Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2003; 35: 83-91 EDUCATIONAL FORUM TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA: CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (GUDUCHI)
S.S. SINGH, S.C. PANDEY, S. SRIVASTAVA, V.S. GUPTA, B. PATRO,A.C. GHOSH
Chembiotek Research International, Block-BN, Plot-7, Sector-V, Salt Lake Electronic Complex,Kolkata-700 091. ABSTRACT Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) is a widely used shrub in folk and ayurvedic systems of medicine. Thisreview presents a detailed survey of the literature on chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinosporacordifolia. The chemical constituents reported from this shrub belong to different classes such as alkaloids,diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds andpolysaccharides. The notable medicinal properties reported are anti-diabetic, anti-periodic, anti-spasmodic,anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-oxidant, anti-allergic, anti-stress, anti-leprotic, anti-malarial,hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and anti-neoplastic activities. KEY WORDS
Anti-diabetic anti-oxidant alternative medicine phytochemistry
Guduchi is widely used in veterinary folk medicine/ayurvedic system of medicine for its general tonic, anti-
Guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook.
periodic, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-
F. & Thoms] is a large, glabrous, deciduous climbing
arthritic, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic properties2-6. The
shrub belonging to the family Menispermaceae1,2. It
plant is used in ayurvedic, "Rasayanas" to improve the
is distributed throughout tropical Indian subcontinent
immune system and the body resistance against
and China, ascending to an altitude of 300 m. In Hindi,
infections. The root of this plant is known for its anti-
the plant is commonly known as Giloya, which is a
stress, anti-leprotic and anti-malarial activities 6,7. Authors
Hindu mythological term that refers to the heavenly
investigated earlier one of the plants of the family
elixir that have saved celestial beings from old age
Menispermaceae and found that the constituents and
and kept them eternally young. The stem of Tinospora
activities were similar to other reports8,9. cordifolia are rather succulent with long filiform fleshyaerial roots from the branches. The bark is creamy
white to grey, deeply left spirally, the space in betweenbeing spotted with large rosette like lenticels. The
A variety of constituents have been isolated from
leaves are membranous and cordate. The flowers
Tinospora cordifolia plant and their structures were
are small and yellow or greenish yellow. In auxiliary
elucidated. They belong to different classes such as
and terminal racemes or racemose panicles, the male
alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids,
flowers are clustered and female are usually solitary.
sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and
The drupes are ovoid, glossy, succulent, red and pea-
sized. The seeds are curved. Fruits are fleshy andsingle seeded. Flowers grow during the summer and
Leaves of this plant are rich in protein (11.2%) and
fruits during the winter1,3.
are fairly rich in calcium and phosphorus6,10. Studies Correspondence: S.S. Singh e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org S.S. SINGH et al.
Berberine (I)14-18, Palmatine (II)14-18,
Tembetarine (III, 0.012%)14-18, Magnoflorine (IV, 0.075%)14-18, Choline (V)14-18, Tinosporin14-18, Isocolumbin19, Palmatine19,
Tetrahydropalmatine (VI)19, Magnoflorine19
18-norclerodane glucoside (VII)20
Furanoid diterpene glucoside21,22 (VIII and IX) Tinocordiside (X)23,24,Tinocordifolioside (XI)25-26. Cordioside25,26, Cordifolioside A27,28, Cordifolioside B27,28, Syringin (XII)29,30, Syringin-apiosylglycoside29,30, Palmatosides C31, Palmatosides F31, Cordifoliside A (XIII)28,32, Cordiofoliside B28,32, Cordifoliside C28,32, Cordifoliside D28,32, Cordifoliside E28,32 TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA: CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES
Furanolactone XIV 33,
Clerodane derivatives XV, XVI34,35 and XVII [(5R,10R)-4R-8R-dihydroxy-2S-3R:15,16- diepoxy-cleroda-13 (16), 14-dieno-17,12S: 18,1S-dilactone]36 and Tinosporon37, Tinosporides XVIII1,22,38-43 and XIX1,22,38-43, Jateorine (XX)1,38-43, Columbin (XXI)1,22,38-43
β -sitosterol (XXII)44-47, δ-sitosterol44-47, 20β-
hydroxy ecdysone (XXIII)44-47. Ecdysterone (XXIV)48-50, Makisterone A (XXV)48-50,
Giloinsterol48-50. S.S. SINGH et al.
