tenth grade objectives for dickenson county schools
Tenth Grade Objectives for Dickenson County Schools
The student will be able to explain the meanings of the following vocabulary words. Greek and Latin have been the sources of most of the words in the English language. The roots (sometimes called stems
) of these words have been included so that the student will learn those as well; knowing the Greek and Latin roots will help the student to guess at the meanings of new words that he/she will run into elsewhere. A great majority of these words could be encountered on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and similar standardized tests. Most of them are in the vocabularies of well-educated Americans.
TESSAR/TETR: comes from the Greek word for “four.” A tessera
is the small and usually four-sided piece of rock or tile used to make mosaics. Tessellation
is the technique of making mosaic, or of covering a surface with identical shapes that fit exactly without covering or overlapping each other; a floor covered with square tiles is a simple example.
1. tetracycline: a yellow crystalline antibiotic effective against a wide range of organisms
He was sent home with a prescription for tetracycline.
Antibiotics work against bacteria and other tiny organisms that sometimes infect the body, though not against viruses of any kind. Tetracycline, which comes from a kind of soil bacteria, is one of the most used antibiotics. It can be effective against acne, Lyme disease, cholera, rickets, and various lung and eye infections among other things. Its name means “four-ringed” – that is, it consists of four fused hydrocarbon rings. Most chemical names are made up of a series of Greek and Latin roots strung together.
2. tetrahedron: a solid shape formed by four flat faces
Box kites are often made with tetrahedrons rather than squares or triangles.
The simplest tetrahedron is made of four equal-sided triangles: one is used as the base; and the other three are fitted to it and each other to make a kind of pyramid. The pyramids of Egypt, however, are not tetrahedrons: with a square base and four triangular faces, this shape is five-sided.
3. tetralogy: a set of four connected literary, artistic, or musical works
The Raj Quartet
, Paul Scott’s long and complex tetralogy of India, was made into a highly praised television series.
Vivaldi’s Four Seasons
can be called a tetralogy, since it is a set of four violin concertos, one for each season of the year. Eight of Shakespeare’s history plays are often grouped into two tetralogies. Wagner’s great Ring of the Nibelung
, an opera tetralogy based on Norse mythology, contains about 18 hours of music. But we have no complete examples of the original tetralogies, sets of four plays performed together in ancient Athens. The first three were always tragedies; the last was a wild comedy.
4. tetrapod: a vertebrate with two pairs of limbs
His special study was the great seismosaurus, probably the largest tetrapod – and the largest land animal – that ever lived.
The earliest tetrapods (or “four-footed” animals) were mammal-like reptiles that evolved before the rise of the dinosaurs and ranged form the mouse-sized to cow-sized. Today the tetrapods include the reptiles, the amphibians, the birds, and the mammals – including humans.
CAPIT: from the Latin word for “head,” caput
, turns up in some pretty important places. The captain
of a ship is the head of the whole operation; the capital
of a state or country is the seat of government, where the head of state is located. A capital
letter stands head and shoulders above a lowercase letter, as well as at the head of a sentence.
ANTHROP: comes from the Greek word for “human being.” An anthropomorphic
god, such as Zeus or Athena, basically looks and acts like a human. People often anthropomorphize
their pets, seeing them as small, furry human beings rather than as animals.
CUMB/CUB: can be traced to the Latin verb stems cumb
-, “to lie down,” and cub-
, “to lie.” A cubicle
was originally a small room for sleeping (“lying down”) that was separated from a larger room, though now it can be any small area set off by partitions, as in an office.
DYNAM: comes from Greek and means “to be able” or “to have power.” Dynamite
has enough power to blow up the hardest granite bedrock. A dyne
is a unit used in measuring force. An instrument that measures force is called a dynamometer
GRAD: comes from the Latin noun gradus
, “step” or “degree,” and the verb gradi
, “to step, walk.” A grade
is a step up or down on a scale of some kind. A gradual
change takes place in small steps. The gradient
of a steep slope might be 45 degrees.
LAT: comes from a Latin verb that means “to carry or bear.” From this root come relation
, a person you are related
to, whether you like it or not. You might
, or “carried away by joy,” to get free tickets to a rock concert, but your elderly relative might not share your elation
CRIT: comes from a Greek verb that means “to judge” or “to decide.” A film critic
judges a movie and tells us what is good or bad about it. Her critical
opinion may convince us not to go, or we may overlook any negative criticism
and see it anyway.
