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Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci Bacteremia, intraabdominal abscess, urinary tract Penicillin/ampicillin/piperacillin or vancomycin; faecalis and faecium infection, endocarditis combined with gentamicin for endocarditis or severe infection Cutaneous infections: impetigo, folliculitis, Nafcillin; vancomycin (for methicillin-resistant furuncles, carbuncles, wound; disseminated infections: pneumonia, empyema, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis; toxin-mediated infections: toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome, food poisoning Opportunistic pathogen causing infections on Nafcillin; vancomycin (for methicillin-resistant foreign bodies (e.g., catheters, shunts, prosthetic strains) joints and heart valves); urinary tract infections (e.g., S. saprophyticus) Suppurative infections: pharyngitis, scarlet fever, Penicillin, macrolides, cephalosporins, clindamycin, sinusitis, skin and soft-tissue infection (impetigo, vancomycin; surgical débridement for necrotizing erysipelas, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis), toxic shock-like syndrome; nonsuppurative infections: Neonatal disease (early onset, late onset; Penicillin, macrolides, cephalosporins, clindamycin, agalactiae (group B) bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis); urinary tract vancomycin; penicillin and aminoglycoside for Pharyngitis, otitis, sinusitis, skin and soft-tissue Penicillin (drug of choice), macrolides, infection, impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, cephalosporins, clindamycin, vancomycin; surgical Streptococcus bovis Bacteremia, endocarditis Viridans streptococci Abscess formation; septicemia in neutropenic Penicillin; penicillin combined with aminoglycoside patients; subacute endocarditis; odontogenic infections; dental caries Pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections; Penicillin; levofloxacin, cephalosporins, clindamycin meningitis; spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, endocarditis, septic arthritis; bacteremia Aerobic or Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin); penicillin, doxycycline, erythromycin, or chloramphenicol as alternative therapy Gastroenteritis, ocular infections, bacteremia Neutralizing exotoxin; penicillin or erythromycin to eliminate organism and terminate toxin production; immunization with diphtheria toxoid Septicemia, endocarditis; wound infections; foreign Vancomycin Urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis with calculi; septicemia; endocarditis; wound infections Erysipeloid (painful, pruritic inflammatory skin Penicillin; cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, erythromycin, or clindamycin as alternative therapy Early onset neonatal disease (granulomatosis Ampicillin (alone or in combination with gentamicin) infantiseptica); late-onset neonatal disease (meningitis with septicemia); flulike illness in adults; bacteremia or disseminated disease in pregnant women or patients with cell-mediated immune defects Localize pulmonary disease; disseminated disease Clarithromycin or azithromycin combined with and rifampicin for tuberculoid form; add clofazimine for lepromatous form Multidrug therapy with isoniazid, rifampin, Bronchopulmonary disease; primary or secondary Sulfonamides; amikacin, carbapenems, or broad- spectrum cephalosporins as alternative therapy if active Bronchopulmonary disease (lung abscesses); opportunistic infections in immunocompetent carbapenems, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin, Gonorrhoea, pelvic inflammatory disease, arthritis Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin; cefoxitin plus doxycycline Meningitis, bacteremia (meningococcemia) Ceftriaxone, penicillin, chloramphenicol Pneumonia, septicemia, opportunistic infections Imipenem or ceftazidime combined with aminoglycoside for serious infections Ciprofloxacin; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, or amikacin as alternative therapy Bartonella henselae Bacillary angiomatosis; subacute endocarditis; cat Gentamicin alone or with erythromycin; broad- spectrum cephalosporins used as alternative therapy; CSD does not response to antibiotic therapy Bartonella quintana Trench fever (TF); bacillary angiomatosis (BA) Bordetella pertussis, Pertussis (whooping cough) Supportive therapy, erythromycin (or other macrolides) to decrease infectivity and prophylaxis Doxycycline plus rifampin or gentamicin; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Burkholderia cepacia Pulmonary infections; opportunistic infections Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; piperacillin, ceftazidime, or ciprofloxacin as alternative therapy if trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistant Meliodosis (asymptomatic to severe pulmonary Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combined with Self-limited; severe infections treated with erythromycin; tetracycline or fluoroquinolones used