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Gin and pomegranate set to woo Britain’s drinking classes
= verb (T)1
. to try to persuade people to support you or buy something from
you, especially by saying or doing nice things: Orange is trying to woo customers
by cutting prices. 2
. (old-fashioned) if a man woos a woman, he tries to start a
romantic relationship with her and to persuade her to marry him
= verb (I) formal 1
. to lose your ability to fight against someone or
something, and allow them to control or persuade you; + to She succumbed to
temptation and ordered a glass of wine. 2
. to become very ill or die from a
disease: + to His mother succumbed to cancer two years ago
= (past tense: undertook; past participle: undertaken) 1.
to agree to
be responsible for a job or project and do it: The court will undertake a serious
A. Put the following paragraphs in the right order:
(…) Coke claims to be having success with Coke Zero, a sugar- free cola which
is aimed at young men, while Britvic claims the same for its no-sugar version of
Coke is trying to broaden the Schweppes brand away from mixers, like soda
water and ginger ale, into “the definitive adult soft drinks brand for 30-
somethings” and is introducing a seasonal lemonade. More than 60 per cent of
Schweppes products are drunk by people over the age of 30.
It claims to be undertaking the biggest marketing campaign since acquiring the
brand seven years ago from Cadbury Schweppes, with a new advertising slogan,
(…) Pomegranate flavours are already popular in the fruit juice market, where
drinks companies have been trying to capitalize on the alleged health properties
Pomegranate juices are claimed to contain antioxidants that can help to fight
diseases like cancer. “Pomegranate seems to be the new trend forward,”
Schweppes said. Fruit juice company Pomegreat recently teamed up with distiller
Diageo, owner of the Pimm’s brand, to create “PimPom”, a Pimm’s mix
(…) Sales of Schweppes beverages rose 7.3 per cent last year to 95.9m pounds
(142 m euros), putting it 55th in AC Nielsen’s survey of the top 100 British grocery
(…) The Schweppes changes come as Britvic, one of Coke’s chief rivals,
struggles with poor sales of fizzy drinks as consumers ditch sugary beverages for
Companies have been trying to revive interest in soft drinks by adapting their
(…) A great British tradition has succumbed to foodie fashion: Schweppes, the
maker of fizzy drink mixers, would like you to start drinking pomegranate tonic
Schweppes, owned by Coca- Cola, is undertaking a multi-million pound
marketing campaign this month to introduce new flavours to its Indian tonic
(…) Schweppes says flavoured tonics now account for some 20 per cent of the
UK’ tonic market. Flavoured bottle water are also becoming more common, and
even brewers are stretching their brands into flavoured drinks with Scottish &
Newcastle recently introducing a lime-flavoured version of Foster’s beer, Foster’s
B. Which of the following statements are true:
1. (…) The Schweppes is not one of Coke’s chief rivals.
2. (…) Schweppes states that pomegranate seems to be the new trend forward.
3. (…) The Pepsi would like customers start drinking pomegranate tonic with
4. (…) More and more people seem to enjoy drinking falvoured bottle water.
5. (…) Britvic products are drunk by people over the age of 30.
6. (…) “PimPom” is a Pimm’s mix containing pomegranate juice.
7. (…) Pomegranate and juniper are the new “secret” flavored ingredients which
Schweppes intends to use to extend its market.
8. (…) Flavored tonics now account for some 20 per cent of the UK’ tonic
9. (…) Schweppes spent millions to introduce new flavors to its Asian tonic
10. (…) Reviving interest in soft drinks is a main concern for many companies
that dispute a top place on the international beverage market.
1. Which are the most popular soft beverages in your country? To whom are
2. Are you satisfied with what you find on the domestic market? Would you
invest in a Romanian company producing soft beverages? Why? Why
3. What soft beverages company has considerable markets share in
D. Language work
1. Give a synonymous for each of the following words: account for, (to) acquire,
to woo, survey, customer, stretch.
2. Choose from the following words only those that match with the following
sentences (there are two intruders): players, outlook, stretched, health,
escalating, market, survey and hand.
