PRIVATE OPERATION WITH PUBLIC SUPERVISION: EVIDENCE OF HYBRID MODES OF GOVERNANCE IN PRISONS * Sandro Cabral
Phone: 55-71-3263 7302; Fax: 55-71-3263 7211
Sergio G. Lazzarini
Phone: 55-11-4504-2387; Fax: 55-11-4504-2350
Paulo F. Azevedo
Phone: 55-11-3281-3375; Fax: 55-11-3281-3357
Received theory (e.g. Hart, Shleifer, Vishny, 1997) suggests that the participation of private actors in the operation of public services (such as prisons) might create incentives for cost reduction at the expense of service quality. Given that the quality of correctional services is difficult to specify in contracts (e.g., the level of assistance to inmates), quality-enhancing initiatives may be neglected by private managers. We claim that private provision of public services by means of a “hybrid” mode – in which state-appointed supervisors are responsible for monitoring the operations of a private agent – does not experience such trade-off. We develop a model to describe the underlying mechanisms supporting such hybrid governance and conditions in which private operation with public supervision will be able to achieve satisfactory quality levels while still preserving incentives for cost reduction. Our model is supported by quantitative and qualitative evidence from prisons in Brazil. We observe that privately operated facilities by means of hybrid governance exhibit not only lower costs, but also superior service quality based on a broad set of performance indicators (order, security and services offered to inmates). We discuss implications for theory and for public policy in the context of public services.
Key words Privatization, public governance, incomplete contracts, prisons JEL Classification Codes: H11; L33; H41 Version: September 2007
* We thank the comments by seminar participants at Ibmec São Paulo, Centre ATOM – Univ. Paris 1 – Sorbonne and University of São Paulo (FEA/USP). All errors and omissions are our own.
In response to pressures towards efficiency in public services, we have observed several
instances of private participation in the management of prisons. The intensity of that
involvement varies according to legal and institutional issues, ranging from full privatization
(such as in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa) to hybrid private-
public governance (Menard, 2004). In the latter, civil servants and private operators share the
responsibility of running the prison; typically, private agents run the operations of the prison
while a state-appointed supervisor (warden) monitors the overall service (Cabral, 2007).
Inspired by the French model, Brazil established its first outsourced prison in 1999. In 2007,
there were 14 correctional facilities with private operation in five different states.1 In the
Brazilian model, the government builds the facility, provides external protection (with armed
guards), and assigns the warden of the prison. Private companies are responsible of supplying
the remaining services necessary to the correctional facility operation (internal vigilance,
meals, medical and judicial assistance, recreation and reinsertion activities, education, and so
on). In return, private operators receive a fixed payment, according to the size of prison
facilities, but independent of the number of inmates being held.
A critical question in this context is whether the outsourcing of operational activities in
prisons to private agents outperforms the traditional mode involving full government-based
management. Available studies on the theme are inconclusive; there is flagrant divergence
among critics (Minhoto, 2000; Viggiano, 2002; Dilulio 1988, Wacquant, 2001; Nathan, 2003)
and sympathizers of private participation on correctional activities (D’Urso, 1996; Oliveira,
2002; Logan 1990). None of these studies, however, focuses the comparison of public and
private modes in terms of clear performance dimensions, such as the cost and the quality of
1 Those facilities house together roughly 6000 inmates, which represents 1,5% of the Brazilian inmate population. (Cabral and Azevedo, 2008)
the service.2 Differently, Hart, Shleifer e Vishny (1997) (henceforth HSV) propose a formal
model to analyze how privatization might affect such performance dimensions. A key
assumption of their model is that the contract between the government and the private service
provider is incomplete; in particular, quality-based dimensions, such as the extent to which
inmates receive adequate medical or legal assistance and the use of force as well are difficult
to measure and hence are left unspecified. One of the main implications of the HSV model is
that private managers will likely pursue cost reductions at expense of quality. Because the
latter is hardly contractible and the compensation for the activities of the prison is fixed,
private managers will have high-powered incentives to engage in cost-reduction efforts,
thereby neglecting service quality improvements. In sum, privatization will likely be
associated with a quality-cost trade-off.
We contend that such trade-off, as implied by HSV, does not hold for the hybrid mode of
provision. The assignment of decisions rights to the state-appointed warden improves
monitoring and reduces the effect of under-provision of non-contractible tasks, such as
quality. This result only holds if the warden has incentives to guarantee a minimum level of
quality associated with prison services, which is far from a straightforward result. As in the
case of the private manager, the warden, as a public bureaucrat, receives a fixed wage and the
pursuit of service quality is not specified in his labor contract. Furthermore, the private
operator may bribe the warden to approve actions that reduce costs at the expense of quality.
Hence, the presence of the public warden appears, at first glance, to be innocuous. We posit,
however, that the state monitor may have implicit incentives to efficiently supervise the
private manager. For instance, reputational concerns may induce the warden to guarantee
appropriate levels of service quality and hence avoid triggering events that might lead to his
2 In the economic literature, we can find the recent studies from Bayer and Pozen (2005) and Lukemeyer and McCorkle, (2006). Both studies investigate the prison privatization process in United States in a public versus private comparison.
replacement (e.g., insurgence in the prison).
In this paper, we claim that, under certain conditions, the hybrid mode may solve the quality-
cost dilemma. Key to this result is the existence of an implicit incentive by the public
supervisor to effectively monitor the private operator such that satisfactory levels of quality
are achieved. We develop a model to derive conditions in which such implicit contract may
hold. We then present quantitative and qualitative evidence that is aligned with our prediction.
Namely, we employ data from 13 publicly and privately operated prisons in the Paraná State,
Brazil, observed from 2001 to 2006. In addition, we present two case studies of similar
correctional facilities, one public and the other outsourced to a private company, both located
in the Bahia State. In general, compared to fully state-managed prisons, privately operated
units not only display lower costs but also superior quality performance indicators such as
order, security and services offered to inmates – even after we control for prison-specific
attributes such as characteristics of the correctional facilities and the nature of the inmate
population. Thus, our study informs the discussion on how hybrid private-public
management may be preferred to state-managed provision of public services in settings where
Our paper is structured as follows. First, from a theoretical standpoint, we compare state-
versus private-managed operations in terms of key performance dimensions – chiefly, cost
and service quality – taking the HSV model as main reference. We next present a simple
model to describe the underlying incentives within the hybrid private-public governance. To
facilitate understanding, our theoretical discussion is grounded in our empirical context – i.e.,
the management of prisons. We then describe our empirical setting and present our results.
