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Indian Journal of Weed Science 45(4): 247–249, 2013
Distribution of weed flora of greengram and blackgram in Haryana
S.S. Punia*, V.S. Hooda, Anil Duhan, Dharambir Yadav and Amarjeet
Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agricultural Univesrity, Hisar125 004 Received: 12 October 2013; Revised: 23 December 2013 ABSTRACT
To study the floristic composition of weeds in greengram, 50 fields were surveyed in Hisar, Sirsa, Bhiwani,Mahender Garh and Fatehbad districts of Haryana state during July-August, 2011 and 23 fields weresurveyed for blackgram in Shiwalik foot hills region of Panchkula, Ambala and Yamuna Nagar districts ofthe state during August-September, 2012. Weed flora in greengram was more diverse as compared toblackgram. Twenty-two weed species (5 grassy, 3 sedges and 14 broad-leaved) belonging to12 familieswere found dominant in greengram, where as in blackgram only 11 weeds of 7 families were found to bevery aggressive. Broad-leaved weed Digera arvensis (L.) of family Amarthanceae was the most dominantand aggressive weed of both crops with a relative density and frequency of 511% and 86% in green gramwhereas in blackgram it was 38% and 96%, respectively. Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) was the mostdominant grassy weed with IVI values of 24.5 and 22.6 in greengram and blackgram, respectively. Importantbroad-leaved weeds found in greengram were: Trianthema portulacastrum, Mollugo distachya, Cleomeviscosa, Cucumis callosus, Corchorus tridens, Corchorus aestuans and Tribulus terristeris, whereas inblackgram Commelina benghalensis, Physalis minima, Solanum nigrum and Chorchorus olitorious.
Key words: Blackgram, Distribution, Greengram, IVI, Relative density, Weed flora
Due to limited irrigation facilities, greengram is the otal and necessary to plan and execute a sound and eco- important Kharif season crop of south-western part of nomical weed management schedule depending upon vari- Haryana, and blackgram in Shiwalik foot hills region of ous factors affecting weed distribution in different areas.
Panchkula, Ambala and Yamuna Nagar districts. Weeds The present survey was the first attempt to document have been reported to offer serious competition to crop weed composition of blackgram and greengram crops in and full season competition with the weeds cause yield Haryana and to suggest their control measures.
reduction to the extent of 25-100% in these crops. Weed MATERIALS AND METHODS
emergence in greengram and blackgram begins almost with To study the floristic composition of weeds in the crop emergence leading to crop-weed competition from greengram, in all 50 fields in south-western region of the initial stages. Critical period of crop-weed competition in state situated at 28.26-29.950N latitude and 74.66-76.150 green gram and blackgram is 20-40 days after sowing E longitude characterized by loamy sand soil texture, with (Saraswat and Mishra 1993). Horse purslane ( T. rain fall of 300-500 mm were surveyed in Hisar, Sirsa, portulacastrum), an annual broad-leaved weed germinates Bhiwani, Mahender Garh and Fatehbad districts of dur- at the same time as greengram crop and completes its life ing July-August, 2011. Greengram cultivation in this part cycle with in 30 days (Balyan 1985). Grassy weeds D. is totally dependent upon rainfall. Another pulse crop, black aegyptium and E. colona germinate immediately after onset gram gown in Shiwalik foot hills region of Panchkula, of rains. The magnitude of loss as a result of crop-weed Ambala and Yamuna Nagar districts of state situated at competition depends upon type of weed species, associ- 30.83-30.150N latitude and 76.78-77.300 E longitude is ated with crop, their densities and duration of competition characterized by sandy loam to silty soils, with rain fall of with crops. Crop type and soil properties have greatest 900-1200 mm. Total 23 blackgram fields were surveyed influence on the occurrence of weed species. The type of in this region for recording weed distribution pattern dur- irrigation, cropping pattern, weed control measures and ing August-September, 2012. This period depicted most environmental factors had a significant influence on the appropriate representation of majority of weed species as intensity and infestation of weeds. So, knowledge of weed the weeds have cumulative effects of all agronomic prac- species associated with crops in a region is therefore piv- tices, soil type, fertilizer and irrigation application and weed *Corresponding author:
control measures adopted during initial crop growing pe- Distribution of weed flora of greengram and blackgram in Haryana riod. The road map of Haryana state was followed and IVI values of 15.8, 3.0 and 2.9, respectively. Trianthema routes were planned to establish sampling localities as equi- portulacastrum with RD of 6.3 plants/m2 occurring at 24% distantly as possible (about 10 km) avoiding inhabited ar- sites with IVI value of 10.8 was the 4th most important eas. Four observations on density of individual weeds were weed of greengram accorded to be given preference for recorded per field at one spot by using quadrate of (0.5 x adopting control measures. Other important weeds of light 0.5 m), 100 m deep inside the fields. Pooled average val- textured soils found in low rainfall areas, viz. Cenchrus ues of observations of relative density, relative frequency echinatus, Mollugo distachya, Cucumis callosus, Corchorus and IVI of individual weeds were thus calculated as per tridens, Corchorus aestuans and Tribulus terristeris were found to provide competition to greengram. Yellow RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
coloured flowering creeper C. callosus L. of familyCucurbitacae which has a depressive influence on crop Twenty two weed species (5 grassy, 3 sedges and growth under rainfed conditions by way of releasing tox- 14 broad-leaf) of 12 families were found to be dominant ins although with low density (0.96 plants/m2) also oc- weed species in the phyto-sociological survey of weeds curred at 34% locations surveyed in greengram. Similar in greengram crop in Hisar, Sirsa, Bhiwani, Mahender Garh weed flora of Kharif pulses has been documented in ex- and Fatehbad districts of the state (Table 1). Broad-leaf tensive surveys made under AICRP on Weed Control dur- weed Digera arvensis L. of family Amarnthacea with a relative density of 50.7% and IVI value of 63.8 was themost dominant weed occurring at 86% of sites surveyed Eleven weed species (5 grassy, 1 sedge and 5 broad- in all districts. Among grassy weeds Dactyloctenium leaved) belonging to 7 families were found to be dominant aegyptium was most dominant grassy weed with relative weed species in blackgram crop in Ambala. Panchkula density of 10.7% and IVI value of 24.46. Perennial sedges and Yamuna Nagar districts of the state (Table 2). Digera Cyperus rotundus L., Cyperus compressus and Bulbostyllis arvensis with a relative density of 38.2% and IVI value of barbata also showed infestation in greengram crop with 86.7 was the most dominant weed occurring at 46% of Table 1. Weed flora of greengram in Haryana
Dactyloctenium aegyptium L. Beauv. Brachiaria reptans L. Lamk. S.S. Punia, V.S. Hooda, Anil Duhan, Dharambir Yadav and Amarjeet Table 2. Weed flora of blackgram in Haryana (11 weeds)
Dactyloctenium aegyptium L. Beauv sites surveyed in all districts. D. aegyptium L. was most Balyan RS. 1985. Studies on biology and competitive behaviour of dominant grassy weed with 11.7% RD and IVI value of horse purslane (Trianthema portulacastrum). PhD Thesis.
22.63 followed by Eragrotis tenella and Eleusine indica. Haryana Agricultural. University, Hisar (India).
Perennial sedge Cyperus rotundus, with relative density of Misra OP and Singh Govindra. 1993. Weed management in black 1.38%, also showed infestation at 52% locations surveyed gram (Vigna mungo), p. 154. In: Proceedings of InternationalSeminar on “Weed Management for Sustainable Agriculture” in blackgram crop with IVI value of 22.6. Other broad- Indian Society of Weed Science, Hisar, Vol.III, 18-20 Novem- leaf weeds found to compete with this crop were Commelina benghalensis, Physallis minima and Solanum Nandan Brij, Sharma BC, Kumar Anil and Sharma Vikas. 2011. Effi- nigrum. Similar composition of weeds was reported in cacy of pre and post-emergence herbicides on weed flora of blackgram fields in Haryana (Hooda et al. 1993) and in black gram under rainfed subtropical foot hills of Jammu & Tarai region of Uttaranchal (Mishra and Singh 1993). Kashmir. Indian Journal of Weed Science 43(3&4): 172-174.
Nandan et al. (2011) also reported presence of C. Raju RA. 1977. Field manual for Weed Ecology and Herbicide Re- benghalensis L. in blackgram fields of Shiwalik region of search. Agrotech Publishing Academy. Udaipur, 288 p.
Sarswat VN and Mishra JS. 1993. Weed management in pulse crops, REFERENCES
137-140 p. In: Proceedings of International Seminar onWeedManagement for Sustainable Agriculture” Indian Society of Weed AICRP-WC. 1978-84. Consolidated Report (Ist phase). All India Science, Hisar, Vol.III, 18-20 Novemeber,1993.
Research Programme on Weed Control, ICAR, Central RiceResearch Institute, Cuttack, West Bengal, India.


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