JUR: comes from the Latin verb jurare
, “to swar or take an oath,” and the stem of the noun jus
, “right or law.” A jury
, made up of jurors
, makes judgments based on the law. A personal injury
caused by another person is “not right.”
PENT: comes from the Greek word for “five.” The Pentagon
in Washington, headquarters of the Defense Department, has five sides like any other pentagon. A pentatonic
scale in music has five pitches, rather than the seven in a major or minor scale.
QUINT: comes from the Latin meaning “five.” Quintuplets
are babies that come in sets of five. A quintessence
is literally the “fifth essence,” the fifth and highest element of ancient and medieval philosophy, which was supposed to be in the celestial bodies.
BIO: comes from the Greek word for “life.” It forms the base for many English words: a biosphere
is a body of life forms in an environment; biology
is the study of all living forms and life processes; and biotechnology
uses the knowledge acquired through biology.
many English words. Their basic meaning is “come into being” or “be born.” The root occurs in gene
, the most fundamental of biological architects, and in genealogy
, the study of family roots.
FUNG/FUNCT: comes from the Latin verb fungi
, “to perform, carry out, or undergo.” A car that is functional
is able to perform its function
of providing transportation. A functional illiterate is a person who manages to get by in society without the reading and writing skills possessed by most other members of the society.
MUT: comes from the Latin mutare
, “to change.” Plenty of science-fiction movies have been made on the subject of weird mutations
, changes in normal people or animals that end up causing no end of death and destruction. More often that not, it is some mysterious or alien force that causes the unfortunate victim to mutate
FRAG/FRACT: comes frm the Latin verb frangere
, “to break or shatter.” A fraction
is one of the pieces into which a whole can be broken; recipes typically call for factional
parts of a stick of butter or a cup of flour. The dinnerware on which food is served is often fragile
or easily broken. A person whose health is easily broken might be described as frail
TELE: has its basic meanings “distant” or “at a distance.” A telescope
looks at faraway objects, a telephoto
lens on a camera magnifies distant objects for a photograph, and a television
, for better or worse, allows us to watch things taking place far away.
PHIL: comes from the Greek word meaning “love.” In philosophy
, it is joined with Sophia
, “wisdom,” so philosophy means literally “love of wisdom.” When joined with biblio
-, “book,” the result is bibliophile
, or “lover of books.” Philadelphia
, containing the Greek word adelphos
, “brother,” is the city of “brotherly love.” To live up to the name, its inhabitants should all be committed to philanthropy
, or goodwill toward their fellow human beings (anthropos
being Greek for “human being.”).
NEG: and its variants nec
- and ne
- are the prefixes of denial or refusal in Latin. The Latin verb negare
, “to say no,” is the source of our English verb negate
. A negative
is something that denies, contradicts, refuses, or reverses.
DEC: comes form both Greek and Latin and means “ten.” A decade
lasts for ten years; a decahedron
is a geometrical shape with ten sides; and the decimal
system is based on 10.
CENT: means “one hundred,” from the Latin centum
. Our dollar is made up of a hundred cents
; other monetary systems use centavos
as the smallest coin. A centipede
has what appears to be a hundred pairs of legs, though the actual number varies greatly. But there really are a hundred years in a century
NOM: comes from the Latin word for “name.” A nominee
is “named” – or nominated
– to run for or serve in office. A binomial
(“two names”) is the scientific name for a species; the domestic cat, for example, has the binomial Felis catus
. A polynomial
, with “many names,” is an algebraic equation involving several terms.
PATER/PATR: from both the Greek and the Latin word for “father,” is the source of many English words. A patriarchy
is a society or institution in which ultimate authority rests with the father or the men of the family. A patron
is one who assumes a fatherly role toward an institution or project, typically giving moral and financial support.
LEGA: comes from the Latin legare
, meaning “to appoint” or “to send as a deputy.” A legation
consists of a group sent on a special mission, especially a diplomatic mission to a foreign country. A legatee
, on the other hand, is the person appointed to receive a legacy
GREG: comes from the Latin grex
, “herd” or “flock.” Bees, wolves, people – any creatures that like to live together in flocks or herds – are gregarious animals. People who greatly enjoy companionship, who are happiest when part of a rowdy herd, are highly gregarious.