2. Theory: contrasting state- and private-based management in the context of prisons
In this section we analyze the relationship between the public service provider and the
government as a contractual relationship affecting the performance of the service. In the
context of prisons, two performance dimensions are relevant: cost and quality (HSV, 1997).
Cost considerations have been used as a major justification for the privatization of public
services in general, given the tight budget constraints faced by several governments. There is
also increasing concern regarding the quality of public services. It is commonly argued that
correctional facilities should be evaluated in terms of their capacity to receive inmates,
maintain adequate living conditions, and guarantee that inmates are able to go back to society
avoiding recidivism. It is also desirable to assure the provision of food, health and a safe
environment that preserves the safety and integrity of inmates, employees, visitors and
members of the external community (Archoembault and Deis, 1996). Quality-based
performance indicators in prisons can thus be defined in terms of recidivism rates (proportion
of individuals who commit new crimes), order and security within the facility (low levels of
escapes, riots, deaths, assaults, etc.), and services offered to inmates (medical, judicial, social
and psychological assistance, education, recreation, rehabilitation, etc.) (Cabral, 2007).
The contract established between the government and the manager of the prison (public or
private) is intended to guarantee the attainment of those two performance dimensions. In fully
state-owned and managed prisons, the government delegates the responsibility to run the
facility to an appointed manager (warden), who manages a group of civil servants working in
the prison. In fully privatized prisons, the government transfers the operation of the prison to a
private operator, who is the solely responsible for the provision of all services necessary to
run the facility. In some cases, private companies can also build the correctional facility. In
hybrid governance modes, the private operator is responsible for most activities in the prison
(including the provision of services to inmates and the execution of daily operations).
However, in this particular case the warden is a civil servant who oversees the activities of the
private manager within the prison. In other words, the principal (government) delegates the
operation of the prison to a private company (the operator agent) and to a public manager as
Each governance mode – state-managed, private-managed, or hybrid – will likely differ in
their incentive intensity and the administrative controls that they impose. For ease of
exposition, let us focus initially on the two polar modes: fully state-managed and fully
private-managed prisons. Typically, private governance displays higher-powered incentives
than public bureaucracies (Williamson, 1999). Private operators are residual claimants of the
firm providing the public services: they typically receive fixed fee and are responsible for the
expenses of the unit. Thus, private operators are expected to pursue a more efficient use of
inputs such as labor, energy, and materials, leading to a reduction in the cost per inmate and
an increase in the profit that they will attain from the operation. In contrast, public managers
are not residual claimants and therefore do not have incentives to engage in cost-reducing
Private operators can also employ more flexible labor contracts that allow for the infusion of
high-powered incentives into the hierarchy. This is rarely observed in public bureaucracies. In
some countries, such as in Brazil, legal constraints make it difficult to impose penalties or
bonuses for civil servants. Labor contracts in the public sector tend to be more rigid and less
responsive to performance targets. In publicly managed prisons, the replacement of
employees is not automatic due to both bureaucratic procedures involving hiring and fiscal
limitations by governments. In addition, changes in work shifts or in work procedures are
more difficult to implement in civil servants. Furthermore, private companies do not need to
follow rigid bureaucratic rules regarding purchasing procedures, which arguably decrease
The higher-powered incentives associated with private governance are, however, both a
benefit and a cost for the privatization of public services. The same high-powered incentives
that induce private managers to reduce costs can, at the same time, prompt them to neglect
other performance dimensions such as quality. By aggressively reducing costs, prison
managers can, for instance, reduce the level of medical or legal assistance to inmates.
Arguably, the government could write a complete contract establishing targets for both cost
and quality. Were those performance dimensions easily measurable, the solution to the
problem of governance in public services would be trivial. Any observed performance below
the initial target could mean the application of penalties such as fines, suspension of payments
Hart, Shleifer e Vishny (1997) (HSV) inform this debate by arguing that quality-based
performance dimensions are difficult to measure, write and enforce in contracts involving
public services. In other words, the contract between the government and the private operator
will likely be incomplete. For example, how to specify the adequate level of “force” employed
by correctional officers against inmates, in cases of riots and internal insurgence? Also, it is
difficult to contractually specify an adequate level of “treatment” of inmates in terms of food,
medical services, legal support, and so on. Because private operators have residual control
rights of the prison facility, they could easily engage in cost-reducing actions, even in cases
where those actions would likely reduce quality standards. Although the HSV model presents
conditions in which quality may improve under private management, the authors posit that “in
important dimensions, such as prison violence and the quality of personnel, prison contracts
are seriously incomplete” (p. 1152), and hence “a plausible theoretical case can be made
against prison privatization” (p. 1154).
Now let us consider a hybrid management mode involving a private operator and a public
manager (warden) within the facility. In this case, the public manager becomes responsible for
the local supervision of the private manager and can, arguably, guarantee that the latter does
not make decisions that reduce cost at the expense of quality. And if the private operator
reduces quality, the public supervisor may recommend the severance of the contract. But then
one question arises: does the warden have incentives to efficiently ratify decisions and
monitor the private operator? Alchian and Demsetz’s (1972, p. 782) seminal question applies
here: “who will monitor the monitor”? The warden is not a residual claimant of the public
service and, hence, has no explicit incentive to guarantee low levels of costs and high levels
of quality. Furthermore, corruption may be observed within the prison. For instance, when
considering a cost-reducing initiative that will inefficiently reduces quality, the private
operator may bribe the public warden to guarantee that the initiative is approved. Therefore, at
least based on the standard assumptions of incomplete contracting models such as HSV, there
is no reason to suppose that the hybrid management will avoid quality deterioration within the
prison when private management is applied.
In sum, the baseline prediction derived from received theory is that prisons run by private
operators – either fully privatized or hybrid – compared to public-managed ones, will likely
present lower level of costs and also lower levels of quality performance indicators. Next we
show that the equivalence of fully private and hybrid modes no longer holds when the public
supervisor in the hybrid mode has an implicit contract with the government providing
adequate incentives to monitor and enforce satisfactory quality levels. We also outline some
conditions in which this implicit contract may hold. In the subsequent section, we evaluate
our prediction based on empirical evidence from correctional services in Brazil.
