methodology, research in decision making, role of research in various areas, limitations of research, what constitutes a good research. Scientific Methods and Research: Scientific method, definitions of scientific method, characteristics of scientific method, basis of scientific method, scientific methods and scientific research, components of scientific approach, bias and prejudice in scientific research Formulating Research Problem and Hypothesis: Introduction, Research process/planning process, research problem-need for defining, pre-requisites for formulating research problem, selection of the research problem, points to ponder on research problem, units of analysis, time and space co-ordination, characteristics of interest, environmental conditions, technique involved in defining a problem, formulation of a research problem and hypothesis Hypothesis Testing: Introduction, Hypothesis: definition and meaning, role of hypothesis, source of hypothesis, kinds of hypothesis, characteristics of hypothesis, formulation of hypothesis, importance of hypothesis, difficulties in formulating hypothesis, means to overcome difficulties, testing of hypothesis, steps in testing hypothesis, flow diagram for hypothesis testing, measuring the power of a hypothesis test, statistical hypothesis/tests of significance, limitations of tests of significance Testing of Hypothesis-I (Parametric or Standard Tests of Hypothesis): Tests of hypothesis, important parametric tests, hypothesis testing of means, hypothesis testing for differences between means, hypothesis testing for comparing two related samples, hypothesis testing of proportions, hypothesis testing for difference between proportions, hypothesis testing for comparing a variance to some testing the equality of variances of two normal populations, hypothesis testing (15 Hours)
CREDIT-II
Research Design: Introduction, Meaning and definition of research design, need for research design, relation between problem formulation and research design, factors affecting research design, advantages of research design, steps in research design, various types of research design, basic principles of experimental designs.Data Collection and Management: Introduction, Meaning and importance of data, Sources of data, choosing the method for data collection, methods of collection of primary data: definition and meaning, types, importance, advantages and disadvantages; methods of collection of secondary data, scrutiny of secondary data, merits and demerits of different methods of collection of primary data. The Computer: Its Role in Research: Introduction, the computer and computer technology, the computer system, important characteristics, the binary number system, computer applications, computers and researcher (15 Hours)
CREDIT-III
Definitions and scope of Biostatistics: Variable in biology, collection, classification and tabulation of data. Graphical and diagrammatic representation, histogram, frequency polygon, frequency curve; Importance and applications Tabulation and Classification of data, Frequency distribution and Graphical distribution of data Measure of Central tendencies Mean, Media, mode and their properties.Measures and Dispersion, Mean deviation, Variance, Standard deviation and Coefficient of (15 Hours)
CREDIT-IV
Elements of probability theory; Probability distributions – binominal, Poisson and normal distribution; Correlation coefficient; Simple linear regression. Probit and Hypothesis Testing Student T, r and Chi-square test; Probability and Distribution Concepts and problems on probability, Binomial, Poisson, Normal Distribution and their Applications, Different Models of data presentation with special reference to biological samples. (15 Hours)

REFERENCE/TEXT BOOKS:
1. S. C. Gupta. Fundamentals of Statistics. Himalaya Pub. House.
2. J. Medhi. Statistical Methods: An introductory text. New Age International (P)
3. P. S. S. Sudar Rao & J. Richard. An introduction to biostatistics. Prentice Hall of India. N. Delhi. Practicals
1. Preparation of Media 2. Window making 3. Blood Analysis (RBC, WBC, Differential Staining of WBC, Hemoglobin estimation, Blood Grouping, Cloting Time) 4. Production of Ginger wine 5. Production of Grape wine 6. Citric acid production by aspergilis and its estimation 7. Estimation of alcohol content 8. Saurkraut production 9. Production of antibiotic SEMESTER-IV PAPER CODE: BT – 401
DISSERTATION
Total Hours Allotted: 360 Hours

Project: The students of M.Sc. Biotechnology should carry out a dissertation work for
at least 16 weeks in a National Lab/Private industry/reputed lab/institute. Dissertation will be based upon research and actual bench work. It will begin from the end of III semester and will continue through the IV semester. Dissertation report will be submitted and evaluated at the end of IV semester and students should defend their work in front of a selected committee in their last semester.
Elective Paper: The students of M.Sc. Biotechnology should prepare a detailed report
on an elective paper based on the advancements in the field.

Source: http://jecrcuniversity.edu.in/assets/pdf/M.Sc.%20Biotech%20proposed%20syllabus%20for%20JECRC%20University.pdf

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