Octacosanol (XXVI)45-47, Heptacosanol (XXVII)45-47,
hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)-tetrahydrofuran45-47. Jatrorrhizine (XXIX)52.
Cordifelone17,47,53, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine as diacetate54, Giloin48,55, Giloinin48,55, Tinosporic acid48,55.
on the physical characteristic and chemical composition of the starch obtained from Guduchi Satwa (extract) were carried out and the polysaccharide was found to consist chiefly of 1 4 linked glucan with occasionally branched points11,12. Tinospora cordifolia
Its similarities and differences from amylose were
elucidated. An arabinogalactan had been isolated from the dried stems of T. cordifolia13. Medicinal properties
The stem of Tinospora cordifolia is one of the constituents of several ayurvedic preparations used in general debility, dyspepsia, fever and urinary diseases. The stem is bitter, stomachic, diuretic56, stimulates bile secretion, causes constipation, allays thirst, burning sensation, vomiting, enriches the blood
The aqueous extract of the stem antagonizes the
and cures jaundice. The extract of its stem is useful
effect of agonists such as 5-hydroxytryptamine,
in skin diseases57,58. The root and stem of T. cordifolia
histamine, bradykinin and prostaglandins E1 and E2
are prescribed in combination with other drugs as
on the rabbit smooth muscle, relaxes the intestinal,
an anti-dote to snake bite and scorpion sting2,3,6. Dry
uterine smooth muscle and inhibits the constrictor
barks of T. cordifolia has anti-spasmodic, anti-
response of histamine and acetylcholine on smooth
pyretic59, anti-allergic60, anti-inflammatory61,62 and
muscle. Intravenous exposure to aqueous extract of
anti-leprotic63 properties. T. cordifolia in doses of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mg/kg body
TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA: CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES
weight produces a temporary but marked fall in blood
S.aureaus by peritoneal macrophages in rats86. Other
pressure and bradycardia in anaes-thetized dogs1.
workers have also supported these observations. Thephagocytic and Intra-cellular killing capacity of
T. cordifolia is widely used in Indian ayurvedic
polymorphs in rats, tested at 3.5 h after E. coli
medicine for treating diabetes mellitus64-66. Oral
infection were significant87,88.
administration of an aqueous T. cordifolia root extractto alloxan diabetic rats caused a significant reduction
The anti-stress and tonic property of the plant was
in blood glucose and brain lipids. Though the aqueous
clinically tested and it was found that it brought about
extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg could elicit significant
good response in children with moderate degree of
anti-hyperglycemic effect in different animal models,
behaviour disorders and mental deficit. It has also
its effect was equivalent to only one unit/kg of
significantly improved the I.Q. levels.
The hepatoprotective action of T. cordifolia was
It is reported that the daily administration of either
reported in one of the experiment in which goats
alcoholic or aqueous extract of T. cordifolia
treated with T. cordifolia have shown significant
decreases the blood glucose level and increases
clinical and hemato-biochemical improvement in CCl4
glucose tolerance in rodents68,69. Aqueous extract
induced hepatopathy. Extract of T. cordifolia has also
also caused a reduction in blood sugar in alloxan-
exhibited in vitro inactivating property against
induced hyperglycemia in rats and rabbits in the
Hepatitis B and E surface antigen in 48-72 h89.
dose of 400 mg/kg. However, histological exami-nation of pancreas has not revealed any evidence
The aqueous extract of T. cordifolia exerted a
of regeneration of β-cells of islets of Langerhans
significant anti-inflammatory effect on cotton pellet
and the possible mode of action of the plant is
granuloma and formalin induced arthritis models. Its
through glucose metabolism70. The aqueous extract
effect was comparable with Indomethacin and its mode
has also exhibited some inhibitory effect on
of action appeared to resemble that of a non-steroidal
adrenaline-induced hyperglycemia. Ethyl acetate
anti-inflammatory agent. The dried stem of T. cordifolia
extract of its roots has afforded a pyrrolidine
produced significant anti-inflammatory effect in both
derivative with hypoglycemic activity in rabbits71-73.
acute and subacute models of inflammation. T .