3. A simple model of hybrid private-public governance
We propose a simple model that describes the mechanisms through which the hybrid mode
may function. There are two players, the private operator running the prison, and the public
supervisor (i.e. the warden) – a civil servant appointed to monitor the performance of the
former within the correctional facility. The government agrees to compensate the private
operator with a fixed fee F, which is paid each month after the performance of the prison is
evaluated by the public supervisor. As we shall discuss below, the private operator will be
able to pay a bribe b to the public supervisor so as to receive the fee F even if he fails to
The private operator chooses effort levels to reduce the costs of the prison and to guarantee
quality, denoted as ex and eq respectively, such that ex, eq ≥ 0. As in HSV, we assume that
quality is a non-contractible dimension; it is difficult to write a formal contract making the
payment of the private operator contingent on the performance of the prison in terms of
service quality. The monthly profit of the private operator is given by
(1) π = F – x(ex) – Cx(ex) – Cq(eq),
where F is the fixed fee for the service; x(ex) is the level of operating costs of the prison as a
function of the private operator’s efforts to reduce costs, such that x′< 0 and x″ ≥ 0; Cx(ex) and
Cq(eq) are the costs incurred by the private operator resulting from his exert effort to,
respectively, reduce the operating costs of the prison and guarantee service quality. We
assume that Cx′> 0 and Cx″ > 0, while Cq′ > 0 and Cq(0) = 0. Given these assumptions, there
is a level of effort to reduce operating costs, ex*, that maximizes the monthly profit of the
private operator, resulting from the first-order condition for maximization, – x′ – Cx′ = 0.
From (1), we can also see that the profit-maximizing level of effort to guarantee quality is eq =
0, which results from the fact that the private operator’s payment (and, hence, profit) is not
contingent on service quality. Therefore, for simplicity, we shall henceforth assume a binary
decision by the private operator: he can either choose eq = 0 (e.g., no effort to guarantee
quality) or eq = q, where q > 0 denotes the minimum level of service quality deemed
The public supervisor, in turn, receives a monthly wage w ≥ 0, net of his costs to exert effort
within the prison and supervise the private operator. The reservation value of the public
supervisor is zero. If the public supervisor accepts the bribe offered by the private operator,
The timing of the (monthly) game between the private operator and the public supervisor is as
follows. The private operator begins by choosing between eq = 0 and eq = q. If he chooses eq
= 0, the public supervisor observes the quality level and may punish the private operator for
not meeting quality standards. Then the private operator is expected to get π = – x(ex*) –
Cx(ex*) < 0 if he chooses eq = 0 and hence does not get paid.
The private operator may, however, bribe the public supervisor, in order to guarantee the
fixed payment F even in cases where service quality was low. The public supervisor can then
either refuse to negotiate the bribe and therefore refrain from paying the fee F to the private
operator, or accept to negotiate the bribe and enter in a bargaining game with the private
operator. Also for simplicity, we will assume that the private operator’s reservation value is
zero and that F = x(ex*) + Cx(ex*) + Cq(q), so that the fixed fee received by the private
operator is just sufficient to cover all costs associated with the service even when quality is
adequate. Therefore, the rent captured by the private operator when he reduces quality is
simply Cq(q), which is the cost that is economized when service quality is zero instead of the
level deemed acceptable by the government (q). If there are no costs related to being bribed –
due to, for instance, social norms or implicit contracts –, any bribe 0 < b < Cq(q) will hence be
advantageous for both the private operator and the public supervisor. We will suppose a
general solution for the bargaining game in which the public supervisor receives a fraction α
∈ (0, 1) of the private operator’s rent, so that the final negotiated bribe will be b = α Cq(q)3.
The structure of this game is represented in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Game between public supervisor and private operator
(– x(ex*) – Cx(ex*)<0; w)
(– x(ex*) – Cx(ex*)<0; w)
((1 – α)Cq(q); w+αCq(q))
The unique subgame perfect equilibrium (SPE) of this one-shot game is straightforward. The
public supervisor will always receive αCq(q) in excess of his wage if he accepts to negotiate
3 This assumption is more general than assuming a Nash Bargaining Solution or a bargaining game with alternating offers (Rubinstein, 1982). Our results hold for any bargaining solution in which both parties share the rent due to not meeting quality standards (Cq(q)).
the bribe, so he will prefer to do so. From (1), the private operator will therefore receive π = F
– x(ex*) – Cx(ex*) – Cq(q) = 0 if he chooses eq = q and hence does not pay the bribe, or π = F –
x(ex*) – Cx(ex*) – b = F – x(ex*) – Cx(ex*) – αCq(q) = (1 – α)Cq(q) if he chooses eq = 0 and
negotiates the bribe with the public supervisor. So, in equilibrium, the private operator will
choose eq = 0 and pay a bribe b = αCq(q) so as to avoid that the public supervisor refuses to
pay the fee F for the service. The presence of the public supervisor is therefore functionally
equivalent to the mode with the private operator and no public supervision whatsoever: there
will always be an incentive for the private operator to reduce quality and collude with the
public supervisor by sharing the gains resulting from the cost savings.
If the government wants to enforce an appropriate level of quality eq = q, then it is important
to make sure that the public supervisor will always refuse the bribe and penalizes the private
operator who chooses low quality. How then to create incentives for the public supervisor to
effectively enforce the quality dimension?
A possibility is that there might exist an implicit contract between the government and the
public supervisor, based on reputational (career) concerns (see e.g., Baker, Gibbons, and
Murphy, 1994). Suppose that the public supervisor has a labor contract with the government
such as there is an infinitely repeated interaction with discount factor δ ∈ (0, 1) – which can
also be interpreted as the probability that the public supervisor will continue working for the
government in each period. If the public supervisor refuses the bribe and monitors the private
operator accordingly, he will get a present value of
If, on the other hand, he accepts the bribe, he will get w + αCq(q) in the current period and
then become subject to retaliation thereafter. For instance, information about low service
quality within the prison can be released to the public, increasing the pressure for the
government to replace the public supervisor. We will assume that the probability that this
retaliation will occur will be μ∈ (0, 1). With probability μ, the public supervisor will be
replaced if he fails to enforce the quality standards, getting his reservation value (zero)
thereafter;4 with probability 1 – μ, the public supervisor will not be replaced and he will
therefore receive a payoff stream as before, discounted by one period. By accepting the bribe,
the public supervisor will thus receive a present value of
= w + αC (q) + δ 1
The public supervisor will refuse the bribe and enforce the quality dimension if Urejects ≥
Uaccepts. Therefore, from (2) and (4), a superior SPE will be possibly reached – with eq = q and
b = 0 – if the government pays to the public supervisor a rent (wage net of costs of
Inequality (5) suggests some conditions that will affect the feasibility of the implicit contract
with the government. First, the larger the discount factor δ, the lower the minimum w
necessary to enforce the implicit contract. The establishment of a long-term labor contract
between the government and the public bureaucrat may therefore help. Second, increases in μ
decrease the minimum w to support the implicit contract. The role of the press, human-rights
organizations and public prosecution becomes crucial to increase the chance that information
about low quality service within the prison will be disseminated to the public and put some
pressure on the government to replace the public supervisor. Third, the minimum w increases
4 Arguably, the public bureaucrat may suffer an administrative prosecution and hence experience negative payoffs after being caught. Public Law imposes high penalties for improper behavior of civil servants. Since the probability and size of such penalties are difficult to specify ex ante, we assume for simplicity that the public supervisor gets his reservation value if his labor contract with the government is severed.
with Cq(q). Other things being equal, prisons in which the costs for the private operator to
guarantee service quality are high – e.g., large prisons with dangerous inmate population –
should be more subject to collusion. In those conditions, the cost savings of the private
operator will be so high that the bribe arrangement will be very attractive for both parties.