“The business ……. is undeniably difficult. The domestic cigarette …… is falling
by 1.6 per cent a year and competition is ……. Even the thriving ginseng
business is vulnerable as more …… grab a slice of Korea’s $4.4bn …. food
market. KT&G has played a smart hand, but there are a time when even that is
E. Grammar point
Present Tense Simple and Present Tense Continuous
1. The Simple Present Tense
is used to discuss permanent situations and the
"Where do you live
?" "I live
?" "He lives
you do?" "I'm
a teacher." "What does
he do?" "He's
2. The Simple Present Tense is used to show how often something happens with
adverbs of frequency - always, usually, often, sometimes, occasionally, seldom,
rarely, never, etc. And when discussing daily, weekly, monthly etc. routines.
"I always get up
"I never drink
coffee before 12.00."
on my website every day
Monday and Thursday I go
to the gym."
3. The Simple Present Tense is used to ask for and give instructions or to
How do I make pancakes?" Well, first you take 4 eggs and crack them into a
bowl, then you weigh out 100 grams of flour and sieve it into the eggs.
4. The simple present tense can also be used to discuss future events.
1. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets:
1. She usually ………. (catch) the 12.10 train.
2. They never ……… (miss) the English classes.
3. She ………. (cash) a cheque every month.
4. She can’t answer the phone.
………. (have) a shower at the moment.
It’s Mike. He ………. (change) the furniture.
6. Why you ………. (make) the beds? Someone ………. (come) to visit us?
8. It ………. (be) a fine day on the 1st of May and the people ………. (rush) to the
9. There was a collision and men ………. (carry) the injured people to an
10. I went into the house to see what the boy ………. (do). He ………. (play) on
2. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets:
1. We. (sell) our products into many markets.
2. They . (offer) a 20% discount for the duration of the trade fair.
3. Competition . (bring) out the best in products and the worst in people.
4. My boss . (deal) with your enquiry but you will not get rapid answer.
7. Neil Armstrong . (land) on the surface of the moon in 1969.
8. We . (talk) about safety procedures when the fire alarm went off.
9. When I was at business school, we often . (work) on case studies.
10. Last year our company . (experience) great loss.
Spinner of McDonald’s plate
= 1. be obvious: His work stands out from all the others
; 2. to be
obvious against a background: The tour stood up against the clear blue sky.
= 1. increase quickly: Prices usually soar when wars break out.
be blunt = honest without trying to be polite: He is a blunt man.
= 1. prepare something by mixing things together 2. to invent (a story
= the feeling you have when you are satisfied with yourself: His
complacency was absolutely disgusting.
= an upward movement or trend as in business activity; upturn=boom let=
A. Put the following paragraphs in the right order:
(…) In spite of the upturn, Mr. Skinner worries about complacency. “That
somehow we’ll forget how we got here . . . Everybody gets tempted by success.”
To keep staff motivated, he has created the McDonald’s Leadership Institute.
While the company’s Hamburger Universities train restaurant staff, the institute is
designed to provide finance, strategy and “talent management” education to
1,400 McDonald’s directors globally. Mr. Skinner’s own management skills were
acquired by learning from the mistakes of others, he says. “You take the good
and leave the bad . . . Whenever I thought I was ready for another job, I spent
most of my time thinking critically of the decisions that had been made by my
(…) But when Charlie Bell resigned as chief executive in November 2004 after
being diagnosed with cancer, Mr. Skinner was asked to take on the job. Mr. Bell
had held the post for less than a year since Jim Cantalupo died from a heart
attack the previous April. Mr. Skinner’s appointment was unexpected but not
unwelcome. “Did I think I was going to be CEO of the company? Probably not,”
Mr. Skinner has masterminded a comeback at the global restaurant chain.
McDonald’s lost customers in the late 1990s and early 2000s as it focused on
expansion at the expense of the quality of its food and service. Its failings were
illuminated in books and films such as Fast Food Nation
and Super Size Me
(….) Two women leave the Ronald McDonald House Charities meeting and get
into a lift at the Marriott hotel in Chicago. Neither seems to notice that they are
standing in front of Jim Skinner, chief executive of the restaurant chain. He had
addressed their meeting just an hour earlier and assured more than 1,000
participants that “behind you is a brand that cares just like you do”. The 62-year-
old manager does not stand out in a crowd. He is short with pale skin and
graying hair. And until 2004, he was very much the number two man at
McDonald’s as chief operating officer and vice-chairman, having worked his way
(…) The company is back in favour with customers and investors. Sales have
soared, bringing record profits of $3.5bn (£1.75bn) last year. The stock price hit a
new high of more than $53 a share in July. McDonald’s claims to serve 6m more
people each day than five years ago. “My results speak for themselves,” Mr.
