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INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOLAR ENERGY PHOTOVOLTAIC (ICSEP – 2012) A- SILICON PV: S-2 Improvement of the Performance of Single Junction a-Si Integrated Mini Modules with Oxide Based U. Basavaraju2, Gourab Das1, Rajive Tomy M2, Chandan Banerjee2, Sumita Mukhopadhyay1, A.K.Barua1*, 1Centre of Excellence for Green energy and Sensor Systems, Bengal Engineering and Science University, 2Hind High vacuum Co. Pvt. Ltd. Phase I, Peenya Industrial Area, Bengaluru, India, 560058 (a-SiO) is a better photovoltaic material than a-SiC [10-12]. Abstract- We have developed oxide based window layer, buffer
Most of the oxygen atoms are bonded in Si – O – Si form and layer and n-layer by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical
partly in Si – OH form. It is more electronegative than that of vapour deposition method for use in the fabrication of single
Si or OH. So while this oxygen gets bonded to Si atom the junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) integrated mini modules of size
bonding states move deeper in valence band and reduces tail 30 cm × 30 cm. From our earlier study we have observed that
state density and effectively pushes up optical gap. There is higher stabilized efficiency can be obtained using oxide based
window and buffer layer. This motivates us to replace

two lone pair of electrons around oxygen atom. These lone conventional n-a-Si:H by n-a-SiO:H to improve the performance
pair of electrons will have repulsion between them. It will of the solar module. The use of this material in a single junction
result in antibonding splitting to widen up further from a-Si structure enhances the short circuit current of the module
bonding states. Thus bonding and antibonding splitting will and the conventional efficiency as well. The bandgap of n-a-
increase in silicon oxide alloy materials and optical gap of it SiO:H film is much higher and optical absorption is less than that
will increase due to alloying with oxygen. However, of n-a-Si:H film having the conductivity same. Due to low
depending on the deposition parameters, incorporation of O absorption and wide optical gap of n-oxide layer allows more
into the a-Si:H network, above a certain level, results in a fraction of light to enter into the cell after reflection from back
sharp deterioration in electronic properties and restricts its reflector resulting in increase in short circuit current. The initial
further improvement [10]. Incorporation of O into a-Si:H module parameters are η = 8.3%, FF = 0.69, Voc = 22.1 V and Isc
= 426 mA. Module size is 30 cm × 30 cm. Out of it 10 mm is