Consequently, the rent that the government will need to pay to the public supervisor in order
to enforce the implicit contract will need to be higher and may even become unfeasibly
costly.5 Thus, under certain conditions, we predict that, compared to state-owned prisons,
units exhibiting hybrid governance will display lower costs but will not face a reduction in
However, a natural observation arises: instead of appointing a public supervisor to work
within the prison, the government could directly enforce the quality of the prison by
establishing an implicit contract with the private operator, instead of with the public
supervisor. Note, however, that in our previous setting the fixed fee F to the private operator
would be such that he would get zero profit (his reservation value) if adequate service quality
is achieved. Thus, to sustain an implicit contract with the private operator, the government
will necessarily have to pay a fee above F. Suppose that the government pays F + Δ, where Δ
> 0 is the rent received by the private operator in this new arrangement. From (1), the private
operator now gets π = F + Δ – x(ex*) – Cx(ex*) – Cq(q) = Δ if he chooses eq = q, or π = F + Δ –
x(ex*) – Cx(ex*) = Δ + Cq(q) if he chooses eq = 0 and hence avoids incurring the costs to
achieve adequate service quality. Similarly as before, we will assume an infinitely repeated
interaction with discount factor δ and a probability of μthat low quality will be detected and
hence trigger retaliation (severance of the contract with the private operator). Therefore, an
SPE with eq = q will be possibly reached in this case if
5 We note that, as well known from the theory of infinitely repeated games, the inferior equilibrium where eq = 0 is not ruled out. Effective pre-play communication will need to occur; for instance, the government must make it clear for the public supervisor what is expected from the service and what will be the consequences if any information about low quality within the prison is detected.
Comparing conditions (5) and (6), we can see that the minimum rent necessary to support the
implicit contract with the private operator (Δ) is larger than the minimum rent that the public
supervisor will need to receive. It is easier to sustain a implicit contract with the public
supervisor than (directly) with the private operator precisely because the “temptation” to
defect (choose low quality) of the latter is higher. By defecting, the private operator saves the
costs to guarantee quality (Cq(q)) altogether. In the former arrangement, the public supervisor,
by accepting the bribe, gets only a fraction αof this value, which results from his negotiation
with the private operator. This feature provides an advantage for the hybrid mode compared to
the mode of privatization without public supervision by a delegated bureaucrat. In addition,
the lower the bargaining power of the public supervisor, the lower the fraction αwill be, and
as a consequence the higher will be advantage of the hybrid mode.
Other factors, outside the present model, may also favor the hybrid model with public
supervision. For instance, the hybrid model of privatization may be, from a political
standpoint, easier to implement that the full-fledged mode of privatization without public
supervison within the prison. In Brazil, for instance, non-governmental groups are highly
critical with respect to private participation in prison management. Keeping a public
supervisor within the prison helps attenuate such criticisms. Another source of advantage for
the hybrid mode, also not modeled here, is related to social norms associated with public
services. We modeled the implicit contract between the government and the public supervisor
as an infinitely repeated game based on reputational concerns. However, implicit contracts
may also be supported by socialnorms affecting agents’ preferences (e.g., Kandel & Lazear,
1992). Thus, the public supervisor may find professionally unacceptable to engage in any type
of collusion with the private operator – as implied, for instance, in the Weberian theory of
bureaucracy. Considerations about professionalism in public services may therefore provide
an additional support for the effectiveness of the hybrid mode (Miller, 2000).
Next we analyze data from public and hybrid modes of correctional facilities in Brazil in
order to verify some of the predictions stated herein.
4. Empirical evidence: hybrid public-private governance of prisons in Brazil
Obtaining information about the prison service is not trivial. Lack of consolidated data,
inappropriate recording process and barriers imposed by bureaucrats and government officials
are some of the main reasons that might discourage researchers to investigate the sector.
Consequently, empirical studies in the correctional services are not usual. In the present
paper, we analyze two cases of hybrid management in Brazil. The first one is the experience
of Paraná State (located in Brazil’s South region), which combines quantitative and
qualitative data. The second case is more qualitative-oriented and refers to the experience of
the Bahia State (located in Brazil’s Northeast region). In the latter, we compare two similar
prisons: one entirely managed and operated by local government and another whose
operations where outsourced to a private operator monitored by a public supervisor. When we
analyze both states separately, we are able to control key institutional effects such as
differences in regulation, influence of local political parties, rules for prisoners, and so on.
4.1. Outsourcing of prison operations in Paraná
Paraná pioneered the adoption of privately operated facilities in Brazil in 1999. This
experience motivated us to gather data from managerial reports of the Paraná State
Correctional Administration Department (DEPEN-PR) and from contracts between
government and private operators. The database contains 65 observations of 13 correctional
facilities to convicted individuals from 2001 to 2006 (seven publicly and six privately
operated). Thus, our database has a panel structure. In addition, we have examined contracts,
official documents and legal procedures. We have also conducted 11 semi-structured
interviews with prison managers of publicly and privately operated facilities and with the staff
The privately managed prisons in Paraná are best categorized as a hybrid mode of
governance. The government is responsible for the construction of the facility and appoints a
warden to supervise the operations of the private service provider. Besides the warden, other
civil servants work within the prison: a vice-warden, a security manager and some guards in
charge of the external vigilance. These guards carry weapons and can use the lethal force if,
for instance, some prisoner tries to evade. The private service provider, in turn, receives a
fixed fee for the operation, proportionally to the number of inmates within the prison. The
private operator becomes responsible for the internal vigilance of the unit, as well as the
provision of food, medical and judicial assistance, recreation and reinsertion activities,
education, and so on. The contracts signed between the local government and private
operators do not incorporate quality standards. Targets and minimum requirements regarding
performance indicators are not present as well. Thus, as in the HSV model, the contracts
Regarding costs, we only had access to information from 2004. This was the only year when
the Paraná State Correctional Administration Department (DEPEN-PR) made efforts to
consolidate the necessary data to perform comparisons. In this period, the monthly average
costs per inmate in privately operated facilities were R$ 1,266 per inmate (US$ 506
considering the correspondent exchange rate at that time). As for state-managed prisons, by
using the same cost drivers (labor costs, materials, water, energy, communication expenses,
etc.), estimates indicate that costs would be about R$ 1,387 per inmate (US$ 555) e.g., 10%
higher than in the case of private-managed prisons. The calculations above were made by the
DEPEN-PR staff and provided to the authors. Although we do not have information on costs
for other years, our interviews commonly expressed that privately managed prisons are more
We do have, however, quantitative, prison-specific data involving proxies for quality for all
the years in our panel. We focus on quality indicators related to order/security (escapes and
deaths) and services to inmates (medical appointments and legal advisory). Although there
may be other quality aspects that we do not assess in our study, such as recidivism rates, our
indicators apparently capture most concerns related to the private management of prisons in
Brazil. Namely, lack of assistance within the prison has been voiced as one of the main causes
of prisoners’ complaints in the Brazilian context.