Parts of the reason for the revival are well-publicized changes to its menu and
decor, elements of a strategy introduced in 2003 called Plan to Win. Restaurants
offer salads made with edamame (soybeans pods) and snow peas alongside Big
Macs and fries. The group is also investing $1bn a year in such things as
comfortable seats, soft lighting, plasma TV screens and wireless internet access.
There have also been significant changes to the group’s management and
organisation. Mr. Skinner has reshaped the top team and appointed to senior
positions people he believes “can really drive the business effectively”.
(…) In the past, Mr. Skinner says, McDonald’s would set unrealistic growth
targets then neglect its core business as it tried to meet them. “We sought out a
lot of other things. Should we be in the chicken business? Should we buy other
restaurants? Should we be in other services? Should we sell our real estate
expertise? All the while [we were] not focusing where the real money was, and
that’s on the core.” He wants his team to attend to what he calls “the basics”:
serving simple food quickly. “It’s not magic,” he says. “Every customer wants the
same thing. They want hot food. They want it fast.”
(….) Instead of opening its menu to dozens of new products, McDonald’s has
been concentrating on improving existing ones. Even its successful “snack wrap”,
launched last year and sold in North America and Germany, has been concocted
from current menu items such as chicken and salad, Mr. Skinner says.
McDonald’s should not be “too creative” with food, he says, although he is
“overwhelmed” by McDonald’s “innovation laboratory” in Romeoville, Illinois,
(…) A fast talker who likes to use his hands to emphasize a point, he is blunt
about the kind of person he wants. “I don’t want to be hanging around anybody
that doesn’t get up today wanting to do it better than yesterday.” In the past two
years, he has promoted Denis Hennequin, a Frenchman, to run McDonald’s
Europe (the first non-American to hold the position); hired Mary Dillon from
PepsiCo to be chief marketing officer; moved Tim Fenton from the US to Hong
Kong to run Asia, Middle East and Africa; and appointed Ralph Alvarez president
and chief operating officer. Mr. Alvarez, who previously ran McDonald’s North
America and replaced Mike Roberts last year, is “the best restaurateur” in the
business, Mr. Skinner says. “It’s not because Mike Roberts was not an effective
chief operating officer but [he] left and that gave us an opportunity to put
someone in there that I thought was better.”
(…) “What you have to decide is what is going to have the biggest impact on the
business. So you have to make some bets there and get on it.” Coffee sales rose
30 per cent after McDonald’s changed the way it blended its beans and
introduced thick styrofoam cups emblazoned with the words “fresh brewed
custom blend . . . rich, bold and robust”. Mr. Skinner is reluctant to say whether
McDonald’s is taking market share from specialist coffee chains such as
Starbucks. But the restaurant group’s scale gives it an advantage, he says.
“When you can sell coffee at the speed of McDonald’s and the price of
McDonald’s, who can challenge us really?” As well as trying to improve its food,
McDonald’s is selling it faster by extending opening hours (more than 30 per cent
of its 13,000 US restaurants are open 24 hours a day) and encouraging
restaurants to add drive-through service.
(…) But he says his experience of becoming CEO without warning is not
something that should be repeated. As with thousands of management positions
across the group, corporate staffs are asked to provide the names of two
potential replacements. “We have learnt through our own distress regarding
potential leaders at McDonald’s that it’s important to have people available to do
Asked about his own successor, Mr. Skinner shows a touch of humour. “We have
a lot of people who could do this job. Probably none as well as me.”
B. Which of the following statements are true:
1. (…) Mr. Skinner does not think that McDonald’s revival is partly due to well-
publicized changes to its menu and décor.
2. (…) Before being the chief executive of the restaurant chain, Mr. Skinner was
chief operating officer and vice-chairman.
3. (…) McDonald’s has a good price for coffee being a real competitor for other
4. (…) The restaurant chain has an Asian operating manager.
5. (…) Extending opening hours may be a secret for a successful business.
6. (…) Jim Skinner is interviewed by a journalist from “The Financial Times”.
7. (…) McDonald’s opens its menu to dozens of new product each year.
8. (…) The stock price hit a new high of more than $53 a share in July
9. (…) Jim Skinner considers himself to be the best chief manager whom
10. (…) The chief operating manager states that McDonald’s is taking market
share from specialist coffee chains such as Starbucks.