changes the network from a dense homogeneous to a sparse removed all around to protect from environmental degradation
inhomogeneous and strained one [13]. This phenomenon is so the aperture area is 784 cm2. After degradation the stabilized
common to any alloy material [14]. However, in a-SiO:H the efficiency becomes 7.2%, FF = 0.62, Voc = 22.0V and Isc = 413.8
contrast is in the nature of inhomogeneity [15]. There is speculation that Si-rich and O-rich regions of two distinct phases are grown at moderately high level of O-incorporation and their nature of contribution to the optical and the electrical In order to increase the stabilized efficiency of a single junction amorphous solar cell researchers made different These superior properties of a-SiO:H film encouraged us to approaches such as incorporation of nano-crystallites in the develop a-SiO:H films for p,n and buffer layer. In this paper intrinsic a-Si:H films [1], improvement of window, buffer and we have reported the preliminary results relating to the bottom n-layer quality etc. [2-8]. Quality and thickness of the lowering of LID in single junction amorphous mini module window layers have great importance on improvement of the using oxide based window, buffer and n-layers. shorter wavelength quantum efficiency and on the carrier’s injection [9]. In order to improve the overall efficiency of solar cells betterment of the individual layers i.e window and intrinsic layer property is important. Apart from that the p/i Prepare your paper in full-size format, on US letter paper 8 interface region is also important for reducing bandgap ½ by 11 inches). For A4 paper, use the A4 settings. mismatch and thus reducing recombination of charge carriers. Type Sizes and Typefaces: Follow the type sizes specified in In the interface region the recombination centre or trap centre Table I. As an aid in gauging type size, 1 point is about 0.35 arises from internal electric field distribution due to localized mm. The size of the lowercase letter ‘j’ will give the point states. Wide gap bottom layer allows more light to reflect back size. Times New Roman is the preferred font. from the back reflector within the absorber layer. The 1) US Letter Margins: top = 0.75 inches, bottom = 1 inch, objective of the work is to study the influence of oxide based side = 0.625 inches. Each column measures 3.5 inches wide, window and buffer layer on the light induced degradation with a 0.25-inch measurement between the columns. (LID) of a single junction a-Si solar cell. Now-a-days 2) A4 Margins: top = 19 mm, bottom = 43 mm, side = 13 researchers found that hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide mm. The A4 column width is 88 mm (3.45 in). The space SCHOOL OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING KIIT UNIVERSITY, BHUBANESWAR, 19th - 21st December 2012 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOLAR ENERGY PHOTOVOLTAIC (ICSEP – 2012) A- SILICON PV: S-2 between the two columns is 4 mm (0.17 mm). Paragraph footnotes (see Table I). IEEE Transactions no longer use a journal prefix before the volume number. For example, use Left- and right-justify your columns. Use tables and figures “IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 25,” not “vol. MAG-25.” to adjust column length. On the last page of your paper, adjust Give all authors’ names; use “et al.” if there are six authors the lengths of the columns so that they are equal. Use or more. Papers that have not been published, even if they automatic hyphenation and spell checking. Digitize or paste have been submitted for publication, should be cited as “unpublished” [4]. Papers that have been accepted for publication should be cited as “in press” [5]. In a paper title, capitalize the first word and all other words except for conjunctions, prepositions less than seven letters, and For papers published in translated journals, first give the English citation, then the original foreign-language citation Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even if they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, ac, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title Number equations consecutively with equation numbers in parentheses flush with the right margin, as in (1). To make your equations more compact, you may use the solidus ( / ), Fig. 1. Weibull distribution of 60 Hz breakdown voltages the exp function, or appropriate exponents. Italicize Roman 11 cables α = 45.9 kV peak β = 5.08 Confidence Intervals 95% symbols for quantities and variables, but not Greek symbols. Use an en dash (–) rather than a hyphen for a minus sign. Use parentheses to avoid ambiguities in denominators. Punctuate equations with commas or periods when they are part of a Position figures and tables at the tops and bottoms of columns. Avoid placing them in the middle of columns. Large figures and tables may span across both columns. Figure captions should be centered below the figures; table captions Symbols in your equation should be defined before the should be centered above. Avoid placing figures and tables equation appears or immediately following. Use “(1),” not before their first mention in the text. Use the abbreviation “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1),” except at the beginning of a “Fig. 1,” even at the beginning of a sentence. Figure axis labels are often a source of confusion. Use words rather than symbols. For example, write “Magnetization,” or “Magnetization (M)” not just “M.” Put units in parentheses. The Roman numerals used to number the section headings Do not label axes only with units. In the example, write are optional. If you do use them do not number “Magnetization (A/m)” or “Magnetization (A·m1).” Do not ACKNOWLEDGMENT and REFERENCES, and begin Subheadings label axes with a ratio of quantities and units. For example, with letters. Use two spaces after periods (full stops). write “Temperature (K),” not “Temperature/K.” magnetization.” Avoid dangling participles, such as, “Using “Magnetization (kA/m)” or “Magnetization (103 A/m).” (1), the potential was calculated.” Write instead, “The Figures labels should legible, about 10-point type. potential was calculated using (1),” or “Using (1), we Use a zero before decimal points: “0.25,” not “.25.” Use Number citations consecutively in square brackets [1]. “cm3,” not “cc.” Do not mix complete spellings and Punctuation follows the bracket [2]. Refer simply to the abbreviations of units: “Wb/m2” or “webers per square meter,” reference number, as in [3]. Use “Ref.