Another study has also revealed significant
cordifolia was found to be more effective than
hypoglycemic effect of extract of leaves in normal
acetylsalicylic acid in acute inflammation. But in
and alloxan diabetic rabbits. However, the extract
subacute inflammation, the drug was inferior to
had no significant effect on total lipid levels in normal
phenylbutazone90. In a clinical evaluation, a compound
or treated rabbits74,75.
preparation 'Rumalaya' containing T. cordifolia wasreported to significantly reduce the pain in patients
T. cordifolia is reported to benefit the immune system
suffering from rheumatoid arthritis1.
in a variety of ways30,76,77. The alcoholic and aqueous
The aqueous extract of roots of T. cordifolia has
extracts of T. cordifolia have been tested successfully
shown the anti-oxidant action in alloxan diabetes rats.
for immuno-modulatory activity78-84. Pre-treatment
The administration of the extract of T. cordifolia roots
with T. cordifolia was to impart protection against
(2.5, 50 mg/kg body weight) for 6 weeks resulted in
mortality induced by intra-abdominal sepsis following
a significant reduction of serum and tissue
coecal ligation in rats. It has also significantly reduced
cholesterol, phospholipids and free fatty acids in
the mortality from E. coli induced peritonitis in mice.
alloxan diabetic rats91.
In a clinical study, it has afforded protection incholestatic patients against E. coli infection. These
Jagetia et al., have found that guduchi killed the HeLa
activities are not due to its anti-bacterial activity as
cells very effectively in vitro and thus it indicates that
shown by the negative in-vitro anti-bacterial activity
guduchi needs attention as an anti-neoplastic agent92.
of the plant extract78,85. It is reported that the treatment
In this study exposure of HeLa cells to 0, 5, 10, 25,
in rats had resulted in significant leucocytosis and
50 and 100 µg/ml of guduchi extract (methanol,
predominant neutrophilia. It has been also observed
aqueous and methylene chloride) resulted in a dose
that it stimulates the macrophages as evidenced by
dependent but significant increase in cell killing when
an increase in the number and % phagocytosis of
compared to non drug treated controls. S.S. SINGH et al.
Ether extract of the stem distillate of aerial part of T.
Mehra PN, Puri HS. Studies on Gaduchi satwa. Indian Jcordifolia has inhibited the in vitro growth of
Pharm 1969;31:180-2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis at 1:50,000 dilution93. Its
Rao EV, Rao MV. Studies on the polysaccharide preparation
ethanolic extract has exhibited significant antipyretic
(Guduchi satwa) derived from Tinospora cordifolia. Indian
activity in experimental rats. 'Septilin' syrup, a
J Pharm Sci 1981;43:103-6.
compound preparation containing T. cordifolia (7.82%in 5 ml of syrup) was found to elicit good clinical
Chintalwar G, Jain A, Sipahimalani A, Banerji A, Sumariwalla
response in children suffering from upper respiratory
P, Ramakrishnan R, et al. An immunologically activearabinogalactan from Tinospora cordifolia. Phytochemistry
tract infection and chronic otitis media94.
The Ayurveda literature reports that it can cause
Kumar S, Verma NS, Pande D, Srivastava PS. In vitro
constipation, if taken regularly in high doses; it has
regeneration and screening of berberine in Tinospora
no side effect and toxicity. Yet the safety and the
cordifolia. J Med Arom Plant Sci 2000;22:61.
potential indications in human beings have to beestablished using modern methods.
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Strahlenphysik Beispiel Typ A Welche Wechselwirkung im Patientenkörper tritt bei einer diagnostischen Röntgenaufnahme nicht auf ? A) Comptoneffekt B) D) Paarbildung Radiophysique Example Type A Lors d’un examen radiologique diagnostique, quel interaction n’a pas lieu dans le corps du patient ? A) L’effet La production d’un rayonnement de freinage (Bremss
Drugs on Tap: What’s In Our Tap Water? Here’s a question to ponder. What happens to the hundreds of millions of prescription drugs and the over-the-counter medications that are swallowed daily? The answer: they go out through the plumbing. Being flushed down the toilet and into the sewage system, 90 per cent of every drug swallowed is either excreted, totally unchanged, or is