Tables 1 and 2 present the variables that we use in our study. Table 1 describes our indicators
of quality in the correctional service. Simple mean comparison tests reveal that, in the
privately operated prisons, levels of quality are significantly superior for all indicators except
the measure related to the provision of legal assistance. Table 2, in turn, describes the
independent variables used in our subsequent analysis. Table 2 also presents a set of variables
that allow us to control for differences in technology and characteristics of inmates across
prisons. For instance, we observe that publicly operated prisons tend to hold more inmates
and are older than privately operated facilities (p < 0.01). Indeed, all facilities with private
operation were established between 1999 and 2002. The newest facilities (either with public
or private operation) follow the latest standards of correctional services, notably displaying a
Thus, we believe it is necessary to contrast the levels of service quality across prisons after we
control for prison-specific differences in a multiple regression context. Also, due to the fact
that our data have a longitudinal nature – i.e., we observe the levels of quality across prisons
over time – we employ panel data regressions (Wooldridge, 2006). Our methods are discussed
4.1.1 Regression model
We model the performance of each prison as a function of its governance structure (captured
by the dummy variable OUTSOURC), controlling for prison-specific attributes, as follows:
f (OUTSOURC , i, t, i, t)
where yi,t,d stands for the performance of prison i at year t regarding the quality indicator d
(e.g., level of medical assistance), ψi,t refers to characteristics of the prison, and φi,t refers to
characteristics of the inmate population.
Given the nature of our data, we employ panel-data regressions with random effects. This
method assumes that non-observed effects do not have any correlation with the remaining
independent variables. We were unable to use a fixed-effects specification because we do not
have instances of prisons which exhibited both hybrid and public governance during the time
frame of our data. Therefore, the variable OUTSOURC does not have within-prison variance.
To be sure, the assumption of the random-effects model that the error term is not correlated
with the independent variables might be violated in our case. Namely, prison-specific
characteristics might influence both the decision to outsource the operations and the
performance of the prison, thereby leading to spurious estimates. For instance, some suggest
that Brazilian prisons whose operations were outsourced to private managers display some
advantages as compared to their public counterparts because they hold less dangerous
criminals. In other words, privately operated facilities could eventually present superior
quality indicators because the internal management was easier at the outset and not because of
improved management. Also, some argue that privately managed prisons in Brazil tend to be
newer than state-managed units. Improved conditions within newer prisons may therefore
make quality targets easier to achieve than in older prisons. The inclusion of prison- and
inmate population-specific controls in our regressions intends precisely to avoid such kinds of
spurious relationships. We are not aware of any other prison-specific attribute, beyond the
control variables already included in our study and described in Table 2, which might induce
spurious inference regarding the effect of governance on performance. With proper controls,
the use of random-effects estimates is warranted (Wooldridge, 2006).
The specification of the random-effects model used in our study varies according to the type
of qualitative indicator employed as a dependent variable. In the case of the performance
indicators related to the assistance that inmates receive – medical assistance (MED_ASSIST)
and legal assistance (LEGAL_ASSIST) – we employ the standard generalized least squares
random-effects model. Although received theory (e.g., the logic following from the HSV
model) suggests that prisons where operations are outsourced to private managers will exhibit
lower levels of medical and legal assistance, our model presented in section 3 predicts the
opposite; that is; the coefficient of OUTSOURC will be non-negative. Regarding the other
qualitative indicators related to safety and order – number of escapes (ESCAPES) and deaths
(DEATH) – we adopt another estimation approach. These indicators involve count data
originated from rare events, thereby displaying a large quantity of zeros. In this condition,
McCullagh and Nedler (1989) suggest the use of the Poisson generalized linear model,
estimated via maximum likelihood. The response variable, in the Poisson regression, follows
an exponential probability distribution function. Although received theory suggests that
prisons where operations are outsourced to private managers will exhibit higher levels of
escape and death, our model implies that the coefficient of OUTSOURC will actually be non-4.1.2 Results
Let us analyze first the effect of governance on safety and order indicators. Table 3 shows the
Poisson estimates with random effects. Dependent variables are the number of escapes and
deaths observed in the prison during the period under analysis. In both cases, we perform
alternative estimations as a way of observing changes in the effects when new variables are
added. We observe that, controlling for variables related to characteristics of the correctional
facility (ψi,t) and characteristics of the inmate population (Φi,t), private management of prisons
is negatively associated with the incidence of deaths and escapes at conventional significance
levels. With respect to privately operated facilities, if we leave other variables at their sample
means (see Tables 1 and 2), we have 41% less predicted probability of experiencing deaths as
compared to a publicly managed prison in the same conditions. In the same line, the
probability of experiencing escapes in a privately operated facility is 99% lower.6
As an ancillary result, we observe that the fraction of inmates involved with labor activities
has an important impact in reducing the number of death records. In addition, as one would
expect, prisons with greater percentage of less dangerous inmates are associated with a lower
number of escapes. Surprisingly, overcrowding rates do not correlate at conventional
significance levels with deaths and escapes.
Table 4, in turn, shows estimates where services provided to inmates – number of medical and
legal appointments per inmate-year – are taken as dependent variables. In the case of medical
6 In a Poisson regression model, the interpretation of coefficients can be made by using the respective antilogs. If
x is a binary variable ranging from 0 to 1, the expected change is exp (βk) −1. If one keeps all other factors
constant, it is necessary to multiply the above result by 100 in order to obtain the discrete change percentage (Wooldridge, 2006).
assistance, we observe that publicly operated prisons provide a lower number of medical
appointments to inmates, compared to their private counterparts, when we focus on prisons
for convicted criminals. Thus, in this case private management tends to be positively
associated with the level of medical service. However, estimation 4 shows that observed
outcomes do not differ between two modes, when we consider the two types of facilities – for
convicted criminals (penitentiaries) and for individuals awaiting trial, sentencing or
assignment to a penitentiary (temporary detention center). In all estimations, overcrowding
rates are strong correlated with medical assistance. We can also observe that facilities with
superior number of dangerous inmates and with higher proportion of prisoners working in the
facilities provide more medical appointments.