[3]” or “Reference [3]” not “webers/m2.” Spell units when they appear in the text: at the beginning of a sentence: “Reference [3] was the first …” “…a few henries,” not “…a few H.” If your native language is Number footnotes separately in superscripts. Place the actual not English, try to get a native English-speaking colleague to footnote at the bottom of the column in which it was cited. Do proofread your paper. Do not add page numbers. not put footnotes in the reference list. Use letters for table SCHOOL OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING KIIT UNIVERSITY, BHUBANESWAR, 19th - 21st December 2012 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOLAR ENERGY PHOTOVOLTAIC (ICSEP – 2012) A- SILICON PV: S-2 [6] Karg F H et al. 1998 ‘Investigation of variously composed P/ I junction in Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells by Time of Flight and Spectral Response Use either SI (MKS) or CGS as primary units. (SI units are Measurements’, Conference record of the 20th IEEE, pp. 149 [7] Zhu H and Fonash S J 1996 “Study of buffer layer design in single encouraged.) English units may be used as secondary units (in junction solar cells”, 25th PVSC, IEEE p 1097 parentheses). An exception would be the use of English units [8] Chandan Banerjee, Arindam Sarker and A. K. Barua Development of wide as identifiers in trade, such as “3.5-inch disk drive.” band gap n-a-SiO:H films using RF-PECVD method for application in a-Si Avoid combining SI and CGS units, such as current in solar cell fabrication:: Ind. J. Phys. 76A (2002) 235 [9] Ding K, Aeberhard U, Finger F and Rau U 2012 Silicon heterojunction amperes and magnetic field in oersteds. This often leads to solar cell with amorphous silicon oxide buffer and microcrystalline silicon confusion because equations do not balance dimensionally. If oxide contact layers Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Lett.6 193 -195 you must use mixed units, clearly state the units for each [10] Fujikake S, Ohta H, Sano A, Ichikawa Y and Sakai H 1992 High quality a-SiO:H films and their application to a-Si solar cells Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 258 875 [11] Sichanugrist P, Sasaki T, Asano A, Ichikawa Y and Sakai H 1994 Amorphous silicon oxide and its application to metal/n-i-p/ITO type a-Si solar cells Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cell 34 415 The word “data” is plural, not singular. The subscript for the [12] Sarker A and Barua A K 2002 Development of High Quality P-Type Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Oxide Film and Its Use in Improving the Performance of Single Junction Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells Jpn. J. Appl. American English, periods and commas are within the quotation marks, like “this period.” A parenthetical statement [13] A. Morimoto, H. Noriyama and T. Shimuzu: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 26 at the end of a sentence is punctuated outside of the closing parenthesis (like this). (A parenthetical sentence is punctuated [14] A. H. Mahan, R. Robinsson and R. Tsu: Appl. Phys. Lett., 50 (1987) 335 [15] K. Haga, A. Murakami, K. Yamamoto, M. Kumano and H. Watanabe: within the parentheses.) A graph with a graph is an “inset,” not an “insert.” The word alternatively is preferred to the [16] Watanabe H, Haga K and Lohner T 1993 Structure of high- word “alternately” (unless you mean something that photosensitivity silicion-oxeygen alloy films J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 164-166 1085 alternates). Do not use the word “essentially” to mean “approximately” or “effectively.” Be aware of the different meanings of the homophones “affect” and “effect,” “complement” and “compliment,” “discreet” and “discrete,” “principal” and “principle.” Do not confuse “imply” and “infer.” The prefix “non” is not a word; it should be joined to the word it modifies, usually without a hyphen. There is no period after the “et” in the Latin abbreviation “et al.” The abbreviation “i.e.” means “that is,” and the abbreviation “e.g.” means “for example.” An excellent style manual for science writers is [7]. The preferred spelling of the word “acknowledgment” in America is without an “e” after the “g.” Try to avoid the stilted expression, “One of us (R. B. G.) thanks …” Instead, try “R.B.G. thanks …” Put sponsor acknowledgments in the unnumbered footnotes on the first page. [1] Raniero L, Pereira L, Zhang S, Ferreira I, Aguas H, Fortunable E and Martins R 2004 Characterization of the density of states of polymorphous silicon films produced at 13.56 and 27.12 MHz using CPM and SCLC techniques Journal of Non-crystalline Solids 338 206 [2] Tawada Y, Tsuge K, Kondo M, Okamoto H and Hamakawa Y 1981 a‐SiC:H/a‐Si:H heterojunction solar cell having more than 7.1% conversion efficiency Appl. Phys. Lett. 39 237 [3] Tawada Y, Tsuge K, Kondo M, Okamoto H and Hamakawa Y 1982 Properties and structure of a‐SiC:H for high‐efficiency a‐Si solar cell J. Appl. Phys. 53 5273 [4] Lim K S, Konagai M and Takahashi K 1984 A novel structure, high conversion efficiency p‐SiC/graded p‐SiC/i‐Si/n‐Si/metal substrate‐type amorphous silicon solar cell J. Appl. Phys. 56 538 [5] Sakai H, Yoshida T, Fujikake S, Hama T and Ichikawa Y 1990 Effect of p/i interface layer on dark JV characteristics and Voc in pin a‐Si solar cells J. Appl. Phys. 67 3494 SCHOOL OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING KIIT UNIVERSITY, BHUBANESWAR, 19th - 21st December 2012


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Microsoft word - 3-15-13 exercises for neuroscience of self-care.docx

PSYCHOTHERAPY NETWORKER SYMPOSIUM, Washington, D.C., March 21, 2013 Neuroscience and the Art of Self Care EXERCISE #1: SHARING KINDNESS Kindness is more important than wisdom, and the recognition of that is the beginning of wisdom. This exercise is done in groups of four, because a big part of self care is social engagement, meeting each other and developing a sense of community for the day

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