1. What do you know about McDonald’s regarding the managerial style?
2. What other food restaurant chains are becoming famous for their
characteristics? (KFC, Snack Attack, Starbucks)
D. Language work
1. Give a synonymous for each of the following words: upturn, (to) provide,
specialist, distress, customer, staff
2. Choose from the following words only those that match with the following
sentences (there are two intruders): insurers, scrutinize, bidders, rates,
“……… will ……. the European Central Bank’s monthly bulletin today for clues as
to the future direction of interest ……. Last week the ECB raised rates by a
quarter point to 3 per cent but ……. to describe its stance as “vigilant” – a word
that markets have to associate with further ……. in the near future. “
E. Grammar Point
Past Tense Simple vs. Past Tense Continuous
1. The past tense simple is used
to express the idea that an action started and
finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually
mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.
a movie yesterday. I didn't see
a play yesterday.
Last year, I traveled
to Japan. Last year, I didn't travel
dinner last night?
her car. He didn't wash
2. Use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These
actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.
to the beach, and found
a nice place to swim.
from the airport at 8:00, checked
into the hotel at 9:00, and met
in the milk, and then add
3. The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the
past. Duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two
years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.
in Brazil for two years.
Japanese for five years.
at the beach all day.
They did not stay
at the party the entire time.
on the phone for thirty minutes.
A: How long did
B: We waited
for one hour.
1. The Past Tense Continuous
is used to indicate actions in progress at a
We were working
in the garden this time yesterday.
2. Use the Past Tense Continuous to indicate a point in time. It is followed by a
It was raining
at dinner time.
The sun was shining when I got up this morning.
3. A period of time indicated by FOR…, FROM…TO, ALL DAY
I was reading
for 2 hours yesterday.
4. Past action going on for a longer period of time
When I went to Brasov, I was living
in a hotel in the centre of the city.
5. There are contexts when verbs not normally used in the continuous aspect
Peter was hoping
that Ann would phone him. (the hope had been in his mind for
6. Repeated actions – criticism (+ frequency adverb)
When Jane was at school, she was always losing
7. Use Past Tense Simple to interrupt a past action, usually in the continuous
Tom was reading the lesson when the teacher opened the door.
8. Use Past Tense Continuous for two actions going on at the same time in the
While Sandra was washing
the dishes, Mary was cleaning
1. Use the past tense simple in the following sentences:
My grandfather had a very exciting life. When he was young, he.
(live) on a farm in the country. His parents. (raise) cattle and he
. (look) after the cows. When he was eighteen, he went to
also. (play) the trumpet in a jazz band. When the war
.(end) up in the Navy. In the Atlantic, a German
torpedo. (rip) a hole in the side of his ship, and the ship sank.
Only five men. (escape). They. (sail) in a
they. (marry) after only three weeks. He says now that
he. (want) to marry her very quickly in case he
2. Choose the correct answer from those given.
A. Wasn't B. Weren't C. Were being D. Was been
A. weren't B. wasn't C. was being not D. was not being
3. Yesterday, he. all day at the office.
A. works B. worked C. is working D. work
4. . she answer the telephone when you called?
5. He. his car in time to avoid the accident.
A. didn't stop B. don't stop C. not stopped D. not doing stop
6. She. to the bank to deposit a cheque.
7. We. orange juice when we needed refreshment.
9. I. took some work home from the office.
10. They. hymns together in the church choir.
11. She. a bicycle until she had an accident.
12. I. to the airport to meet my friends when the tyre burst.
A. were driving B. was driving C. were drive D. was drive
3. Use the past tense simple in the following sentences:
2. They (do) .their homework last night.
4. That woman (buy) . a new book this morning.
5. The janitor (clean) .the blackboard yesterday.
7. This morning my teacher (teach) .English.
9. The gardener (cut) .the trees last month.
13. The birds (fly) .in the sky this morning.
15. The joiner (make) .tables and chairs yesterday.
17. Two weeks ago the boy (have) . a new
20. The students (meet) .in the hall last
4. Give the past forms of the following irregular verbs:
swim; stand; grow; drink; rise; read; cry; understand; eat; tell.
Benoit Petit-Demouliere . Franck Chenu . Michel BourinForced swimming test in mice: a review of antidepressant activityReceived: 11 June 2004 / Accepted: 21 September 2004 / Published online: 18 November 2004forced swimming test (FST) remains one of the most usedtools for screening antidepressants. Objective: This paperreviews some of the main aspects of the FST in mice. Mostof the sensitivi
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