Corroborating the descriptive statistics reported in Table 1, the number legal advisories
offered to inmates does not differ in the two modes of governance. Apparently, only the
extent of overcrowding has a significant impact on the level of legal assistance. Under these
circumstances, special attention is given by prison attorneys in order to decrease the length of
time prisoners spend behind bars so that more legal advisories are provided. Actually, the
higher the proportion of inmates locked-up in the same physical space, the higher is the
probability of riots and other modes of insurgence. Thus, the efficiency of legal matters is
crucial to pacify the turbulent correctional environment.
We conclude that the data from prisons in Paraná supports our model: we cannot say that
quality indicators differ across hybrid- and public modes of governance. Actually, for some
indicators (such as medical assistance), the quality provided by the hybrid mode of
4.2. Outsourcing of prison operations in Bahia
Following the Paraná initiative, the Bahia State started outsourcing prison services in
December 2002. In 2007, there were five privately operated prisons in the State. In this
section, we try to identify the differences in the public and in the hybrid modes of provision,
by comparing two similar prisons, sharing the very same design and size: The Penal Complex
Teixeira de Freitas (CPTF), publicly operated, and The Penal Complex of Valença (CPV),
privately operated.7 Both prisons are located in rural areas and present inmates with similar
criminal backgrounds (the vast majority were found guilty of crimes against people, i.e.,
murders and attacks). These similarities allow us to compare the outcomes of the two prisons,
We collected data from the Bahia State Penal Affairs Direction for the years 2003 and 2004
and also qualitative information from 18 interviews with several actors (wardens, correctional
officers, members of judiciary, government officials, managers of the private firm operating
the prison, politicians and union leaders). We compare three types of performance indicators:
administrative; security and services to inmates. Unfortunately, we did not have access to
detailed cost information, so that the present comparison focuses mainly on the quality
dimension. However, the data show that the public managed prison employs more labor to run
the prison (20% more), as compared to privately operated facility. Also, absenteeism rates in
public prison are three times higher and wages of the correctional officers in the outsourced
prison were 60% less than that of the civil servants in the public facility. Furthermore,
evidence on the use of other inputs indicates that the public prison is less efficient: it spent
three times more on water and electricity than the private company and invested 50% less
than the private operator in the maintenance of the facility over the same period. Collectively,
these figures suggest that costs are higher in the public operated prison.
7 The contract between the Bahia State government and the private operator presents the same characteristics of the contracts in the Parana State.
When we focus on security performance indicators, we observe that outcomes differ across
the two prisons. While zero escapes or escape attempts were recorded in the prison with
hybrid governance, in the public prison there were occurred 8 escapes and 25 escape attempts.
In the same period, one riot occurred in the privately operated prison8 and none was recorded
in the publicly-managed facility. Regarding the number of assaults, evidence also runs against
the publicly operated prison: during 2003 and 2004, the public facility recorded 8 assaults
against employees, while the privately-operated recorded none. In the same period, the
number of assaults among inmates was 12 times higher in the public facility.
Last, the services provided to inmates are about to be superior in the privately operated
facilities. Like in the Paraná case, the average number of medical assistance per inmate is 10
times higher in the privately operated prison, while the level psychological assistance is 80%
higher, when we compare the number of appointments provided. Also, the level of legal
assistance to inmates – a critical service in the correctional system, because it relates to the
propensity of releasing or not an inmate – is 20 times higher in the privately operated prison
(10764 appointments versus 504 in the public prison). We note that the privately-operated
prison provides this service by using its own lawyers, while in the publicly-operated one
public attorneys are the only source of legal advice to inmates who cannot afford a private
lawyer. The reduced number of available public attorneys helps explain this gap.9 The only
variable that the public prison achieved better performance was dental assistance, with a level
8 The private operator paid for the correspondent expenses (equivalent to US$ 15,000). 9 More details regarding the experience of outsourcing of prison services in Bahia State can be found in Cabral and Azevedo (2008).
In sum, as in the case of prisons in the Paraná State, we have evidence that quality indicators
are not inferior in the privately operated prison; in fact, they appear to be superior in general.
5. Explaining the performance of the hybrid governance
The results above indicate that privately operated correctional facilities present, in general,
lower costs and similar or improved quality indicators as compared to publicly managed units.
Although we do not find significant differences with respect to legal assistance, we can safely
conclude that no support is found for received theories, such as the HSV model, which
suggest that fully private or hybrid governance of prisons should exhibit lower levels of
Our empirical results are consistent with our claim that the presence of publicly appointed
officials within the prison helps assure adequate levels of service quality. If the public
supervisor effectively monitors the private operator, then the hybrid mode is expected to not
only exhibit lower costs, but also avoid the quality-cost tradeoff proposed by received theory.
The formal separation between operation and supervision by the state-appointed warden
facilitates the application of penalties in case of contractual defection by the private operator.
For instance, after observing that the private operator reduced the level of assistance to
inmates, the warden may not authorize the payment of the invoices and even recommend the
severance of the contract with the private manager.
As discussed before, this separation of decision rights is not a sufficient condition for better
performance since the private operator has an incentive to bribe the public supervisor. As in
the contract between the private operator and the government, the (labor) contract between the
government and its representative within the prison (the warden) is also incomplete. Although
the warden can ratify and monitor the actions of the private operator, he is not a residual
claimant of the specific correctional unit and, hence, does not have explicit incentives to
enforce efficient actions within the prison. Furthermore, to approve certain cost-reducing
actions or avoid severance of the contract, the private operator might bribe the public
manager. Hence, in the absence of implicit incentives, the threat to discontinue the service in
case of reduction of quality standards is likely non-credible. Thus, it is worth searching for
evidence that might indicate the existence of such implicit contract in the Brazilian case.