Campylobacter upsaliensis Camplyobacter fetus Septicemia; meningitis; gastroenteritis; Aminoglycosides, carbapenems, chloramphenicol hominis Eikenella corrodens Subacute endocarditis; wound infections Penicillin, cephalosporins, tetracycline, or fluoroquinolones Watery diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic Ciprofloxacin shortens course (high level of Antibiotics reduce duration of disease and infectivity Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones associated Francisella tularensis Tularemia: ulceroglandular, oculoglandular, Streptomycin, gentamicin; fluoroquinolones Encapsulated type b strains: meningitis, Broad-spectrum cephalosporin, azithromycin, or septicemia, cellulitis, epiglottitis; unencapsulated fluoroquinolone; many strains resistant to ampicillin strains: otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis, pneumonia Gastritis, peptic, and duodenal ulcers; gastric Multidrug therapy: tetracycline, metronidazole, β-Lactam with β-lactamase inhibitor, cephalosporins, macrolides, tetracycline, fluoroquinolones Legionnaires' disease (pneumonia), Pontiac fever clarithromycin); fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) used as alternative therapy Moraxella catarrhalis Ear, eye, and respiratory infections Cephalosporins; amoxicillin/clavulanic acid Urinary tract infections, wound infections Amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones Pulmonary; primary skin infection; urinary tract Combination therapy generally required (e.g., infection; ear or eye infections; bacteremia aminoglycoside with extended-spectrum cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam, or carbapenem) Salmonella enterica Diarrhea, enteric fever (serovar Typhi) May prolong carrier state in simple diarrhea treatment; fluoroquinolones for enteric fever Pneumonia, urinary tract infections, wound Ampicillin; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; fluoroquinolones Wide variety of local and systemic infections Rehydration; doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or furazolidone shortens course Minocycline combined with a fluoroquinolone or cefotaxime; débridement Actinomycosis: cervicofacial, thoracic, abdominal, Penicillin; alternative drugs include erythromycin, Bacteroides fragilis Polymicrobial infections of abdomen, female genital tract, cutaneous and soft tissues Ventilatory support; use of trivalent botulinum Clostridium difficile Antibiotic-associated diarrhea; Discontinue implicated antibiotic; metronidazole Soft-tissue infections: cellulitis, fasciitis, Tetanus: generalized, localized, neonatal Clean wound; passive immunization; vaccination with tetanus toxoid Acne; opportunistic infections (e.g., of prosthetic Acne treated with benzoyl peroxide plus clindamycin Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Coxiella, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and Chlamydophila Anaplasmosis (granulocytic ehrlichiosis) Doxycycline; rifampin used as alternative therapy Macrolides; fluoroquinolones; tetracyclines Trachoma; neonatal conjunctivitis and pneumonia; Tetracyclines; macrolides; fluoroquinolones urethritis; cervicitis; salpingitis; lymphogranuloma venereum Q fever: acute (fever, headache, chills, myalgias, granulomatous hepatitis) and chronic (endocarditis, sulfamethoxazole Ehrlichia chaffeensis Monocytic ehrlichiosis Doxycycline; rifampin used as alternative therapy Macrolides; tetracycline; fluoroquinolones pneumoniae Rickettsia rickettsii Rocky Mountain spotted fever Doxycycline; fluoroquinolones used as alternative therapy Borrelia burgdorferi Lyme disease: erythema migrans; cardiac, Oral penicillin; tetracyclines; ceftriaxone neurologic, or rheumatologic abnormalities Borrelia recurrentis Epidemic relapsing fever Tetracyclines; erythromycin; chloramphenicol; penicillin Tetracyclines; erythromycin; chloramphenicol; penicillin Leptospirosis: mild, viral-like illness to severe Penicillin; doxycycline; vaccination of pets and herds Treponema pallidum Syphilis: primary, secondary, tertiary, congenital Murray, Medical Microbiology. 5th Edition Table 48-1. Overview of Selected Bacterial Pathogens


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MASTITIS BASICS Categories of Mastitis Mastitis can be divided into different categories: clinical and subclinical contagious and environmental Definitions Clinical mastitis is when there are obvious changes to the udder tissue and / or the milk. The milk may appear watery or full of clots, but will have an abnormal secretion. The udder may appear normal or may b

The Journal of Political Philosophy: Volume 10, Number 2, 2002, pp. 153±174THEORIES of deliberative democracy consist of a set of principles thatare intended to establish fair terms of political cooperation in ademocratic society. Some theorists believe that the principles should refer onlyto the process of making political decisions in government or civil society.1The principles of deliberat

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