FLU/FLUCT: comes from the Latin verb fluere
, “to flow.” A flume
is a narrow gorge with a stream flowing through it. A fluent
speaker is one from whom words flow
easily. Originally, influence
referred to an invisible fluid
that was believed to flow from the stars and to affect the actions of humans.
PREHEND/PREHENS: comes from the Latin verb prehendere
, “to seize.” It is the root of such English verbs as apprehend
. For some derivatives of words formed from this root, the d
is changed to an s
, as in apprehensive
TEMPER: comes from the Latin verb temperare
, “to moderate or keep within limits” or “to mix.” It comes into English in words like temperature
(as in tempered steel) means “to harden by reheating and cooling in oil or water.” Tempered
enthusiasm, similarly, is enthusiasm that has cooled a bit.
Words most frequently used in the SOL test questions.
The teacher will utilize the following words in her/his speech. The teacher will use the following words in test questions without a simplified version of the word in parentheses.
Information in bold
is new material for this school year.
The student will diagram sentences with the following parts of speech:
2. Understood subject (for commands, directives) 22. Compound Adjectives
24. Compound predicate
25. Comparative adjectives
Adverbs modifying other
28. Compound adverbs
29. Prepositional phrase
10. Compound predicate with direct objects
30. Prepositional phrase
11. Compound predicate with one direct object
10.6 The student will develop a variety of writing to persuade, interpret, analyze, and
evaluate with an emphasis on exposition and analysis
a) Generate, gather, plan, and organize ideas for writing to address a specific
b) Synthesize information to support the thesis
c) Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice and vivid description
d) Write clear and varied sentences, clarifying ideas with precise and relevant
e) Organize ideas into a logical sequence using transitions
f) Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information
g) Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing
The student will self- and peer- edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization,
punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing
a) Distinguish between active and passive voice
b) Apply rules governing use of the colon
c) Use a style manual, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA)
or the American Psychological Association (APA), to apply rules for punctuation
d) Differentiate between in-text citations and works cited on the bibliography
f) Describe how the author accomplished the intended purpose of a piece of
g) Suggest how writing might be improved
h) Proofread and edit final product for intended audience and purpose
The student will collect, evaluate, organize, and present information to create a
a) Use technology as a tool to research, organize, evaluate, synthesize, and
c) Verify the accuracy, validity, and usefulness of information
d) Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources by identifying
misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of
e) Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of
documentation such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the
American Psychological Association (APA)
f) Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism following ethical and legal
guidelines for gathering and using information
The student will be instructed by the classroom teacher, computer laboratory teacher, and
librarian/media specialist to utilize the library and computer laboratory for research. The
student will learn from a collaborative effort by these instructors
to correctly write a WORKS CITED PAGE
for researched information. The student will also learn how to
distinguish between credible and non-credible sources
for research. The student will
learn how to distinguish between primary and secondary resources
The student will write essays while keeping the verb tense the same throughout the entire
When writing essays, the student will receive instruction on word choice
, active voice
, and variety in sentence structure
The student will write using the five-step writing process. The student will make smooth
transitions from one paragraph to another. The student will write pieces in the following
1. Persuasive Essay that demonstrates knowledge of Persuasive Techniques
2. Interpretive Essay
3. Analytical Essay (one that analyzes character, conflict, or setting)
4. Evaluative Essay
One of these genres will be a research paper. The paper will be three – five typed, double
The student will concentrate on writing a STRONG THESIS STATEMENT IN
that NARROWS THE FOCUS
of the topic.
The student will EVALUATE THE VALIDITY OF SOURCES
. The student will
demonstrate a DIVERSITY OF SOURCES
in his/her WORKS CITED PAGE and
PARENTHETICAL NOTATIONS in the paper.
The students will be able to correctly use summarizing, paraphrasing,
The student will write creative pieces that may include: Short Story
Play (Consider encouraging students to enter the Barter Theater Young
The student will have a writing portfolio at the end of Tenth Grade that will demonstrate
her/his growth as a writer. This portfolio will move with the student from Kindergarten
through Twelfth Grade.
The portfolio will include one writing sample from the student for each six weeks.
The portfolio will contain one polished piece of writing from the four genres listed above
(Persuasive, Interpretive, Analytical,
). One of those four pieces will
be a research paper that is three – five typed pages (double-spaced). It will also have a Works Cited
page of sources cited in the paper using Parenthetical Notations.
The research paper will have a TITLE PAGE
and WORKS CITED
Two selections in the portfolio will be creative writing pieces.
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