Section 3 presented a model that formalized the effect of reputational concerns, but also
suggested the possible effect associated with social norms; in fact, these two effects may
occur together in practice (e.g., Lazzarini, Miller and Zenger 2004). Consider first the effect
of reputation: our model suggests that the implicit contract between the public official and the
government will hold when there is a long-term labor contract associated with an
idiosyncratic rent (efficiency wage); when there is a high probability of pressure from external
constituencies (the press, as well as religious and nonprofit organizations, for instance) to
replace the management if quality deteriorates; and when the costs to guarantee quality within
We do observe that labor contracts in the public service are very long-term. In fact, careers in
the public sector in Brazil not only have indeterminate termination date, but also are difficult
to be severed except in cases of strong external pressure. Furthermore, as we could observe in
our qualitative interviews, individuals involved in commissioned positions, such as the
warden, receive in most cases an excess income of around 40% above his regular wage.
Furthermore, good performance in commissioned positions enlarges career opportunities in
the public service. This feature creates an implicit incentive similar to an efficiency wage
within the public administration. However, the implicit contract is subject to termination in
case of bad performance. Some appointed wardens are not civil servants with job stability.
Misconduct may therefore lead to replacement of the warden from his duty within the prison.
The experience in Brazil also reveals that riots and mistreatment in prisons is oftentimes
detected and disseminated by the press. The probability of being dismissed or being
prosecuted for improper behavior (e.g. corruption or failure to perform his obligations) is, in
general, larger in correctional services than in other types of public service. External
monitoring by public prosecutors and human rights organizations is intense. An increase in
such external pressure tends to increase the probability that the warden will be fired (i.e.,
variable μ increases), thus reducing the likelihood of collusion between the public supervisor
and the private operator. Indeed, in one of the privately operated prisons <<in Paraná?>>, a
warden was fired due to escalating pressure from external constituencies arguing that he was
abusing of violence against inmates. Furthermore, the restricted discretionary power of public
officials, which has the downside of reducing efficiency in procurement and management,
actually guarantees that they will focus on prescribed tasks. In Brazil, for instance, the Public
Law prohibits civil servants to perform any task not previously assigned by law or regulatory
norms, making it easier for public prosecutors to identify any misconduct.
Finally, we have evidence that correctional facilities with the hybrid governance mode tend to
display features that make, on average, the attainment of satisfactory quality easier. For
instance, in Paraná publicly operated prisons tend to hold more inmates. It seems that, on
average, “easier” prisons were more frequently used for the hybrid mode of governance –
which is consistent with our theoretical prediction that the implicit contract between the
government and the public official tends to be more feasible when the cost of meeting quality
standards is not very high. We note, however, that the superiority of some quality indicators
in Paraná was observed even after controlling for this effect through regressions with control
variables, given that we have sufficient heterogeneity of prisons in terms of characteristics of
The implicit contract between the government and the warden may also be supported by
social norms. The warden may have internalized values of integrity and honesty when dealing
with public matters. In fact, the government may likely appoint as public supervisors
bureaucrats with historical record of integrity and honesty in previous jobs within the civil
service. Actually, the very fact that the warden is no residual claimant of the prison may help.
Without high-powered incentives to pursue cost reductions, the desire to guarantee high levels
of quality, supported by internalized values, may become a particular objective of the public
official within the prison (see, along these lines, Miller, 2000).
In our empirical investigation, we could observe that nominated wardens and their respective
vice-wardens have large experience with correctional activities. People with different
professional backgrounds manage the prisons, such as public attorneys, psychologists, public
administrators, police officials, retired members of judiciary. For instance, the warden of the
hybrid prison in Bahia was an experienced policeman who successfully dealt with different
cases of kidnapping and rebellion. The nomination requires the ideological alignment
between candidates and bureaucrats of the Correctional Administration Department. Thus, let
us suppose that the governmental orientation for correctional policies is towards security (e.g.
to guarantee a safe environment inside the prison), combined with reinsertion efforts. In this
vein, an individual who believes, for instance, in the sole use of force will hardly be appointed
for the job. In fact, the mere act of assigning civil servants who are not intrinsically
committed to meet the desired standards may represent a high political cost to government
We thus believe that the empirical results are consistent with our claim that hybrid forms of
governance may avoid the quality-cost trade-off associated with correctional services. Our
evidence is also consistent with the view that an implicit contract between public officials and
the government is the key underlying mechanism guaranteeing an effective enforcement of
10 As a curiosity, despite the superior results obtained by the private governance of prisons, surprisingly the Paraná State Government decided in 2006 to stop the experience with privately operated facilities. In particular,
Prison service is not an activity that has attracted the attention of scholars. However, the
comparative assessment of private versus public modes of governance in more microanalytic
contractual terms is scant. As a result, we know relatively little about how contracts
associated with public services work, especially in settings, as ours, involving hybrid
governance. Our paper contributes to fill this gap.
Based on an incomplete contract framework, our analysis showed that the hybrid private-
public governance not only display lower costs, but also similar or improved performance on
a broad range of quality indicators – e.g., reduced number of deaths, low number of escapes,
and better medical assistance to inmates as compared to the traditional, public mode of
governance. Apparently, the superiority of the private operation in our context is due to the
hybrid arrangement that allocates residual rights of control to a state-appointed public
supervisor. Hybrid modes present distinct incentives structures as compared to public modes
of provision and are not constrained by bureaucratic rules of civil service. In particular, the
presence of the public supervisor within the prison, with implicit incentives to effectively
monitor the private operator, guarantees that satisfactory quality standards are met. As
compared to the full privatized model described by HSV, the hybrid form described in our
study provides more efficient monitoring and restricts opportunistic behavior by the private
The importance of monitoring shows us that the sole choice between public or private
governance itself is not enough for obtaining improvements in public services. We posit that
the attainment of superior performance in correctional services results from the creation of
the re-elected governor publicly opposed private participation in public services provision for ideological reasons. Former outsourced prisons were transferred back to public administration. Although this should provide an interesting empirical material for future work, an analysis of the pertinence and the implications of such measure is beyond the scope of our study.
proper governance structures designed to provide at the same time high-powered incentives
for cost reduction and efficient monitoring to guarantee high quality standards in the process
of contractual execution. The implications for the design and organization of public services
become evident. Future research should therefore examine hybrid modes of governance
(Menard, 2004) in other contexts, such as water supply, sewerage service, and ports, among
other public utilities This research agenda may shift the attention from the usual choice of
public versus private governance towards a more microanalytic examination of the
mechanisms that could deliver high performance in the several dimensions of interest in
AGHION, Philippe; TIROLE, Jean. (1997) "Formal and Real Authority in Organizations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(1), 1997, pages 1-29.
ALCHIAN, A.; DEMSETZ, H (1972). Production, Information Costs, and Economic Organization The American Economic Review, Vol. 62, No. 5, 777-795
ARCHEOEMBEAULT, W.G. and DEIS, D.R. (1996). Cost-Effective Comparisons of Private Versus Public Prisons in Lousiana: A comprehensive analysis of Allen, Avoyelles ad Winn Correctional Centers. Research paper. Lousiana State University, 79 p
BAKER, G.; GIBBONS, R.; MURPHY, K. (1994) "Subjective performance measures in optimal incentive contracts" The Quarterly Journal of Economics, v. 109, n. 4, p. 1125-56.
BAYER, Patrick; POZEN, David (2005) “The effectiveness of juvenile correctional facilities: public versus private management” Journal of Law and Economics. vol. XLVIII, October, p.549-589.
CABRAL, Sandro (2007). Sobre a participação privada na gestão e operação de prisões no Brasil: uma análise à luz da Nova Economia Institucional. Organizações e Sociedade v.14, jan-mar, 29-47.
CABRAL , Sandro, AZEVEDO, Paulo (2008) “The modes of provision of prison services in a comparative perspective”. Brazilian Administration Review, Forthcoming
DEMSETZ, H. (1968) “Why regulate utilities?” Journal of Law and Economics, v.11, April, p. 55-66
DILULIO, J.J. (1988) “What is wrong with private prisons”. Public Interest. 92, Summer.
D´URSO, Luiz Flávio Borges (1996) A Privatização dos Presídios (Terceirização). Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de São Paulo - USP, (Dissertação de Mestrado), 247 p.
MILLER, G. J. (2000) “Above politics: credible commitment and efficiency in the design of public agencies” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, vol. 10, n. 2, p. 289-328.
HART, Oliver; SHLEIFER, Andrei e. VISHNY, Robert W. (1997) “The Proper Scope of Government: Theory and an Application to Prisons.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics. vol. 112, n.4, nov., p. 1127-1161.
KANDEL, Eugene; LAZEAR, Edward. (1992). “Peer Pressure and Partnerships” Journal of Political Economy, v. 100, 801-816.
LAZZARINI, S.; MILLER, G.; ZENGER, T. (2004) “Order with some law: complementarity versus substitution of formal and informal arrangements” Journal of Law Economics and Organization, v. 20, n. 2, 261-298
LOGAN, Charles H. (1990) Private Prisons: Cons and Pros. Oxford University Press, 1990, 437 p.
LUKEMEYER, Anna; McCORKLE (2006). “Privatization of Prisons: Impact on Prisons Conditions” American Review of Public Administration. v.36, n.2, June, 189-206.
MARIMORT, David; DE DONDER, Philippe e DE VILLEMEUR, Etienne (2005). “An incomplete contract perspective on public good provision”. Journal of Economic Surveys v.19, n.2, p.149-180.
McCULLAGH, P. e NEDLER, J.A. (1989). Generalized Linear Models. Chapman and Hall, 2nd edition, 511 p.
MÉNARD, Claude (2004) "The economics of hybrid organizations." Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 160(3), p. 1-32.
MINHOTO, Laurindo Dias (2000). Privatização de presídios e criminalidade: a gestão da violência no capitalismo global. São Paulo: Editora Max Limonad, 214 p.
NATHAN, Stephen. “Private Prisons: Emerging and Transformative Economies” In. Coyle, Andrew; Campbell, Alisson; Neufeld, Rodney (ed.) Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization and Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2003a, ch. 16. 189-201.
OLIVEIRA, Edmundo (2002) O futuro alternativo das prisões. Forense: Rio de Janeiro.
RUBINSTEIN, Ariel. (1982). “Perfect Equilibria in a Bargaining Model”, Econometrica, 50, p. 97-109.
VIGGIANO, Fernando Braga (2002) “Endurecimento das penas e da execução penal: retrocesso inigualável”. In: Revista de Informação Legislativa. Brasília, n.156, out/dez 2002,
WACQUANT, Loïc (2001). As prisões da miséria. Jorge Zahar Editor, Rio de Janeiro, 174 p.
WILLIAMSON, Oliver (1999) “Public and Private Bureaucracies: A Transaction Cost Economics Perspective”. Journal of Law, Economics and Organization. Mar, 15:1.pp-306-342.
WOOLDRIDGE, Jeffrey (2006). Introdução à Econometria: Uma abordagem moderna. São Paulo: Pioneira Thomson Learning. 684 p.
Table 1: Dependent variables (service quality indicators)
prisoners from the correctional facility in each year.
prisoners in the correctional facility in each year.
appointments in the prison per inmate-year
appointments in the prison per inmate-year
Note: * p < 0.10 ** p < 0.05 *** p < 0.01
11 In some calculations, we have omitted one observation from “escapes” variable. The non-considered event is related to a massive evasion organized by an external criminal gang. The inclusion of this outlier generates distortions in the analysis. 8 Medical assistance and legal advisory indicators are greater in temporary detention centers (for individuals awaiting trials, sentences or assignment to other penitentiaries) as compared to prisons to convicted inmates, whatever the adopted governance structure (public or private). The reasons for that are related to the fact that in the latter the turnover is higher, once inmates remain less time within such prisons. As a consequence, more medical appointments and legal advisories are required in these facilities In this way, some of our comparisons will address the latter type of correctional facilities, which represents 43 observations (24 in publicly and 19 in privately operated facilities).
prison is privately operated with public supervison (hybrid); 0, if public.
in non-metropolitan areas; 0, if located in expressive urban center.
awaiting trials; 0, if prison holds convicted inmates
“easy convivence” according to psychological evaluation
work in the operational activities of the prison.
Note: * p < 0.10 ** p < 0.05 *** p < 0.01
Table 3: Results of security and order indicators
Note: * p < 0.10 ** p < 0.05 *** p < 0.01. Poisson random-effect estimates; standard errors in parenthesis.
Table 4: Results of services provided to inmates indicators
Note: * p < 0.10 ** p < 0.05 *** p < 0.01. GLS Random-effect estimates; standard errors in parenthesis.
Table 5: Comparative performance indicators in Bahia prisons
Conjunto Penal de Conjunto Penal de Valença Teixeira de Freitas Indicators (Privately-operated) (Publicly-operated) Administrative 2003 2004 2003 2004 Security and Order
Anpassung des Klassifikationsmodells RxGroups speziellen Voraussetzungen in der GKV Gutachterliche Expertise Vorgelegt von Prof. Dr. Gerd Glaeske INHALTSVERZEICHNIS TABELLENVERZEICHNIS Tabelle 1: Die 100 am häufigsten verordneten Präparate (AVR 20041) mit Verordnungsrang (AVR 2004) ATC-Kode, Zuordnung zu RxGroup und Tabelle 2: Wirkstoffgruppen (n=259), fü